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Full text of "Scandinavian immigrants in New York, 1630-1674; with appendices on Scandinavians in Mexico and South America, 1532-1640, Scandinavians in Canada, 1619-1620, Some Scandinavians in New York in the eighteenth century, German immigrants in New York, 1630-1674"

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N-      E        l>        E        U  ■     J^v.^' I.       A      X 

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Reduced    from 

a   copy   ill   tlie   Lenox   Library,    New    York    City. 

Scandinavian  Immigrants 



1630—1674    y 







JOHN  O.  EVJEN,  Ph.  D. 








COPYRIGHT,    1916. 



MAR  13  (916 ■ 

<d)C!.A428080  ^     - 


ALBER  T  HA  UCK,  Ph.  D,  ,  D.  Th,  D.  Jur. 



ON  HIS  70th  birthday 

DECEMBER  9,  1915 



This  volume  is  a  collection  of  biographic  articles  on  Nor- 
wegian, Danish,  and  Swedish  immigrants  who  settled  in  New 
Netherland,  or  the  present  state  of  New  York,  between  the  years 
1630  and  1674.  It  is  the  result  of  research  work  begun  seven 
years  ago  while  I  was  teaching  in  Pennsylvania  College,  Gettys- 
burg, Pennsylvania. 

The  most  elementary,  but  also  the  most  difficult,  task  con- 
nected with  this  work  was  to  establish  by  documentary  evidence 
which  persons  in  the  materials  examined  were  Dutch  or  German, 
and  which  persons  were  Scandinavian.  The  English  and  French 
names  were  easily  recognized.  But  the  more  strictly  Teutonic 
names  appeared  to  be  fully  as  much  Scandinavian  as  Dutch.  In 
most  instances  the  Dutch  and  Scandinavian  nomenclature  —  es- 
pecially the  ending  "szen"  or  "sen"  in  surnames  —  necessitated 
my  making  excursions  into  the  personal  history  of  the  candidates 
for  septentrional  glory  until  their  nationality  was  established. 

Hundreds  of  possible  Scandinavian  names  were  traced  in  the 
documents  until  they  proved  to  be  the  property  of  other  Teutons 
than  the  Scandinavians.  Some  of  them  turned  out  to  be  the 
property  of  members  belonging  to  the  Celtic,  to  the  Mongolian, 
and  to  the  Ethiopian  stock.  Thus,  a  Jan  Andersen  and  a  Hendrick 
Hendricksen  were  two  promising  Scandinavian  candidates  until  I 
discovered  that  they  were  Irish.  Jan  Swaen  was  one  of  m> 
Swedish  candidates  until  I  had  traced  him  to  his  original  home, 
Africa.  Promising  candidates  for  my  volume  were  also  Emanuel 
Pieterszen,  Lucas  Pieterszen,  and  the  latter's  wife,  Anna  Jans. 
But  these,  too,  proved  to  be  of  negro  stock.  Less  promising  were 
the  candidates  Hans  and  Hendrick,  both  without  a  surname,  but 
Hans  proved  to  be  a  Mohawk  Indian,  and  Hendrick  a  plain  Indian. 

My  field  would  have  been  more  inviting,  if  it  had  been  better 

viii  PREFACE. 

cultivated.  Judging  by  a  statement  made  by  Professor  George 
T.  Flom,  it  had  hardly  seen  a  plow  as  late  as  1909,  when  he 
published  his  valuable  "A  History  of  Norwegian  Immigration  to 
the  United  States,"  which  says: 

"In  the  early  days  of  New  Netherlands  colony,  Norwegians 
sometimes  came  across  in  Dutch  ships  and  settled  among  the 
Dutch.  The  names  of  at  least  two  such  have  been  preserved  in 
the  Dutch  colonial  records."  Professor  Flom  then  gives  the 
names  of  Claes  Carstensen  and  Hans  Hansen.  In  addition  he 
refers  to  Anneke  Hendricks  and  Helletje  Hendricks  as  Norwegian 
immigrant  women.  However,  Helletje  had  the  surname  Noomian, 
not  because  she  was  a  Norwegian,  but  because  she  was  married 
to  Claes  Carstensen.  But  Anneke,  the  first  wife  of  the  ancestor 
of  the  Vanderbilts,  was  from  Norway. 

Professor  Flom's  phrase  "at  least  two,"  coming,  as  it  does, 
from  a  careful  scholar  of  recognized  ability,  a  graduate  of  Colum- 
bia University  (which  has  derived  some  of  its  wealth  from  a 
parcel  of  the  farm  of  two  of  the  earliest  Norwegian  immigrants 
Roelof  Jansen  and  his  wife  Anneke  Jans),  may  be  taken  as  an 
index  of  the  knowledge  which  the  average  public,  six  years  age, 
had  of  the  first  Norwegian  immigrants  in  New  York,  of  whom 
I  have  registered  in  the  present  volume  no  less  than  fifty-seven. 

Mr.  Hjalmar  Rued  Holand,  M.  A.  (Wisconsin)  unknowingly 
corroborates  my  statement  regarding  the  knowledge  the  public  has 
of  Scandinavian  immigration  in  the  seventeenth  century.  In  "De 
norske  Settlementers  Historie"  (1909)  he  gives  the  names  of 
twenty  persons  in  early  New  York,  who,  in  his  opinion,  were 
Scandinavians.  Only  eight  of  these,  however,  prove  to  be  that, 
while  the  total  number  of  Scandinavians  treated  in  the  present 
work  is  187. 

"Danske  i  Amerika"  (1908f),  published  by  C.  Rasmussen 
Publishing  Company,  Minneapolis,  has  devoted  considerable  space 
(e.  g.  pp.  39 — 43,  358 — 384)  to  Danish  immigrants.  However,  the 
sources  used  are  not  primary,  but  secondary  at  the  best.  And  the 
treatment  is  uncritical.  A  number  of  immigrants  are  mentioned 
as  Danes,  though  they  belonged  to  other  nationalities.  And  a  great 
number  of  real  Danish  immigrants  have  escaped  the  notice  of 
"Danske  i  Amerika,"  otherwise  in  many  respects  a  work  of  which 
the  Americans  of  Danish  ancestry  can  be  proud. 

Less  ambitious  but  far  more  scholarly  than  the  endeavors  in 


"Danske  i  Amerika"  are  two  articles  by  Mr.  Torstein  Jahr,  in 
"Symra"  (V.,  2,  1909;  IX,  1,  1913),  a  magazine  in  Norwegian, 
published  at  Decorah,  Iowa.  They  are  chiefly  based  upon  the 
"Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manuscripts"  published  in  Albany,  190^. 
Mr.  Jahr's  articles  in  "Symra"  tell  in  some  forty  pages  about 
the  Norwegian  immigrants  who  came  to  Rensselaerswyck. 
He  dwells  especially  on  the  family  of  Bratt  and  of  Anneke  Jans, 
devoting  some  twenty-five  pages  to  the  latter.  He  makes  good 
use  of  the  well-known  Anneke  Jans  literature,  but  offers  nothing 
new  to  scholars  beyond  the  claim — and  this  is  important — that  An- 
neke Jans  and  her  husband  Roelof  Jansen  were  Norwegians.  Mr.  A. 
J.  F.  van  Laer,  the  editor  of  the  "Bowier  Manuscripts,"  had  called 
attention  to  the  fact  that  Anneke  and  her  husband  did  not  come 
from  Holland,  as  it  had  been  supposed,  but  from  Marstrand,  "an 
island  of  the  coast  of  Sweden."  It  would  then  appear  that  they 
were  Swedes.  Mr.  Jahr,  however,  called  attention  to  the  fact 
that  Marstrand  was  a  Norwegian  town,  founded  by  the  Norwegian 
king  Haakon  Haakonsson  about  the  year  1230,  and  that  it  became 
a  Swedish  possession  in  1658.  And  hence  Anneke  and  her  husband 
were,  in  all  probability,  Norwegians. 

As  for  the  Swedish  immigrants  in  New  York,  but  little  ap- 
pears to  have  been  written  concerning  them,  the  Swedish  settle- 
ment on  the  Delaware  having  engaged  the  attention  of  the  more 
capable  writers  on  Scandinavian  immigration  to  our  country,  whose 
efforts  have  been  crowned  in  the  elaborate  work  of  Dr.  Amandus 

Sporadic  statements  concerning  Scandinavian  immigrants 
have  not  been  wanting  in  general  works  on  New  York  (state  and 
city),  but  the  attention  bestowed  upon  these  early  pioneers 
from  Northern  Europe  is  almost  insignificant.  J.  Riker's 
"Harlem,  Its  Origin  and  Early  Annals"  (revised  edition,  1904) 
and  J.  H.  Innes'  "New  Amsterdam  and  Its  People"  (1902), 
particularly  the  latter,  belong  to  the  exceptions.  They  avoid  the 
common  error  of  making  every  resident  of  New  Amsterdam  or 
New  Netherland  Dutch  or  English.  However,  the  number  of 
Scandinavians  they  mention  is  very  limited,  and  the  treatment  ac- 
corded them  meagre. 

The  present  volume  is  in  the  main  based  on  primary  sources 
The  most  important  of  these  sources,  at  least  for  genealogical  data 


and  personal  history,  are  the  Hsts  of  passengers  which  the  im- 
migrant ships  of  the  seventeenth  century  kept;  parish  records,  or 
church  registers,  kept  in  New  York,  Brooklyn,  Albany,  etc.,  record? 
stating  whence  the  several  immigrants  came,  whom  they  married, 
the  date  of  their  marriage,  the  names  of  the  children,  the  date  of 
the  baptism  of  the  children,  the  names  of  the  sponsors;  court 
records,  legislative  records,  municipal  protocols,  municipal  orders; 
deeds;  marriage  contracts,  and  general  contracts;  petitions  and 
proclamations;  wills;  private  account  books,  inventories;  lists  of 
soldiers;  war  dispatches;  letters;  rent  rolls  and  tax  rolls,  general 
business  papers  and  accounts,  etc. 

Some  of  the  material  is  published  in  Dutch,  but  most  of  the 
other  published  material  is  available,  to  the  general  public,  only 
in  English  translations.  Some  of  these  translations  are  excellent, 
e.  g.,  that  of  the  "Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manuscripts."  But 
many  of  them  are  admittedly  poor,  a  fact  that  the  New  York 
State  Library  is  trying  to  remedy.  It  planned  some  five  years 
ago  (see:  Educational  Department  Bulletin,  No.  462,  Albany)  to 
translate  and  publish  the  manuscript  Dutch  records  of  the  govern- 
ment of  New  Netherland  1638 — 74.  According  to  the  plan 
adopted,  three  or  four  volumes  of  this  projected  publication  should 
have  appeared  by  this  time.  But  the  Albany  Capitol  fire  of  March 
29,  1911,  did  havoc,  destroying  not  only  the  first  volume  of  the 
records  but  also  a  copy  of  the  Dutch  text  and  the  translations 
which  Mr.  van  Laer  had  prepared. 

My  aim  in  writing  "Scandinavian  Immigrants  in  New  York, 
1630 — 1674"  has  been  to  present  facts,  in  detail  and  chronological 
order.  Wherever  I  have  found  it  feasible,  I  have  used  the  words 
of  published  sources.  I  have  given  verbatim  many  excerpts  from 
the  court  records.  I  have  quoted  at  length  public  and  private 
documents,  in  order  to  illustrate  or  illumine  certain  facts,  in  the 
selection  of  which  I  have  been  guided  by  various  considerations, 
which  it  would  be  useless  to  enumerate. 

My  biographies  are  concerned  with  the  immigrants.  The  in- 
formation they  give  in  regard  to  the  descendants  of  these  immi- 
grants is  secondary.  To  trace  the  descendants  beyond  the  seven- 
teenth century  would  require  many  volumes  of  genealogy  and  per- 
sonal history.  I  have,  however,  endeavored  as  much  as  possible 
to  give  important  data  bearing  on  the  history  of  the  children  born 


of  Scandinavian  parents  in  New  Netherland  prior  to  1674.  But 
these  children,  not  being  immigrants,  of  course  receive  no  treat- 
ment in  special  articles,  as  do  the  188  immigrants.  They  are  men- 
tioned in  connection  with  their  parents. 

As  to  the  length  of  the  articles,  those  treating  of  the  well- 
known  personages  like  Hans  Hansen  from  Bergen,  Laurens  An- 
driessen  van  Buskirk  are  briefer  than  those  dealing  with  less 
known  characters  like  Dirck  Holgersen  and  Pieter  Jansen  Noorman. 
I  am  conscious  of  gaps  in  these  articles,  but  this  is  due  to  the  na- 
ture of  the  source  material.  The  historian  is  concerned  with  facts, 
and  it  is  not  his,  nor  in  fact  anybody's,  business  to  fill  gaps  with 

The  articles  also  vary  in  the  quality  of  matter.  But  this,  too, 
is  due  to  the  nature  of  the  sources.  Unfortunately  such  sources 
as  court  records — and  I  have  drawn  heavily  upon  them — are  quite 
silent  about  many  of  the  nobler  deeds  of  men,  in  regard  to  which 
we  should  like  to  be  fully  as  well  informed  as  we  are  concerin'ng 
the  role  these  men  played  in  litigations.  I  have  endeavored  to 
leave  no  stone  unturned  in  order  to  obtain  all  the  facts  possible 
relative  to  the  history  of  the  immigrants,  and  I  have  made  esthet- 
ical  considerations  entirely  secondary  to  the  "micrology"  of  facts. 
For  in  a  pioneer  volume  like  "Scandinavian  Immigrants  in  New 
York,"  which  in  some  degree  shifts  the  emphasis  in  treating  immi- 
gration to  our  country  in  the  seventeenth  century,  it  is  necessary 
to  register  even  what  appears  to  be  pure  trivialities.  Only  those 
who  are  acquainted  with  the  nature  of  the  sources  of  the  early 
history  of  New  York  can  appreciate  what  it  means  to  trace  a  deed 
to  the  author  of  the  deed,  especially  when  the  author  has  a  number 
of  namesakes  or  is  known  by  several  dififerent  names. 

Such  a  work,  packed  with  details  and  bristling  with  names 
and  dates,  does,  of  course,  not  claim  to  be  a  contribution  to  belles- 
lettres.  In  some  places  it  resembles  the  court  docket  or  an  ab- 
stract of  title.  Nevertheless  it  claims  to  make  a  distinct  contri- 
bution to  a  hitherto  almost  entirely  neglected  field  in  colonial  his- 
tory. As  a  reference  work  it  may  modestly  pave  the  way  for 
further  research  in  this  field  and  be  of  some  use  to  the  general 

Of  special  use  it  should  be  to  such  Americans  of  Scandina- 
vian ancestry  as  in  their  school-days  were  taught    a    little  about 

xii  PREFACE. 

the  Swedes  on  the  Delaware,  more  about  the  Dutch  in  New 
York,  most  about  the  sons  and  daughters  of  New  England,  but 
nothing  about  the  Scandinavians,  particularly  the  Danes  and  Nor- 
wegians, along  the  Hudson.  There  are  many  Scandinavian 
descendants  in  the  eastern  section  of  the  United  States  who  are 
mistaken  as  to  the  original  home  of  their  forebears.  It  suffices  to 
mention  some  of  the  descendants  of  the  famous  Anneke  Jans. 
There  are  many  in  New  York  who  do  not  know  that  the  Episcopal 
Trinity  Church,  famed  in  the  courts  for  its  great  wealth,  owes  some 
of  it  to  an  old  Norwegian  farm.  There  are  many  who  do  not  know 
that  the  Bronx  of  New  York  was  the  property  of  Jonas  Bronck. 
a  Dane,  and  that  the  ancestor  of  the  Vanderbilts  married  a  Nor- 
wegian woman.  No  doubt,  there  is  much  abuse  of  the  study  of 
genealogy  in  our  country,  and  there  is  much  false  pride  connected 
with  it.  But  this  should  not  prevent  us  from  trying  to  find  out 
to  what  extent  countries  like  Norway,  Denmark,  and  Sweden,  had 
a  share  in  populating  the  Empire  State  in  early  days. 

Why  the  Empire  State  and  not  any  other  states?  All  the 
known  Norwegian  and  Danish  immigrants  up  to  1674  settled  in 
New  York  and  adjacent  territory.  They  did  not  go  to  the  New 
England  states  nor  to  those  in  the  South.  And  the  Swedish  immi- 
grants settled  either  in  New  York  or  at  the  Delaware.  The  only 
Scandinavians  in  "New  Sweden"  were  Swedes,  whose  history  is 
already  more  or  less  known. 

My  work  is  divided  into  three  parts.  The  first  part  treats 
of  the  Norwegians.  They  were  numerically  inferior  (fifty-seven 
biographies)  to  the  Danish  immigrants.  But  many  of  them  im- 
migrated earlier  than  the  Danes  and,  on  the  whole,  receive  more 
attention  in  the  early  records.  They  came  from  such  places  as 
Fredrikstad,  Holme,  Langesund,  Sande,  Flekkero,  Hellesund,  Sta- 
vanger,  Bergen,  Tonsberg,  Selbu,  Marstrand,  and  many  other 
places  in  Norway. 

The  second  part  of  this  work  treats  of  the  Danes  (ninety-seven 
biographies),  who  were  numerically  as  strong  as  the  Swedes  and 
Norwegians  together.  They  emigrated  from  places  like  Copen- 
hagen, Roskilde,  Ribe,  Svendborg,  Aalborg,  Christianstad,  Nord- 
strand,  Frederikstad  (Friedrichstadt),  Gliickstadt,  Husum,  Var- 
berg,    Dithmarschen,   (Oldenburg,    Hassing,   Helsingor,   and   several 

PREFACE.  xiii 

other  towns  or  districts  of  Denmark,    which  in  earlier    days    in- 
cluded Schleswig  and  Holstein. 

The  third  part  is  devoted  to  the  Swedes  (thirty-four  bio- 
graphies). At  first  sight  this  may  seem  strange,  as  there  were 
fully  as  many  Swedes  in  America  in  the  seventeenth  century  as 
Danes  and  Norwegians.  But  the  Swedes  had,  as  has  already  been 
stated,  their  own  settlement.  New  Sweden,  or  the  present  Dela- 
ware. They  were  very  little  concerned  about  New  York  proper, 
both  before  and  after  the  conquest  of  their  settlement  by  Governor 
Stuyvesant,  in  1655.  The  Swedes  that  are  noticed  in  this  volume 
are,  therefore,  with  the  possible  exception  of  one  or  two,  only  such 
as  came  to  New  Netherland  direct  from  Sweden.  The  Swedish 
immigrants  came  from  Stockholm,  Goteborg,  Helsingborg,  Vester- 
as,  Vexio,  Vintjern,  Abo  (Finland),  etc. 

The  biographical  part  is  followed  by  a  Retrospect. 

I  have  added  four  Appendices,  one  of  which,  "German  Immi- 
grants in  New  York,  1630-1674,"  may  not  seem  pertinent  to  the 
theme  of  my  book.  My  reasons  for  including  this  Appendix  is 
given  elsewhere.  Suffice  it  here  to  state,  the  German  New  Nether- 
landers  were  the  religious  allies  of  the  Scandinavian,  they  were  on 
par  with  these  in  numbers,  and  they  have,  like  these,  been  a  terra 
incognita  to  historians.  A  famous  work,  published  as  late  as  1909, 
registers  only  four  Germans  who  settled  in  New  York  before  1674 ; 
the  present  volume  gives  information  concerning  186  of  them. 

As  to  the  occupation  of  the  early  immigrants  from  Norway, 
Denmark,  and  Sweden,  the  biographies  will  show  that  they  were 
engaged  in  various  walks  of  life,  representing  the  farmer,  the 
miller,  the  wood-sawyer,  the  tobacco-planter,  the  carpenter,  the 
smith,  the  mason,  the  trader,  the  merchant,  the  soldier  (captain, 
sergeant),  the  mariner  (captain,  skipper,  etc.),  the  boatbuilder, 
the  shoemaker,  the  ganger,  the  tapster,  the  brewer,  the  surgeon, 
the  fisher,  the  firewarden,  the  drayman,  the  land  owner,  the  council 
member,  the  capitalist,  the  policeman,  the  judge,  etc.  The  noble- 
man as  well  as  the  peasant  is  represented. 

The  orthography  of  proper  names  has  caused  some  difficulty. 
There  was  much  "phonetic"  spelling  in  polyglot  New  Netherland. 

xiv  PREFACE. 

This  highly  variable  species  of  spelling  makes  it  difficult,  in  many 
instances,  to  adhere  to  iron-rule  uniformity.  I  have  retained  the 
more  or  less  Dutch  way  (for  Dutch  was  the  official  language)  of 
spelling  foreign  names,  sometimes  even  at  the  expense  of  con- 
sistency. When  we  know  that  one  of  New  York's  former  archiv- 
ists, Dr.  E.  B.  O'Callaghan,  in  his  "Documents  Relative  to  the 
History  of  New  York"  "invariably  substituted  English  equivalents 
for  Dutch  given  names" ;  and  when  we  notice  that  reputable 
writers  on  the  history  of  New  York  spell  the  Indian  word  "sea- 
wan"  in  a  half  dozen  different  ways,  it  is,  for  the  present,  nigh 
hopeless  either  to  attain  or  to  observe  uniformity  in  the  orthography 
of  foreign  proper  names.  I  shall  specify  one  instance  of  "phonetic" 
orthography.  Jochem  Kalder,  treated  in  this  volume,  has  his  sur- 
name spelled  in  the  records  as  follows :  Kalder,  Calder,  Calser,  Cal- 
jer,  Calker,  Kayker,  Kier,  Callaer.  The  various  forms  may  be 
due  to  the  misreading  of  documents  in  transcribing  them,  but  also 
to  the  niceties  of  pronunciation,  which  a  scribe,  unfamiliar  with  a 
foreign  language,  would  not  be  able  to  record  on  paper.  The  so- 
called  "tykke  1"  (thick  1)  in  certain  parts  of  Norway  no  doubt 
puzzled  the  scribes  of  New  Amsterdam. 

The  Dutch  distinction  in  terminating  patronymics  with  "sz" 
or  "sen"  for  men,  and  "s"  or  "se"  for  women  has  not  been  much 
observed  in  this  volume,  where  the  termination  "sen"  has  been 
used  indiscriminately,  more  in  accord  with  Scandinavian  usage. 

For  my  material  I  am  indebted  to  the  Congressional  Library, 
in  Washington;  the  Pennsylvania  State  Library,  in  Harrisburg; 
the  State  Historical  Library,  St.  Paul,  Minnesota;  University  of 
Minnesota  Library,  Minneapolis  Public  Library;  the  libraries  of 
Pennsylvania  College  and  Gettysburg  Theological  Seminary,  Get- 
tysburg Pennsylvania.  I  wish  to  express  my  sincere  thanks  to 
the  administrators  of  these  libraries ;  to  Messrs.  A.  J.  F.  van  Laer 
and  Mr.  Peter  Nelson,  Archivists  of  the  Manuscripts  Section  of 
the  New  York  State  Library;  and  to  Mr.  J.  H.  Innes,  author  of 
"New  Amsterdam  and  Its  People." 

For  permission  to  use  illustrations  from  specified  works  on 
the  history  of  New  York  I  am  grateful  to  Charles  Scribner's 
Sons;  G.  P.  Putnam's  Sons;  Mr.  J.  A.  Holden,  N.  Y.  State 
Historian;  the  Hon.  John  H.  Finley,  President  of  the  University 
of  the  State  of  New  York.     The  New  York  Public  Library  has 


supplied   me   with   reproductions   of   certain   views    of   early    New 
York.     Also  to  this  institution  my  thanks  are  due. 

In  offering  this  volume  to  the  public,  it  is  my  hope  that  those 
who  peruse  its  pages  may  feel  a  little  of  the  Entdeckerfreude  which 
I  experienced  in  collecting  the  data,  which  have  made  "Scandi- 
navian Immigrants  in  New  York,  1630-1674"  possible. 

JOHN    O.    EVJEN. 

Minneapolis,  1915. 




NOEWEGIAN   IMMIGRANTS   IN   NEW    YORK,    1630-1674 

Albert    Andriessen    _ _ 19 

Eva    Albertse    Andriessen    „ _ 30 

Arent    Andriessen    „ 33 

Laurens    Andriessen    _ 36 

Bernt    Bagge    _ _ 41 

Anuetje    Barents    _ 42 

Jacob   Bruyn      „ 43 

Hans    Carelsen    _ _ 44 

Jan    Carelszen    _ _ __ _..._ 46 

Carsten    Carstensen    _..  46 

Claes    Carstensen       __ 51 

Claes    Claeseu       _ _ 54 

Frederik    Claesen      _ _ 54 

Harmen   Dircksen      _ _ 55 

Mrs.    Harmen    Dircksen    55 

Jacob    Goyversen      _ _ „ _ 56 

Arent    Eldertszen    Groen    56 

Hans    Hansen    56 

Anneken    Hendricks       _ - - 60 

Roelof    Jansen    Haes    _ _ - - 61 

Herman    Hendricksen    64 

Direk   Holgersen _ 68 

Paulus    Jansen       — 79 

Jan   Jansen    Noorman 80 

Jan    Janszen       _ _ 80 

Mrs.    Jan    Janszen    _ _ 80 

Pieter    Janzen    - - 81 

Pieter   Jansen      _ 81 

Roelof    Jansen       89 

Anneke    Jans    - _ - 91 

Fyntie    Roelof s    Janse    _ - 101 

Katrina    Roelof s    Janse _ - — 102 

Sara    Roelof s    Janse 105 

Tryn  Jonas     „._ „_ - ...- 108 

Marritje    Janse 110 

Bartel    Larsen    _ 115 

Andries    Laurensen       115 

Jan    Laurensen       117 

Laurens    Laurensen       118 

Andries    Pietersen       - 126 

Andries    Pietersen    — 127 

Hans    Pietersen 128 

Laurena    Pietersen      _ 129 

xviii  CONTENTS. 


Marcus    Pietersen —  131 

Oule    Pouwe^sen       - — -- — - - - 132 

Jan    Roeloffsen - - ~ 132 

Roeloflf    RoeloflFsen      - - 133 

Cornelius    Teunissen       - - ~ -  133 

Dirck    Teunissen       133 

Barent   Thonissen      - 138 

Bernt    Oswal    Noorman    - 138 

Govert    Noorman       —  138 

Jacob    De    Noorman    - - 138 

Roeloff   Noorman      - - 139 

John    Wiskhousen       - — •  139 


Jochem    Kalder    140 

Mafjdalene   Waele   140 

Unclassified   Names:    Martin   Bierkaker,    O^av     Stevensen,   Sy- 

vert  van  Bergen,  Casper  Hugla,  Andries  Hoppen  143 


DANISH  IMMIGRANTS   IN   NEW   YORK,    1630-1674 

Willem    Andriaensz 151 

Claes    Andriessen      152 

Laurens    Andriessen       -....  152 

Pieter    Andriessen       _ —  156 

Claes    Claesen   Bording   _ _ 160 

Jan    Broersen       _ _ - 164 

Jonas    Bronck      - 167. 

Pieter   Bronck      - 181 

Peter    Bruyn       _ 183 

Johan    Carstenz       _ _.  183 

Pieter    Carstensen 184 

Pietersen    (Carstensen)       184 

Crietgen    Christians      - 184 

Hans  .Christiaensen      185 

Pieter  Hendrieksen   Christians      ~ 186 

Hendrick    Cornelissen       - 186 

Jan    Cornelisen      -..  187 

Laurens    Cornelisszen       _ _ - 189 

Marritje   Cornelis      189 

Pau^us    Cornelissen       _ - 190 

Pi  ct  er   Cor n  el  i  s      _ 190 

Pieter   Cornelissen      _ 191 

Svbrant    Cornelissen       191 

Ursel    Dircks 193 

Laurens    Duyts      - 193 

Carsten    Jansen    Eggert    _ 195 

Jacob    Eldersen _ - 197 

Th  om  a  s    Fred  er  i  cksen      __ 200 

Tryntie    Harders       „ _ 203 

Jan    Pietersen    Haring    203 

Laurens    Harmens       _ 203 

Mrs.    Laurens    Harmens    _ -  204 



Marten    Harmensen      _ _ 204 

Bernardus    Hassing      „ _.„ 204 

Heyltje   Hassing      205 

Johannes    Hassing      _ 205 

Jan   Helmszen      „ _ _ _.„ _ 205 

Fredrick  Hendrickseu      _ _ _..  206 

Engeltje    Jacobs _ 207 

Pieter    Jacobsen      „ „ _...  208 

Anneke   Jans      208 

Giletje   Jans _ _ 210 

Dorothea    Jans       _ „ 211 

Elsje   Jans      _ _ „ 212 

Engeltje    Jans       _._ 213 

Grietje    Jans       _ 213 

Magdalentje    Jans       _ 214 

Tryntie   Jans      _ „ 214 

Barent    Jansen        ..._ „ „ „ 216 

Dirck  Jansen 216 

Hans   Jansen      „ „ 217 

Jan    Jansen       _ _ _ 217 

Jan    Jansen       __ _ 218 

Jan    Jansen       220 

Jeurian   Jansen _ _ 221 

Laurens    Jansen       _ _ _ 221 

Volckert    Jansen _ 221 

Pieter   Jansen      „„ „ __ 225 

Jacob  Jansz      .._ „ _ _ 225 

Thomas   Jansen      _ 225 

Teuntje    Jeurians 225 

Marritje  Jeurians     _ „ 230 

Peter   Klaesen      „ _ „ „ 231 

Mrs.   Peter   Klaesen   _ _ _ „ 231 

Pieter   Laurenszen    Kock    231 

.f ochem    Pietersen    Kuy ter   _..._ „ 23 7 

.John    Larason      _ 245 

Jan    Laurens _ 246 

Severyn  Laurenszen   „ 247 

Hendrick    Martensen       _ „....  249 

Pieter    Martensen       .._ 251 

Christian    Nissen    _ 251 

Claes    Petersen       _ _ 254 

Anneke    Pieters       _ _ 255 

Elsje   Pieters      „ 255 

Marritje    Pieters       257 

Styntie    Pieters       261 

Christian    Pietersen „„ 262 

.Ian    Pietersen      _ „ 266 

.Tan    Pietersen      _ „ 268 

Marritje  Pietersen      _ ^.  268 

Michel    Pies      _._ 272 

Claes   Pouwelsen      „ 272 

.Juriaen    Pouwelsen       „ 273 

.Jonas    Ranzow       _ 273 

Hans    Rasmussen       274 

Mathys    Roelofs       _ 274 

Jan    Pietersen    Slot    — _ 275 

Johan    Jansen    Slot    _._ _ _ 276 

Pieter    Jansen    Slot    „ _ 276 

Herman    Smeeman       _ _ 278 



Roelof   Swensburg      281 

Aeltie    Sybrantsen      - - - — ■  282 

Pieter   Teunis - - 282 

Andries    Thomasen       - —  282 

Juriaen    Tomassen      ~ 282 

Tobias    Wilbergen       283 

Excursus : 

Christian  Barentsen  284 

Unclassified  Names:   Simon  Jansen   Asdalen,  John  Ascou,  Jan 
Snedingh,    Herry   Albertse,     Hendrick     Hendricksen     Obe, 

Jan    Volkarsen    Oly    290 


Andries   Andriessen      - 297 

Andries    Barentsen       - —  299 

Dirck    Bensingh - 299 

Hage   Bruynsen      - 300 

Jan    Cornelissen       - — ~ 307 

Jan    Davidsen      - — 307 

Evert je    Dircx ~ 308 

Roelof   Dirxsz _ - 308 

Sweris   Dirxsz 309 

Barnt    Eversen       - 309 

Jan    Forbus      - - - - - 311 

William   Goffo      ~ 312 

Andries   Hansen      - 312 

Dirck  Hendricksen     - — 313 

Jan    Hendricksen       - 314 

Martin    Hoffman       -- — 314 

Catrine   Jans      _ - ■■ - 319 

Barent    Jansen       - 321 

Jan    Jansen       _ - - 322 

Pieter   Jansen      324 

Comelis   Jurriaensen      _ 324 

Jacob    Loper       „ 324 

Jonas    Magnus       - - - - 328 

Engeltje    Mans      - - — — 329 

Cornells   Martensen      - — - 335 

Cornelius   Matthysen      338 

Hendrick   Ollofsen — _ 340 

Briete    Olofa _ -- --■  340 

Styntie    Pieters    341 

Mons    Pietersen       341 

Simon   De   Sweedt      - — ■•  344 

Hans   Roeloff      345 

Claes    De    Sweet    345 

Roeloff    Tpunissen       346 



BETB08PECT       _ 347 



1532-1640      374 

SCANDINAVIANS   IN    CANADA,    1619-1620    376 




GERMAN  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674  390 



THEIR    EQUIVALENTS       _ 437 



Map   of   New   Netherland,   With  a   View  of   New    Am- 
sterdam,   1656   _ Frontispiece 

New    Amsterdam,    about    1630    Facing  page       '.i 

The  River  and  Dock  Front,  about  1642  "  "         8 

Order  of  the  West  India  Company  to  Job  Arisz "  "       32 

View  of  the  Marckveldt  and't  Water,  1652  "  "       62 

Peder  Jensson,  Bailiff  and  Member  of  the    Council     of 

Bergen,    Norway,    1640-1650    "  "       66 

Siege    of    Marstrand,    1677 „ "  "       90 

Dutch   House   in   New   York   City,   1679   "  "     114 

View  on   the  East   River,   1679   "  "156 

New   Amsterdam   as   It   Appeared   about   1640   "  "     232 

The   East   River   Shore   Near   the   "Graft,"   1652 "  "244 

Copenhagen,    about    1610    _...„ "  "250 

Northeast  and  Southeast  Corners  of  Broad    Street  and 

Exchange   Place,   New   York   City  "  "280 

Broad   Street,    1642   "  "326 

The   Stadts  Herbergh   and   Vicinity,   1652   "  "     330 

Jacob    Jensson    Nordmand    "  "     374 

Frigate    "Den    norske    L0ve"    (The    Norwegian    Lion)  "  "     374 



The   Fort   in   Kieft's   Day   _ -.....- 7 

Entries   in   Log   of   the   Ship   Rensselaerswyck,     November    1     and 

2,    1642        20 

Signature  of  Roelof  Swartwout,  husband   of  Eva   Albertse  33 

Part   of  New  York   City,   1673   40 

The  Lutheran  Church  in  New  York  City,  1673  40 

Signature  of  Bernt  Bagge  42 

Signature    of    Carsten    Carstensen    47 

Bergen,  Norway,  about  the  Close  of  the  Sixteenth  Century  _ 48 

Signature  of   Claes   Carstensen   52 

Signature    of    Hans    Hansen    59 

Signature     of      Aertse     Vanderbilt,     1661,     husband     of     Anneken 

Hendricks        _ 61 

Signatures  of  Dirck  Holgersen,  1651,   1658,   1661   —  69 

Signature   of   Pieter   Jansen   84 

Signature  of  Everhard  Boghardus,  second  husband  of  Anneke  Jans  94 

Signature  of  Pieter  Hartgers,  husband  of  Fyntie  Roe^ofs  102 

Signature   of   Johannes   Van   Brugh,   second   husband     of    Katrina 

Roelofs       103 

Signature  of  Covert  Loockermans,  1659,  husband  of  Marritie  Jans  113 
Notarial  Copy  of  Extract  from  Minutes  of  Amsterdam  of  the  West 

Indian    Company,   July    7,    1631    119 

Signatures    of   Laurens    Pietersen    130 




Signature  of  Dirck  Teunissen  134 

Signature   of   Jochem   Kalder   „ _ — 141 

Signature  of  Gysbert  Teunissen,  1659,  second  husband  of  Magda- 
lene  Waele 142 

Helsingor,  about  the  Close  of  the  Sixteenth  Century  152 

Signature   of   Laurens   Andriessen   154 

Signature   of   Jan   Broersen   165 

Danish   Calendar,   Copenhagen,   1642   174 

Luther's  small  Catechism  for  Children,  1628  176 

Signature    of    Hendrick    Cornelissen    186 

The   Northern    Part    of   Flensburg,    about   the    Close    of     the     Six- 
teenth   Century    188 

Varberg,   about   the  Close  of  the  Seventeenth   Century  192 

Signature    of    Laurents    Duyts    194 

Signature    of    Tomas    Predericksen,    1659    201 

Signature  of  Eutger  Jacobs,   husband  of  Tryntie  Jans  214 

Siege  of  Krempe  and  Glueckstadt,   1628  224 

Signature  of  Arent  van  Curler,  second  husband  of  Teuntje  Jeurians  227 
Last   Part   of  Letter   of   Kiliaen   van   Rensselaer   to   Peter   Minuit, 

December  29,   1637   —  229 

Signature  of  Pieter  Laurenszen  Kock  232 

Ribe,  about  the  Close  of  the  Sixteenth   Century  246 

Signature    of    Marritje    Pieters    258 

Memorandum  of  the  Engagement  of  Farm  Laborers,  June  15,  1632. 

In   Handwriting   of   Kiliaen   van    Rensselaer   260 

Husum,  about  the  Close  of  the  Sixteenth   Century  _ 262 

Signature  of  Jan  Pietersen  van  Holstein,  1659  .._.. 267 

Signature  of  Albert  Pietersen,  husband  of  Marritje  Pietersen  272 

Signature    of    Ma'thys    Roelofs    275 

Signature   of   Andries   Andriessen   „ 298 

Vexio,   about    1 700   ..._ 300 

Stockholm,  seen  from  the  North,  about   1600   305 — 306 

Vesteras,    about    1600    _ 310 

Signature   of   Andries   Hansen   _ 312 

Reval,   about    1600    _ „ _ 316 

Goteborg,   about    1700 _ 323 

An  Entry  in  the  Church  Book  of  the  Reformed  Church    in    New 

Amsterdam,    1639    - 329 

Signature  of  Burger  Joris,  husband  of  Engeltje  Mans  333 

Stockholm,  seen  from  the  South,  about   1600  _ „.„ 336 — 337 

Map  of  Captain  Jens  Munk's  Sailing  on  Hudson  Bay,  1619 377 

Captain  Munk's  Winter  Quarters  in  "Nova  Dania"   (Canada) 378 

Facsimile  of  Manuscript  of  Captain  Munk  381 




t    Tcrt  niemv    ^imfi-crJan  <'/  ds Manhai^ns 

NEW  AMSTERDAM,  about  1630.     Reversed  and  reduced  from  the  view  in  Hartgers' 
"Besclirijviiigli    van    Virginia,"    Lenox    Library,    New    York    City. 


The  history  of  New  Netherland,  later  called  New  York,  does 
not  begin  with  the  year  1524,  when  the  Bay  of  New  York  was 
first  visited  by  a  European  navigator;  but  with  the  year  1609, 
when  Henry  Hudson,  an  Englishman  in  the  employ  of  the  East 
India  Company,  ascended  the  river  which  now  bears  his  name. 
During  the  next  four  years  sundry  Dutch  merchants  who  were 
interested  in  the  reports  of  Hudson's  exploration  fitted  up  small 
ships  for  themselves  which  carried  glass  beads,  strips  of  cotton. 
and  diverse  other  articles  to  the  natives  of  Manhattan  and  in 
exchange  brought  back  skins  of  beaver,  otter,  and  mink.  In  1614 
they  formed  the  United  New  Netherland  Company,  and  obtained 
from  the  General  States  a  charter  granting  them  the  right  of 
trading  along  the  coasts  and  rivers  which  their  navigators  had 
explored.  This  charter,  however,  did  not  claim  New  Netherland 
as  a  Dutch  possession  nor  deny  the  right  of  other  nations  to 
traffic  with  the  natives.  It  merely  prohibited  other  Hollanders 
from  interfering  with  the  rights  of  the  patentees. 

The  name  of  New  Netherland  occurs  first  in  1614,  in  the 
instrument  just  mentioned.  In  this  and  in  all  subsequent  docu- 
ments where  the  name  is  used,  it  occurs  in  the  singular  and 
never  in  the  plural.  There  was  only  one  New  Netherland.  The 
Netherlands  of  Europe  are  plural  because  they  are  an  aggregation 
of  small  states,  as  Professor  John  Fiske  says.  The  southern  limit 
of  New  Netherland  was  the  South  River,  later  called  Delaware 
River,  the  northern  limit  the  forty-fifth  parallel,  the  eastern  lay 
between  the  Hudson  and  the  Connecticut  rivers,  the  western  never 
extended  many  miles  west  of  the  Hudson. 

In  1618  the  charter  of  the  United  New  Netherland  Company 
expired.  The  company  tried  to  get  an  extension  of  it,  but  en- 
countered opposition.     It  nevertheless  went  on  with  its  trade,  and 

*  In  the  preparation  of  this  sketch,  I  have  found  much  help  in  Mr.  Dingman 
Versteeg's  rrticle,  "The  City  of  New  Amsterdam,"  in  the  Year  Book  of  the  Holland 
Society   of   New   York,    1903. 


prospered.  As  it  was  a  mercantile,  and  not  a  political,  organiza- 
tion, it  was  felt  that  a  stronger  organization,  somewhat  like  that 
of  the  East  India  Company,  was  needed.  Accordingly,  the  Dutch 
West  India  Company  was  formed,  in  1621.  The  charter  which 
it  received  gave  it  exclusive  jurisdiction  over  Dutch  navigation  and 
trade  on  the  barbarous  coasts  of  America  and  Africa.  The  West 
India  Company  was  authorized  to  found  colonies  and  govern  them 
under  the  supervision  of  the  States  General,  to  wage  war,  but 
not  to  make  a  formal  declaration  of  w^ar  without  the  consent  of 
the  States  General,  which  was  to  aid  it  with  soldiers  and  warships. 

In  1623  New  Netherland  became  a  political  entity.  Its 
government  was  vested  in  the  West  India  Company.  In  colonial 
matters  it  possessed  all  legislative,  executive  and  judicial  powers, 
with  the  restriction  that  the  States  General  should  confirm  the 
appointment  of  the  highest  officials  and  the  instructions  given  them ; 
that  the  Roman-Dutch  law  of  the  fatherland  should  prevail  when 
special  laws  did  not  meet  all  needs ;  and  that  persons  convicted 
of  capital  crimes  should  be  sent  home  with  their   sentences. 

In  the  same  year  New  Netherland  received  its  first  genume 
settlers  who  came  not  simply  to  traffic  but  to  live,  to  establish 
farms  and  towns.  No  less  than  thirty  Dutch  and  Walloon  families 
came  to  this  country  that  year.  Some  settled  on  Manhattan,  some 
went  north  towards  Albany,  others  went  as  far  south  as  to  Dela- 
ware River,  near  what  was  later  called  New  Sweden.  In  1625 
two  shiploads  of  cattle,  horses,  swine,  and  sheep   followed. 

In  1626  Manhattan  island,  twenty-two  square  miles  in  extent, 
was  purchased  for  sixty  guilders  in  beads  and  ribbons.  Sixty 
guilders  are  equivalent  to  about  twenty-four  gold  dollars.  In  our 
day  this  sum,  the  purchasing  value  of  gold  being  considered,  would 
amount  to  $120. 

Manhattan  was  yet  no  colony.  It  was  more  like  a  colonial 
farm.  No  individual  person  had  yet  obtained  land  in  his  own 
name  or  engaged  in  transmarine  commerce  in  his  own  interest. 
But  a  change  soon  took  place. 

In  1629  the  first  step  was  taken  to  give  the  province  of  New 
Netherland  self-government.  For  the  purpose  of  encouraging  im- 
migration the  system  of  patroons  was  established.  The  condition 
of  the  patroon's  grant  of  land  was  that  he  should  bring  fifty 
grown-up  persons  to  New  Netherland  and  settle  them  along  the 
Hudson  River.     The  most  famous  of  these  patroons  was  Kiliaen 


Van  Rensselaer,  a  jeweler  in  Amsterdam.  In  the  present  work 
he  is  often  mentioned  as  the  patroon  of  the  region  around  Albany. 
He  caused  several  Scandinavians  to  immigrate  and  settle  on  his 

In  spite  of  the  new  system  of  colonizing  the  country,  the 
current  of  immigration  was  weak.  In  order  to  stimulate  it  the 
West  India  Company  renounced  and  abolished  all  previous 
monopolies.  The  effect  was  marked.  Immigration  increased  and 
the  country  began  to  attain  prosperity.  But  now  the  Indian  wars 
followed,  in  which  many  colonists  perished  and  much  property  was 
destroyed.  These  wars  were  at  their  worst  during  the  rule  of 
Director-General  William  Kieft  (1638-1647),  whose  predecessors 
in  office  were  Cornelis  Jacobsen  May  (1624-1625),  William  Ver- 
hulst  (1625-1626),  Peter  Minuit  (1626-1632),  Sebastian  Jansen 
Krol  (1632-1633),  Wouter  van  Twiller  (1633-1638).  and  whose 
only  successor  was   Petrus   Stuyvesant   (1647-1664). 

The  colonists  of  New  Netherland  were  much  dissatisfied  with 
the  rule  of  Kieft.  This  dissatisfaction  brought  about,  on  August 
29,  1641,  the  election  of  a  board  of  Twelve  Men,  the  first  "repre- 
sentative" body  in  New  Netherland.  But  as  this  body  had  only 
advisory  power,  and  Kieft  continued  to  rule  as  he  pleased,  new 
grounds  for  dissatisfaction  were  given,  and,  on  February  18,  1642, 
the  Twelve  Men  were  summarily  dismissed.  Circumstances,  how- 
ever, forced  Kieft  again  to  consult  the  people.  As  a  consequence 
the  board  of  Eight  Men  was  elected  in  September,  1643,  which 
in  September,  1647,  was  succeeded  by  the  board  of  Nine  Men. 
The  latter  body  served  until  February,  1653,  when  the  city  of  New 
Amsterdam  was  incorporated.  The  incorporation,  however,  was 
accompanied  by  so  many  restrictions  that  the  newly  appointed 
municipal  authorities  exercised  very  little  power.  The  Director- 
General  and  Council,  therefore,  often  provoked  opposition  on  the 
part  of  the  local  administration,  to  which,  after  much  correspond- 
ence with  the  authorities  in  Holland,  Stuyvesant  and  his  Council 
were  obliged  to  make  a  number  of  concessions. 

There  were  two  governing  bodies  in  New  Amsterdam :  ( 1 )  the 
Director  and  Council  whose  jurisdiction  extended  over  entire  New 
Netherland,  and  (2)  the  local  government.  Both  of  these  bodies 
are  frequently  referred  to  in  the  present  work. 

The  local  government  consisted  of  two  Burgomasters  —  the 
administrative  representatives,  so  to  speak ;  several  Schepens.  who 


had  judicial  power;  one  Schout,  who  was  city  attorney  and  "head 
of  police."  Strictly  speaking  there  was  no  police  department.  The 
schouts  and  underschouts  and  two  court  messengers  were  expected 
to  preserve  order  and  to  make  arrests.  Other  city  officers  were 
the  Secretary,  the  City  Treasurer,  the  Vendue  Master,  the  City 
Marshall,  Ganger  of  Weights  and  Measures,  Jailer  etc.  The  local 
government  or  "Court  of  Schout,  Burgomasters  and  Schepens,"  as 
it  was  called,  was  handicapped  from  the  very  beginning.  For  its 
most  important  officer,  the  schout,  was  at  the  same  time  the  fiscal 
of  the  Company.  He  was  entirely  independent  of  the  burgo- 
masters and  the  schepens.  Mr.  Dingman  Veersteg  aptly  says  that 
the  city  government  was  practically  an  inferior  court  of  justice 
without  much  political  significance,  being  in  a  large  measure  de- 
pendent upon  the  higher  court,  much  like  the  board  of  Nine  Men 
had  been.  All  the  city's  officers  from  city  clerk  down  to  the  com- 
monest porter  were  appointed  by  the  Director-General  and  Council. 

The  supreme  government  was  at  the  Fort.  It  consisted  of  the 
Director-General  and  three  or  four  members  of  the  Council  of 
New  Netherland,  whose  chief  officers  were  the  Fiscal,  the  Pro- 
vincial Secretary,  the  Comptroller  of  the  Finances,  the  Receiver- 
General,  and  the  Surveyor-General  with  their  staff  of  bookkeepers, 
clerks  and  messengers.  This  council  not  only  framed  the  laws 
of  the  province,  but  also  formed  its  supreme  court,  uniting  in 
itself  the  legislative,  judicial  and  executive  authority  of  the  colony. 

The  city  authorities  were  in  financial  matters  entirely  depend- 
ent upon  the  good  will  and  pleasure, of  the  Director-General  and 
the  Council.  Their  constant  striving  for  the  right  to  levy  taxes, 
to  appoint  officers  and  to  extend  their  judicial  authority  was  not 
without  result.  They  gradually  approached  their  goal :  absolute 
communal  autonomy  for  themselves  and  a  representative  govern- 
ment for  entire  New  Netherland.  But  the  final  conquest  of  New 
Netherland  by  the  English,  in  1674,  put  a  stop  to  political  initia- 
tive which  was  revived  a  century  later  when  the  yoke  of  the  English 
was  thrown  off. 

The  liberty  which  was  coveted  in  political  life  was  desired 
by  the  churches  also.  For  New  Netherland  was  not  so  tolerant 
in  matters  of  religion  as  European  Netherlands.  The  ideal 
of  Governor  Stuyvesant  and  his  Council  was  a  state  church 
of  the  Dutch  Reformed  confession.  As  early  as  1628  New  Am- 
sterdam had  received  its  first  Dutch  Reformed  minister,  and  in 

•o  >* 

!5  o 





1631  built  its  first  church.  The  Lutherans  in  New  Amsterdam, 
the  majority  of  whom  were  Scandinavians  and  Germans,  and  not 
Dutch,  experienced  great  difficulty  in  securing  the  right  of  public 
exercise  of  their  "religion."  It  really  seems  as  if  they  did  not 
get  this  right  until  after  the  conquest  of  NewNetherland  in  1664. 
The  vast  majority  of  parents  in  New  Amsterdam  and  in  its 
vicinity  had  their  children  baptized  by  Dutch  Reformed  ministers, 
but  only  a  minority  of  these  parents  were  or  became  members  of 
the  Dutch  Reformed  Church.  In  168G  the  population  of  the 
city  of  New  York  was  3,800  while  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church 
at  the  same  time  numbered  354  adults  and  702  children.  From 
1649  to  1701  it  had  baptized  5,700  infants,  but  received  only  1812 
communicants.  As  the  present  work  treats  of  Scandinavians,  it 
may  be  proper  to  state  here  that  the  larger  number  of  those  who 
signed  the  petition  of  the  Lutherans  in  New  Amsterdam  in  1657, 
were  Germans  and  Scandinavians.  They  requested  that  Rev.  J.  E. 
Goetwater,  the  newly  arrived  Dutch  Lutheran  minister,  might  be 
permitted  to  remain  in  the  city  instead  of  being  deported,  as  the 
colonial  government,  actuated  by  zeal  for  the  Reformed  "religion," 
had  ordered.  The  fact  that  the  minister  of  these  Lutherans  was 
Dutch  needs  no  explanation.  Dutch  was  the  language  of  New 
Netherland  and  easily  learned  by  the  Germans  and  Scandinavians, 
who,  moreover,  as  a  rule  intermarried  with  the  sons  and  daughters 
of  Netherlands.  Even  an  Englishman  like  Charles  Bridges  be- 
came so  thoroughly  Teutonized  that  he  called  himself  by  the  Dutch 
equivalent  of  his  name  —  Carel  van  Brugge.  The  real  leader  of 
the  Lutheran  church  in  New  Amsterdam,  before  it  received  a 
clergyman,  was  Paulus  Schrick,  a  well-to-do  German,  from  Niirn- 

The  progress  of  the  people  of  New  Amsterdam  was,  naturally. 
more  marked  in  economic  fields  than  in  the  ecclesiastical.  Between 
1630  and  1640  many  ships  were  constructed  in  New  Amsterdam. 
In  1641  a  commodious  tavern  was  built,  which  later  became  the 
city  hall.  In  1642  a  new  church  was  erected,  supplanting  the  one 
built  in  1631.  In  1648  a  general  fair  was  established  to  continue 
ten  days  each  year,  likewise  a  weekly  market  to  be  held  on  Mon- 
day. The  city,  as  it  was  stated  above,  was  incorporated  in  1653. 
In  the  same  year  it  was  enclosed  by  palisades.  In  1657  a  "burgher- 
recht",  or  citizenship,  was  established ;  the  city  was  surveyed ; 
the  streets  were  regulated  and  named ;  several  of  the  streets  were 

en  K 

9  }" 


w    til 







also  paved.  In  1658  the  General  and  Council  gave  the  city  per- 
mission to  build  a  pier,  to  charge  wharfage  and  to  trade  with  other 
countries.  In  1661  the  first  regularly  appointed  revenue  cutter  was 
put  into  commission. 

The  leading  industries  centered  in  saw  mills  and  grist  mills, 
boat  and  yacht  building,  sail-making,  soap-boiling,  tanning,  lime- 
burning,   pot-baking,   stone-quarrying,  brick-making. 

New  Amsterdam  had  the  first  public  Latin  and  Greek  school 
in  our  country.  It  drew  pupils  even  from  New  England.  "It 
would  be  honor  enough  for  this  stock  (Dutch)  to  have  been  the 
first  to  put  on  American  soil  the  public  school,  the  great  engine 
for  grinding  out  American  citizens,  the  one  institution  for  which 
Americans  should  stand  more  stififly  than  for  aught  others." 
(Speech  by  Theodore  Roosevelt,  1896). 

As  to  the  protection  of  the  colonists.  New  Netherland  had  a 
garrison  of  180  men  who  were  employed  on  distant  expeditions 
to  Delaware  River,  Bergen,  Esopus,  Beverwyck,  Long  Island, 
Staten  Island  and  other  threatened  points.  They  were  also  utilized 
as  custom  house  employees  and  put  aboard  every  incoming  ship 
to  guard  against  smuggling.  New  Amsterdam  had  its  own  guard 
—  the  burgher's  guard,  consisting  of  three  companies.  After  the 
Indian  surprise  of  1655  the  city  was  patrolled  on  Sundays  during 
service  by  a  corporal's  guard. 

As  to  the  population,  it  has  been  estimated  that  there  were 
270  people  in  New  Amsterdam  in  1628,  1000  in  1642,  but  only 
800  in  1653  on  account  of  the  Indian  wars.  In  1660  New  Amster- 
dam had  a  population  of  about  1800  and  about  350  houses,  of 
which  300  were  inhabited.  In  1664  its  population  was  about  2,400, 
its  number  of  houses  500,  of  which  400  were  dwellings. 

Entire  New  Netherland  had  a  population  of  1.500  in  1647, 
of  2,000  in  1653.  and  of  10,000  in  1664. 

The  official  language  of  New  Netherland,  as  has  been 
stated,  was  Dutch,  though  more  than  a  score  of  languages  were 
spoken  in  the  city  of  New  Amsterdam  long  before  the  English 
conquest.  As  it  will  be  shown,  those  who  spoke  Danish,  Nor- 
wegian, and  Swedish  contributed  their  share  in  making  the  metro 
polis  of  the  West  cosmopolitan  in  speech  and  tolerant  in  religion. 
The  earliest  library  of  which  any  record  survives  in  the  annals 
of  New  York  was  the  polyglot  collection  owned  by  Jonas  Bronck. 
the  Dane  after  whom  the  Bronx  in  New  York  has  been  named. 


Most  of  the  books  in  this  little  library  were  Danish,  several  of 
them  were  celebrated  works  on  Lutheran  theology.  The  effort  of 
the  Lutherans  to  get  religious  liberty  has  already  been  noted. 

The  Scandinavians  of  early  New  York  also  taught,  it  would 
appear,  our  country  a  new  form  of  architecture,  the  clapboard 
construction  of  buildings.  It  is  the  merit  of  Mr.  J.  H.  Innes  to 
have  called  attention  to  this  fact.  His  work  "New  Amsterdam 
and  Its  People,"  which  on  account  of  its  painstaking  investigation 
of  the  topography  of  New  Amsterdam,  will  prove  a  most  valuable 
guide  to  the  readers  of  my  volume,  does  not  discuss  this  new  form 
of  architecture.  But  in  a  reply  to  a  letter  of  mine,  in  which  I 
had  asked  for  permission  to  use  certain  views  contained  in  his 
book  on  New  Amsterdam,  he  makes  the  following  very  instruc- 
tive statements,  which  he  permits  me  to  quote. 

"It  is  perhaps  proper  to  caution  you  not  to  lay  too  much 
stress  on  the  views,  for  you  will  understand  that  they  are  only 
enlargements  of  the  Danckers  and  Visscher  views,  both  of  which 
are  on  a  pretty  small  scale.  The  artist  however,  aided  by  myself, 
has  collated  pretty  faithfully  the  two  views,  and  introduced  the 
distinctive  features  of  buildings,  so  far  as  we  could  inform  our- 
selves from  any  source ;  nevertheless,  much  is  to  be  wished  for. 
At  the  time  of  the  views,  I  suppose,  the  original  bark-lined  or 
log  houses  of  the  earliest  settlers  had  about  all  disappeared.  What 
form  of  architecture  took  their  places?  Well,  about  this  period 
the  Dutch  began  to  talk  a  good  deal  about  houses  "van  Steen". 
Now  this  in  the  mouth  of  a  Dutchman  just  from  the  old  country 
would  almost  invariably  mean  brick,  or  "gebakken  Steen,"  and  we 
may  fairly  assume  that  all  houses  with  narrow  gable  end  and 
more  than  two  stories  high  were  at  least  fronted  with  Holland 
brick.  These  houses  were  comparatively  few,  however.  The  same 
assumption  would  not  do  for  the  smaller  Dutch  houses,  because 
the  vicinity  of  New  Amsterdam  was  abundantly  supplied  with 
boulder  stones  from  the  glacial  drift.  These  as  a  rule  were  so 
easily  workable  by  mere  unskilled  labor,  —  requiring  nothing 
more  than  a  stout  man  with  a  good  sledge-hammer,  —  that  they 
were  immediately  put  into  requisition,  not  only  for  the  foundations 
but  for  the  construction  of  the  walls  themselves  where  they  were 
not  too  high.  Perhaps  half  of  the  ancient  Dutch  farm  houses 
around  New  York,  many  of  which  remained  within  my  personal 


recollection,  were  constructed  of  these  boulder  stones,  squared  by 
the  hammer  to  some  extent. 

"The  greater  number  of  houses  were  undoubtedly  of  wood  and 
to  a  certain  degree  foreign  to  Dutch  ideas,  but  they  adopted  its 
use  from  economical  reasons,  and  about  this  period  the  corrupted 
term  "Klabbaude"  began  to  appear  in  the  records.  This  was  our 
familiar  "clapboards,"  by  which  we  mean  of  course  the  boards 
nailed  horizontally  and  overlapping  one  another.  I  am  informed, 
however,  that  such  method  of  construction  is  foreign  to  Holland, 
that  the  term  "Klap  hout"  has  no  such  meaning  as  the  above,  but 
is  applied  to  strips  of  wood  nailed  up  and  down,  such  as  we  see 
in  small  constructions,  such  as  sheds,  board  fences  etc. 

"Where  did  the  Dutch  get  this  clapboard  construction  from 
at  New  Amsterdam  ?  Certainly  not  from  the  English,  for  when 
they,  the  English,  commenced  to  build  their  first  permanent  houses 
in  New  England,  and  on  the  Eastern  End  of  Long  Island,  they 
almost  invariably  made  use  of  shingles  in  siding  their  buildings.  .  . 

"Now  in  my  copy  of  George  Braun's  monumental  work,  "De 
Praecipuis  Totius  Universi  Orbis  Urbibus,"  Cologne  1572,"  I  find 
in  the  large  folio  water  color  of  Bergen  in  Norway  almost  exactly 
the  clapboard  construction  of  buildings  to  which  we  became  ac- 
customed in  America,  and  I  am  therefore  inclined  to  believe  that 
we  owe  this  to  Scandinavian  influences,  and  that  where  the  "Noor- 
mans"  built  themselves  at  New  Amsterdam  or  vicinity,  they  are 
quite  likely  to  have  adopted  this  method.  .  .  ." 

The  present  volume  gives  a  good  view  of  Bergen  in  the  six- 
teenth century.  The  clapboard  construction  appears  in  it,  but 
most  of  the  boarding  is  horizontal.  I  have  seen  pictures  of  clap- 
board construction  on  the  Faroe  Islands,  inhabited  by  people  of 
Scandinavian  stock.  And  a  prominent  Faroese,  Jonas  Bronck,  may 
have  put  up  this  form  of  building  on  his  plantation  in  New  York, 
1639.  That  Scandinavian  influences  have  been  at  work  in  the 
early  colonial  architecture  of  the  Empire  State  of  the  North  is 
quite  evident. 

Thus  much  in  general  about  New  Netherland  and  New  Am- 

This  introduction  would  be  far  too  lengthy  if  it  were  to  dwell 
on  the  regions  about  Albany,  on  the  villages  along  the  Hudson, 
on  the  settlements  on  Long  Island,  and  many  other  places  in  New 


York  state  mentioned  in  this  work.  We  must  refer  the  reader, 
for  more  detailed  information,  to  John  Fiske's  "The  Dutch  and 
Quaker  Colonies  in  America"  (1899);  to  "The  Memorial  History 
of  the  City  of  New  York,"  edited  by  James  Grant  Wilson  (1892); 
to  J.  H.  Innes'  "New  Amsterdam  and  Its  People"  ( 1902) ;  and  to 
Mrs.  Schuyler  Van  Rensselaer's  "History  of  the  City  of  New 
York  in  the  Seventeenth  Century"  (1909),  which  contains  an  ex- 
tensive bibliography. 

Readers  will  ask.  Why  does  this  volume  stop  at  the  year  of 
1674?  We  answer.  New  Netherland  surrendered  in  that  year  to 
England.  It  had  been  taken  in  possession  for  the  English  as  early 
as  1664,  by  Col.  Richard  Nicolls,  when  both  New  Netherland  and 
New  Amsterdam  received  the  name  of  New  York.  But  the 
language  of  the  colony  continued,  in  the  main,  to  be  Dutch,  though 
English  was  used  officially.  Dutch  was  again  introduced  as  the 
official  language  in  1673,  when  the  province  saw  "the  last  flash  of 
Dutch  rule".  Anthony  Colve,  taking  advantage  of  the  war  between 
England  and  the  Netherlands,  captured  New  Netherland  in  the 
name  of  the  Dutch  Republic.  The  city  of  New  York  once  more 
received  a  new  name :  New  Orange.  It  always  retained  its  ad- 
jective "New".  The  old  form  of  local  government  by  schout, 
schepens,  etc.,  was  reinstituted.  From  August  9,  1673,  to  Novem- 
ber 10,  1674,  New  York  was  again  under  Dutch  rule.  Then  the 
English  came  and  made  the  second  and  ultimate  conquest  of  the 

After  1664,  the  Scandinavian  immigration  decreased  per- 
ceptibly, and  still  more  after  1674,  though  it  probably  never  ceased 

Why  this  decrease? 

The  Scandinavians,  especially  the  Norwegians  and  the  Danes, 
had,  for  many  years,  been  accustomed  to  see  their  sons  and  daught- 
ers go,  for  a  longer  or  shorter  time,  to  Holland.  The  commerce 
between  Norway  and  Holland  was  large.  The  vast  forests  of 
Norway  furnished  the  Dutch  with  timl)er.  And  Norwegians  and 
Danes  joined  the  Dutch  fleet  in  great  numbers.  It  was  Holland 
that  taught  Norway  that  her  future  was  on  the  water.  For  Nor- 
way was  not  a  sea-faring  nation  about  the  year  1600,  as  it  was 
in  the  days  of  the  vikings.  Holland  was  the  mistress  of  the  seas. 
In  1650  her  tonnage  as  compared  to  that  of  England,  was  as  five 
to  one.     And  at  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  century,  after  the 


Navigation  Act,  Holland  still  maintained  the  ruling  of  the  seas. 
She  had  a  tonnage  of  900,000  to  England's  500,000,  while  the  com- 
bined  tonnage   of   the   other   nations    together   was   only   200,000. 

Years  ago  England,  becoming  a  great  colonial  power,  over- 
took the  supremacy  on  the  ocean,  though  her  fleet  during  our  civil 
war  was  not  greater  than  that  of  the  United  States.  Norway  soon 
came  second  on  the  list.  Her  fleet  is  still  superior  to  that  of  the 
United  States,  which  counts  inland  tonnage  to  make  a  good  show- 
ing; but  of  late  she  has  come  down  to  the  fourth  place,  still  out- 
distancing, however,  her  former  mistress,  Holland. 

During  the  period  our  book  covers,  Amsterdam  was  the  em- 
porium of  the  world.  According  to  Erik  P.  Pontoppidan,  a  Dane, 
later  bishop  in  Norway,  there  assembled  some  8,000  or  9,000  Nor- 
wegian, Danish  and  Holstein  sailors  every  year,  about  fall  time, 
when  the  fleets  were  returning  from  East  India,  West  India,  Green- 
land and  other  places.  Pontoppidan,  who  lived  for  some  time  in 
Holland,  gives  this  estimate  in  his  anonymous  work  "Menoza" 

Of  Norwegians  who  attained  fame  in  the  service  of  the  Dutch 
fleet,  mention  may  be  made  of  the  marine  hero  Curt  Adelaer 
(originally  Sivertsen),  who  was  born  in  Brevik,  Norway,  and  at 
the  age  of  fourteen  (1637)  joined  the  Dutch  fleet.  In  1642-1661 
he  fought  in  the  Venetian  fleet  against  the  Turks.  His  achieve- 
ments were  remarkable.  Returning  to  his  home,  he  was  appointed 
General-Admiral  of  the  Danish-Norwegian  fleet.  He  also  re- 
ceived the  title  of  nobility.  Soon  he  built  and  organized  a  large 
and  powerful  fleet. 

In  1670,  the  Danish-Norwegian  envoy  at  the  Hague,  Marcus 
Gj^e,  reported  to  the  government  in  Copenhagen  that  a  large  num- 
ber of  the  subjects  of  the  [Danish-Norwegian]  King  were  in  Dutch 
service,  and  that  the  majority  of  them  were  Norwegians.  He 
added,  that  on  account  of  the  jealousy  of  the  Dutch,  they  were, 
for  the  most  part,  common  sailors.  The  Dutch  were  averse  to 
making  them  lieutenants  and  captains. 

An  English  statesman,  Robert  Molesworth,  in  "An  account  of 
Denmark  as  it  was  in  the  year  1692,"  states  that  the  best  sailors 
who  are  subjects  of  the  Danish  king  are  Norwegians,  but  the 
majority  of  them  are  in  Dutch  service.  He  also  adds  that  many 
sailors  from  Scandinavian  countries  had  settled  with  their  families 
in  Holland. 


Some  of  the  noteworthy  Norwegians  who  served  in  the  Dutch 
fleet  were,  according  to  the  Norwegian  historian  L.  Daae,*  Zeiger 
Peters;  Mickel  de  Voss,  born  in  Soggendal,  1640;  Mickel  Tennis- 
sen,  born  at  Lister,  1642 ;  Evert  Tennissen ;  Morten  Pedersen,  born 
in  Skien,  1652 ;  Hans  SchjzJnneb^l,  a  nobleman,  born  1654  in  Nord- 
land;  Thomas  Diderikssen  Seerup,  born  1638  in  Bergen;  Hans 
Garstensen  Garde,  born  in  Spangereid;  Iver  T^nnesen  Huitfeldt 
from  Throndstad  in  Hurum,  died  1710;  Frederik  Boiling,  who 
went  as  Adelbors  to  East  India  in  1669-1673 ;  Michel  Caspar  Lund ; 
Anders  Christensen  from  Christiania,  who  returned  to  his  home 
after  twenty-seven  years  of  foreign  service. 

Those  were  sea-faring  men.  As  to  the  settled  Scandinavian 
population  in  Holland,  an  idea  may  be  got  from  the  fact,  that  the 
Danes  and  Norwegians  in  1663  organized  a  Danish-Norwegian 
church  at  Amsterdam.  They  issued  a  special  hymnal,  as  their 
church  was  a  union  church  which  was  to  adhere  to  the  Reformed 
and  the  Lutheran  confessions.  Their  first  pastor  was  Christian 
Pedersen  Abel,  from  Aalborg,  Denmark.  Their  sexton  was  Didrik 
(Erik)  Meyer,  from  S^gne,  in  Norway.  In  Amsterdam  was  also 
.•\nders  Kempe,  from  Trondhjem,  Norway,  who  had  become  a 

As  there  were  many  Scandinavians  in  Holland,  so  there  were 
quite  a  number  of  Hollanders  in  Norway  and  Denmark.  Their 
influence  was  felt  in  many  directions,  and  not  least  in  the  fields 
of  art  and  architecture. 

There  was,  in  other  words,  much  reciprocity  in  the  seventeenth 
century  between  the  Dutch  and  the  Scandinavians.  Such  a  reci- 
procity did  not  exist  in  the  same  century  between  the  English  and 

•  For  what  I  state  in  regard  to  Scandinavians  dwelling  in  Holland  or  serving 
in  the  Dutch  fleet  in  the  seventeenth  century,  I  am  indebted  to  L.  Daae's  care- 
fully written  booklet  "Nordmsends  Udvandringer  til  Holland  og  England  i  nyere 
Tid."  (1880).  Of  the  Scandinavians  mentioned  by  Dr.  Daae.  not  a  single  one,  at 
least  to  my  knowledge,  immigrated  to  New  Netherland.  He  knows,  of  course,  about 
the  Swedish  colony  in  Delaware.  But  ho  seems  to  know  nothing  about  Danish  and 
Norwegian  Immigration  to  our  country  in  the  seventeenth  century.  He  says,  "It 
Is  reported  thaj  also  some  Norwegians  (and  Danes)  settled  in  North  America  in 
New  Jersey  in  the  seventeenth  century;  and  that  they,  in  1664 — 1676,  founded  a 
city  there,  which  they  called  Bergen,  after  its  (Norwegian)  namesake,  and  that  the 
surrounding  district  got  the  name  of  Bergen  county.  But  this  report  is  apocryphal 
..."  (Underscoring  mine).  He  adds,  that  Nicolai  Wergeland,  in  1816,  used  this 
report  as  an  argument  against  the  tyranny  that  Denmark  had  subjected  Norway  to. 
in   the  days   of  their   union. 

It  is  indeed  true,  that  Bergen  in  New  Jersey  was  no  Norwegian  colony.  Its 
oame  is  derived  not  from  Bergen  in  Norway,  but  from  Bergen  op  Zoom.  But  if 
Daae  had  heard  the  mere  statement,  thirty-five  years  ago,  that  there  were  at  least 
150  Norwegians  and  Danes  who  emigrated  to  New  York  1630 — 1674,  he  would 
possibly  again  have  resorted  to  the  apocryphal  explanation.  Fortunately  we  now 
have,  what  we  did  not  have  in  1880,  an  abundance  of  published  source  material, 
which   it  erer   increasinc. 


the  Scandinavians,  though  the  Norwegians  exported  much  timber 
to  England,  particularly  after  the  great  fire  in  London. 

Naturally,  Scandinavian  immigration  to  New  York  after  the 
Dutch  had  surrendered,  began  to  decrease.  To  what  extent,  we  can 
not  say.  The  Dutch  were  very  painstaking  in  keeping  their  records, 
even  in  the  New  World ;  the  English  were  not.  Data  which  could 
have  established  the  nationality  of  new  immigrants,  and  which 
would  have  been  recorded  by  the  Dutch,  are  wanting  in  the  English 

We  therefore  stop  at  the  year  1674,  with  the  end  of  the  second 
period  of  Dutch  rule  in  New  York. 

When  Stuyvesant  in  1666,  after  the  English  had  made  the 
first  conquest  of  New  Netherland,  was  on  his  way  to  Holland,  he 
came  first  to  Bergen.  He  had  left  New  Amsterdam  for  Curacao, 
where  he  in  his  younger  days  had  lost  his  leg.  He  was  so  short 
of  powder  that  he  was  obliged  to  borrow  from  a  ship  "lying  in  her 
harbor  of  Bergen"  "three  muskets,  a  parcel  worth  about  12  lbs.  of 
powder,  to  be  used  on  the  voyage  from  Bergen  aforesaid  to  Hol- 

The  ex-governor  may  have  thought  of  former  days,  when  he 
was  bent  upon  keeping  his  subjects  in  political  and  religious  bond- 
age. Had  he  acted  differently,  he  might  have  been  spared  the 
journey  to  Bergen  and  the  borrowing  of  powder  in  northern  waters. 
But  who  can  ascertain  all  the  facts,  and  forecast  the  exact  course 
of  history?  History  is  not  the  result  of  chance.  It  is  the  sum  of 
necessity  and  liberty. 






Albert  Andriessen,  or  Albert  Andriessen  Bradt  [Bratt],  was 
one  of  the  earliest  Norwegian  settlers  in  New  Netherland.  He 
came  from  Fredrikstad,  a  town  at  the  mouth  of  the  Glommen,  the 
largest  river  in  Norway.  In  the  early  records  he  is  often  called  Al- 
bert the  Norman.  After  1670  he  became  known  as  Albert  Andriesz 
Bradt.  Whether  he  was  related  to  the  Bratts  of  Norwegian 
nobility,  can  not  be  ascertained.  The  Bratt  family  lived  in  Bergen, 
Norway,  before  the  early  part  of  the  fifteenth  century,  when  it 
moved  to  the  northern  part  of  Gudbrandsdalen.  It  had  a  coat  of 
arms  until  about  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century.  Since  that 
time  the  Bratts  belong  to  the  Norwegian  peasantry.  They  have 
a  number  of  large  farms  in  Gudbrandsdalen,  Hedemarken,  Toten, 
and  Land.i  In  the  state  of  New  York  there  are  many  families  of- 
the  name  of  Bradt,  descendants  of  the  pioneer  from  Fredrikstad. 

The  name  of  Albert  Andriessen  occurs  for  the  first  time  in  a 
document  bearing  the  date  August  26,  1636,  an  agreement  between 
him  and  two  others  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  patroon  of  the  colony 
of  Rensselaerswyck,  Kiliaen  van  Rensselaer,  on  the  other.^ 
The  agreement  was  made  and  signed  in  Amsterdam.  It  states  that 
Andriessen  was  a  tobacco  planter.  He  may  have  learnt  the  cultivat- 
ing of  tobacco  in  Holland,  where  tobacco  was  raised  as  early 
as  1616. 

As  Andriessen  was  twenty-nine  years  of  age  w^hen  he  made 
the  agreement  with  Kiliaen  Van  Rensselaer,  he  must  have  been 
born  about  1607.  Pursuant  to  the  stipulation  in  the  agreement, 
he  sailed,  accompanied  by  his  wife,  Annetje  Barents  of  "Rolmers," 

1  rihiBtreret    norsk    konversations     leksikon,     OhristUnia,     1907    ff.     Vol.     I., 
Article   "Bratt." 

2  Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manuscripts.     Translated  and  edited  by  A.  J.  F.  van 
Laer.    Arebivist,    Albany,    1908,    p.    676. 


20  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

and  as  it  would  seem  by  two  children,  October  8,  1636,  on  the 
"Rensselaerswyck,"  which  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  March  4, 

On  this  voyage,  which  was  very  stormy,  his  wife  gave  birth 
to  a  son,  who  received  the  name  of  Storm  and  who  in  later  records 
is  frequently  called  Storm  from  the  Sea.  The  log  of  the  ship 
("Rinselaers  Wijck")  contains  under  the  date  of  November  1  and 
2  [1636],  the  following  interesting  entries  which  are  given  m  fac- 
simile in  the  "Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manuscripts,"  360  f . : 



(Reduced   size.) 

The  translation  is  as  follows: 


Sa[turday]  1.  In  the  morning  we  veered  toward  the  west  and 
drifted  north.  The  Wind  S.  W.  with  rough  weather  and  high 
seas.     The  past  half  day  and  entire  night. 

Su[nday  ]  2.  Drifted  16  leagues  N.  E.  by  E. ;  the  wind 
about  west,  the  latitude  by  dead  reckoning  41  degrees,  50  min. 
with  very  high  seas.  That  day  the  overhang  above  our  rudder 
was  knocked  in  by  severe  storm.     This  day  a  child  was  born  on 


the  ship,  and  named  and  baptized  in  England  stoerm;  the  mother 
is  annetie  baernts.     This  day  gone. 

Inasmuch  as  there  were  eight  children  born  to  Andriessen  and 
his  wife,  Storm  being  the  third,  two  of  their  children,  Barent 
and  Eva,  were  likely  with  their  parents  on  this  voyage.  Five 
of  their  children  were  born  in  the  new  world:  Engeltje,  Gisseltje 
Andries,  Jan,  Dirck.^ 

Eva  was  married  in  October,  1647,  to  Anthony  De  Hooges, 
since  1642  superintendent  of  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck,  and 
later  on  August  13,  1657,  at  Fort  Orange,  to  Roeloff  Swartwout, 
who  on  January  27,  1661,  was  made  sheriff,  thus  completing  the 
organization  of  the  first  council  of  justice  in  the  present  county 
of  Ulster.4 

Engeltje  was  married  to  Teunis  Slingerland,  of  Onisquathaw. 

Gisseltje  was  married  to  Jan  van  "Eecheten"(?). 

Storm  Albertsz  is  mentioned  in  a  list  of  settlers  in  Esopus. 
The  list  was  prepared  1662.  His  will,  in  which  we  learn  the  name 
of  his  wife,  Hilletje  Lansinck,  probably  Dutch,  and  which  men- 
tions that  he  had  children,  but  does  not  give  their  names,  is  dated 
February  24,   1679.^ 

Dirck  or  Hendrick  is  mentioned  in  a  list  of  settlers  in  Esopus 

Andriessen  and  his  partners  were  to  operate  a  mill.  But  not 
long  ^.fter  his  arrival  he  took  the  liberty  of  dissolving  partnership 
and  established  himself  as  a  tobacco  planter.  Van  Renssselaer 
had  sent  greetings  to  him  in  a  letter  dated  September  21,  1637, 
(addressed  to  the  partner  of  Andriessen,  Pieter  Cornelisz,  master 
millwright)  but  in  a  subsequent  letter,  of  May  8,  1638,  to  Cornelisz 
he  wrote :  "Albert  Andriessen  separated  from  you,  I  hear  that  he 
is  a  strange  character,  and  it  is  therefore  no  wonder  that  he  could 
not  get  along  with  you."^ 

Nevertheless,  Van  Rensselaer  entertained  the  hope  that  Albert 
Andriessen  would  succeed  as  a  tobacco  planter.  On  December  29, 
1637,  he  wrote  to  Director  William  Kieft  that  he  should  assign 
some  of  the  young  men  on  board  the  "Calmar  Sleutel",  commanded 
by  Pieter  Minuit  and  sailing  in  the  same  month,  to  tobacco  plant- 

3  E.   B.   O'Callaghan,   History   of   New  Netherland    (1848),    II.,    p.   437. 

4  Van    Rensselaer    Bowier    Manuscripts,    p.    825. 

5  B.    Fernow,    Calendar    of    Wills    on    File    and    Recorded    in    the    Offices    of    the 
Clerk   of  the   Court   of   Appeals,   New  York,    1896,   p.   444. 

6  Van   Rensselaer  Bowier   Manuscripts,    pp.   351,   406. 

22  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

ing  with  Andriessen  "if  he  has  good  success,"  otherwise  they  were 
to  serve  with  the  farmers.  These  young  men  were  inexperienced, 
it  seems.  One,  Elbert  Elbertz,  from  Nieukerck,  eighteen  years 
old,  was  a  weaver;  Claes  Jansen,  from  the  same  place,  seventeen 
years  old,  was  a  tailor;  Gerrit  Hendricksz,  also  from  the  same 
place,  fifteen  year  old,  was  a  shoemaker.  Gerrit  must  have  served 
Andriessen  for  a  term  of  at  least  three  years;  for  his  first  three 
years'  wages,  from  April  2.  1638  to  April  2,  1641,  are  charged 
to  Andriessen.^ 

In  a  letter  of  May  10,  1638,  V'an  Rensselaer  advised  Andries- 
sen that  he  had  duly  received  his  letter  stating  that  the  tobacco 
looked  fine.  But  he  was  desirous  to  get  full  particulars  as  to  how 
the  crop  had  turned  out,  and  to  get  a  sample  of  the  tobacco.  He 
expressed  dissatisfaction  at  Andriessen  having  separated  from 
Pieter  Cornelisz,  and  liked  to  know  the  cause  of  his  dispute  with 
the  officer  and  commis  Jacob  Albertsz  Planck  and  his  son.  He 
informed  Andriessen  that  he  was  obliged  to  uphold  his  officers, 
and  promised  him  to  stand  by  him  and  cause  him  to  be  "provided 
with  everything."  But  he  would  not  suflFer  bad  behavior.  He 
also  informed  him  that  it  was  apparent  from  the  news  he  had 
received  from  several  people  that  he  was  "very  unmerciful  to  his 
children  and  very  cruel"  to  his  wife ;  he  was  to  avoid  this  "and  in 
all  things  have  the  fear  of  the  Lord"  before  his  eyes  and  not  fol- 
low so  much  his  own  inclinations.  But  there  was  also  another 
matter  for  which  Van  Rensselaer  censured  him :  he  had  traded 
beaver  furs  with  Dirck  Corszen  Stam,  contrary  to  contract,  de- 
frauded and  cheated  him.  For  seven  pieces  of  duffel  he  had  given 
him  only  the  value  of  twenty-five  merchantable  beavers.^ 

Van  Rensselaer  also  addressed  a  letter,  of  the  same  date,  to 
Jacob  Albertsz  Planck,  informing  him  that  he  had  written  to 
Andriessen  that  he  should  have  more  respect  for  the  officers. 
Planck  was  instructed  to  notify  Andriessen  and  all  others  living 
in  the  colony  not  to  engage  in  "such  detrimental  fur  trade,"  for 
he  did  not  care  to  suffer  in  his  colony  those  who  had  their  eyes 
mainly  on  the  fur  trade.' 

Notwithstanding,  it  was  Dirck  Corszen  that  was  an  unfaithful 
supercargo.  And  Van  Rensselaer  requested,  in  a  letter  of  May 
13,  1639,  of  Andriessen,  that  he  should  write  him  the  truth  of  the 

7  Ibid.,    395   ff. 

8  Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manuscripts,  p.  409. 

9  Ibid.,    p.    411. 


matter  and  pay  him  what  he  still  owed  Corszen.  If  he  saw  that 
Andriessen  acted  honestly  herein,  he  would  do  all  in  his  power 
to  help  him.  Andriessen  should  go  to  the  superintendent  of  the 
colony,  Arent  van  Curler,  and  purchase  necessaries  for  himself  and 
his  own  people  at  an  advance  in  price  of  50  per  cent.  He  should 
get  merchandise  for  the  Indian  trade  at  an  advance  of  75  per  cent. 
In  return  he  was  to  furnish  Van  Curler  with  skins  at  such  a  price 
that  he  could  make  something  on  the  transaction. 

Van  Rensselaer  also  informed  Andriessen  that  he  would  try 
to  sell  his  tobacco  at  the  highest  price  and  furthermore  give  him 
25  per  cent  more  than  his  half  of  the  net  proceeds  would  amount  to. 
He  would  moreover  grant  him  25  per  cent  discount  on  the  grain 
which  he  bought.  In  fact,  Van  Rensselaer's  confidence  in  Andries- 
sen seemed  to  be  increasing.  For  he  not  only  acknowledged  that 
he  had  received  several  letters  from  him,  but  also  wished  to  say 
to  his  credit  that  he  had  received  returns  from  no  one  but  him. 
He  complained,  however,  of  the  tobacco  which  had  been  sent  to 
him  in  barrels.  It  was  a  great  loss  to  both  that  the  "tobacco  was 
so  poor  and  thin  of  leaf  that  it  could  not  stand  being  rolled."  This, 
he  thought,  was  likely  due  to  Andriessen  having  left  too  many  leaves 
on  the  plants.  But  not  this  alone :  the  weight  was  short.  One 
barrel,  put  down  at  292  lbs.,  weighed  but  220  lbs.  This  was  per- 
haps due  to  deception  on  the  part  of  a  certain  Herrman,  a  furrier. 
But  anything  like  this  should  be  avoided  in  the  future.  The  to- 
bacco amounted  to  1,156  pounds  net,  which  was  sold  for  8  st.  ( 16 
cents)  a  pound.  Had  it  not  been  so  bad  and  wretched,  it  could 
have  been  sold  for  twenty  cents  a  pound.  A  higher  price  could  be 
obtained  if  Andriessen  would  be  more  careful  in  the  future  and 
leave  fewer  leaves  on  the  plants.  He  should  try  to  grow  "good 
stuff",  for  the  tobacco  from  St.  Christopher,  an  island  in  the  West 
Indies,  was  so  plentiful  in  Netherland  that  it  brought  but  3  stivers 
a  pound.  Andriessen  should  also  each  year  make  out  a  complete 
account  of  all  expenses  and  receipts  from  tobacco,  so  Van  Rens- 
selaer could  see  whether  any  progress  was  made.^'' 

But  Andriessen  was  a  poor  accountant.  Neither  Van  Rens- 
selaer nor  his  nephew,  the  former  Director  Van  Twiller,  could 
understand  his  accounts. ^^  Van  Rensselaer  therefore  gave  him 
directions  to  follow  in  making  his  entries  and  statements,  claiming 

lOrbid.,    446. 
11  Ibid.,   p.    500. 

24  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

that  any  other  procedure  would  "leave  everything  confused  and 
mixed  up."  ^^  He  complained  that  Andriessen  laid  certain  trans- 
actions before  the  patroon,  which  should  be  laid  before  the  com- 
mis.  He  expressed  the  sentiment  that  Andriessen  was  making  him 
his  servant  when  he  wrote  to  him  "about  soap  and  other  things." 
He  also  complained  that  Andriessen  caused  great  loss  by  making 
him  hold  the  tobacco  too  high :  it  was  safest  to  follow  the  market 
price  in  Netherland.  Finally  he  censured  him  for  buying  unwisely: 
he  had   paid    f.   200   for   a   heifer,   "which    is   much   too   high."  ^^ 

The  patroon  and  Andriessen  had  several  disagreements.  The 
latter,  with  his  brother  Arent  Andriessen,  whom  we  shall  later  get 
acquainted  with,  sent  to  the  patroon  sometime  in  1642,  4,484  lbs. 
of  tobacco.  It  was  sold  on  an  average  of  eight  and  one  half  st. 
a  lb.  Deducting  270  lbs.  for  stems,  the  net  weight  brought  a  sum 
of  f.  1790:19.  But  the  duty,  freight  charges,  and  convoy  charges 
amounted  to  f .  629 :15.  The  patroon  said  he  would  deduct  only 
half  of  this  if  Andriessen  compensated  him  according  to  his 
ordinance  for  his  land  on  which  the  tobacco  grew.  But  as  long 
as  he  was  in  dispute  with  him  he  would  deduct  the  whole  sum.  ^* 

Andriessen  did  not  suffer.  Van  Rensselaer  complained  in 
letter  of  March  16,  1643,  to  Arent  van  Curler  that  he  did  not 
know  what  privilege  Albert  Andriessen  had  received,  since  "his 
cows  are  not  mentioned  in  the  inventory  sent  him."  He  stated 
he  would  not  want  any  one,  no  matter  who  he  was,  to  own  any 
animals  which  were  not  subject  to  the  right  of  pre-emption.  There- 
fore, Curler  should  include  Andriessen's  animals  in  the  inventory, 
or  make  him  leave  the  colony  and  pay  for  pasturing  and  hay  during 
the  past  year.i^ 

()n  September  5,  1643,  the  patroon  stipulated  the  following 
with  respect  to  Andriessen,  whose  term  had  long  before  expired 
without  his  having  obtained  a  new  lease  or  contract. 

He  "shall  ...  be  continued  for  the  present  but  shall  not  own 
live  stock  otherwise  than  according  to  the  general  rule  of  one  half 
of  the  increase  belonging  to  the  patroon  and  of  the  right  of  pre- 
emption and,  in  case  he  does  not  accept  this,  his  cattle  shall  im- 
mediately be  sent  back  to  the  place  whence  they  came,  with  the  un- 

12  Tbid., 

13  Ibid., 

14  Ibid., 

15  Ibid., 




derstanding,  however,  that  half  of  the  increase  bred  in  the  colony 
shall  go  to  the  patroon  in  consideration  of  the  pasturage  and  hay 
which  they  have  used ;  and  as  to  his  accounts  he  shall  also  be 
obliged  to  close,  liquidate  and  settle  the  same ;  and  as  far  as  the 
conditions  after  the  expiration  of  his  lease  are  concerned,  the 
patroon  adopts  for  him  as  well  as  for  all  others  this  fixed  rule,  of 
which  they  must  all  be  notified  and  if  they  do  not  wish  to  continue 
under  it  must  immediately  leave  the  colony,  namely,  that  every 
freeman  who  has  a  house  and  garden  of  his  own  shall  pay  an 
annual  rent  of  5  stivers  per  Rhineland  rod  and  for  land  used 
in  raising  tobacco,  wheat  or  other  fruits  20  guilders  per  Rhineland 
morgen,  newly  cleared  land  to  be  free  for  a  number  of  years,  more 
or  less,  according  to  the  amount  of  labor  required  in  such  clear- 
ing. . 


Andriessen  not  only  cultivated  tobacco.  He  operated  "two 
large  sawmills,"  run  by  a  "powerful  waterfall,"  worth  as  much  as 
f.  1000  annual  rent,  but  the  patroon  let  him  have  them  for  f.  250 
annual  rent.  ^~  From  May  4,  1652,  to  May  4,  1672,  Andriessen  is 
charged  with  the  annual  rent  for  these  two  mills  and  the  land  on 
Norman's  Kill.  ^^  Originally  this  Kill  was  called  Tawasentha, 
meaning  a  place  of  the  many  dead.  The  Dutch  appelative  of  Nor- 
man's Kill  is  derived  from  Andriessen. 

In  New  Amsterdam  he  had  acquired  a  house  and  lot  from 
Hendrick  Kip,  August  29,  1651.  It  lay  northeast  of  fort  Amster- 
dam.^® Under  date  of  October  5,  1655,  we  find  that  he  was  taxed 
a.  20  for  this  house  and  lot.2o 

The  acquirement  of  property  is  not  seldom  followed  by  litiga- 
tion, as  is  also  seen  in  the  case  of  Andriessen. 

In  May,  1655,  before  the  court  of  the  Burgomasters  and 
Schepens  in  New  Amsterdam,  Roelofif  Jansen,  a  butcher,  appeared 
and  made  a  complaint  against  Christiaen  Barentsen,  attorney  for 
Andriessen.  Jansen  had  leased  a  house  and  some  land  belonging 
to  Andriessen  who  was  to  give  him  some  cows.  But  the  house 
was  "not  tight"  and  "not  enclosed,"  and  the  cows  were  missing. 
He  claimed  the   interest  and   damage  which   he  had   suffered   or 

1«  Ibid.,    p.    696. 

17  Ibid.,   p.   742. 

18  Ibid.,    p.    810. 

19  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts    in    t!ip    Office    of    the    Secretary    of    State 
Albany,    1865.      Edited  by   E.   B.    O'Callaghan.      I.,    p.    54. 

20  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam    from     3  653    to     1674,       Ed.    by    Berthold 
Peraow.    I.,    p.    374. 

26  NORWEGIAN   IMMIGRANTS    IN   NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

might  still  suffer.  The  defendant,  as  attorney  for  Andriessen,  re- 
plied that  it  was  not  his  fault  that  the  demand  had  not  been  com- 
plied with  according  to  the  contract.  He  requested  time  to  write 
to  his  principal  about  it.  The  Court  granted  him  a  month's  time 
in  which  to  do  this.  In  due  time,  however,  the  court  ruled  that 
Andriessen  should  make  the  necessary  repairs.^i 

Some  years  later,  Simon  Clasen  Turck  started  a  suit  against 
Andriessen,  of  which  we  shall  let  the  court  minutes  of  New  Am- 
sterdam speak : 

[August  19,  1659].  "Simon  Turck,  pltf.,  vs.  Dirck  van 
Schelluyne  as  att'y  of  Albert  Andriessen,  deft.  Deft,  in  default. 
Symon  Turck  produces  in  Court  in  writing  his  demand  against 
Albert  Andriessen  concluding,  that  the  attachment  on  the  two 
cows  grazing  with  VVolfert  Webber  shall  stand  good  and  have  its 
full  effect,  until  the  said  Albert  Andriessen  shall  have  paid  him 
his  arrears  to  the  amount  of  fl.  2,  sent  to  him  by  Joris  Jans  Ra- 
palje  Ao.  1649,  the  3d  Septr.  in  the  absence  of  Pieter  Cornelis- 
sen,  millwright,  deed.,  not  accounted  for  nor  made  good  by  him." 
The  attachment  on  the  cows  is  declared  valid  by  the  Court.22 

[August  19].  "Dirck  van  Schelluyne  in  quality  as  att'y  for 
Albert  Andriessen  Noorman,  answers  demand  of  Symon  Clasen 
Turck.  The  court  orders  copy  to  be  furnished  to  party  to  an- 
swer thereunto  at  the  next  Court  day."^^ 

[September  2].  "Symon  Clasen  Turck  replies  to  answer  of 
Dirck  van  Schelluyne,  att'y  of  Albert  Andriessen.  Court  orders 
copy  to  be  furnished  to  party  to  rejoin  at  the  next  court  day,"^* 

[September  28].  "Tielman  van  Vleeck  as  att'y  for  Turck 
requests  by  petition,  that  Sybout  Clazen  shall  be  ordered  to  de- 
liver by  the  next  Court  day  his  papers  used  against  the  abovenamed 
Symon  Turck;  also  that  Dirck  van  Schelluyne,  att'y  of  Albert 
Andriessen,  shall  be  ordered  to  rejoin  to  Symon  Turck's  reply. 
Apostille:  Petitioner's  request  is  granted,  and  parties  shall  be 
ordered  to  prosecute  their  suit  by  the  next  court  day."^* 

"On  date  17th  January  1660,  has  Dirck  van  Schelluyne  fur- 
nished me  Secretary  Joannes  Nevius,  his  rejoinder  and  demand  in 
reconvention,  as  attorney  of  Albert  Andriessen  against  Tielman 
van  Vleec,  att'y  of  Symon  Clazen  Turck,  also  rejoinder  of  Abra- 

21  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   326;    II.,   p.    248. 

22  Ibid.,   in.,   p.    24   ff. 

23  Ibid.,   III.,   p.   82. 

24  Ibid.,    III.,   p.   37. 

25  Ibid.,   in.,   p.   67. 


ham  Verplanck  against  ditto  Van  Vleeck  as  substitute  of  Anthony 
Qasen  More:  Whereupon  the  President  of  the  Burgomasters  and 
Schepens  ordered:  Copy  hereof  to  be  furnished  to  party,  and 
parties  are  ordered  to  exchange  their  papers  with  each  other  and 
to  produce  their  deductions  and  principal  intendit  by  inventory 
on  the  next  Court  day." 

On  January  22,  1660,  the  Burgomasters  and  Schepens  dis- 
missed the  "pltfs.  suit  instituted  herein"  and  condemned  him  to 
pay  the  costs  incurred  in  this  suit.^® 

But  a  few  days  later,  on  January  28,  1660,  it  rendered  the 
following  decision :  "Burgomasters  and  Schepens  of  the  City  of 
Amsterdam  in  N :  Netherland  having  considered,  read  and  re- 
read the  vouchers,  documents  and  papers  used  on  both  sides  in 
the  suit  between  Tielman  van  Vleeck  attorney  of  Simon  Clasen 
Turck,  (as  husband  and  guardian  of  Merretje  Pieters,  daughter 
of  the  dec[eas]d  Pieter  Cornelissen,  millwright,  and  his  lawful 
heir,  as  well  for  himself  as  representing  herein  the  orphan  child 
of  Tryntie  Pieters,  deceased  daughter  of  said  Pieter  Cornelissen) 
pltf.  against  Dirck  Van  Schelluyne,  attorney  of  Albert  Andries- 
sen  Noorman,  residing  at  Fort  Orange,  deft,  relative  to  and  con- 
cerning two  hundred  guilders,  which  Symon  Clasen  Turck  is  de- 
manding from  Albert  Andriesen  for  so  much,  that  Albert  An- 
driesen  has  received  from  Jorsey  in  the  absence  of  Pieter  Corne- 
lissen, millwright,  dated  3rd  September,  1649,  gone  to  Virginia 
and  not  computed  by  him  nor  made  good  as  appears  by  contract 
made  between  Albert  Andriessen  and  Symon  Clasen  Turck  by 
the  intermediation  of  —  Corlear  and  Dirck  van  Schelluyne  ac- 
cording to  acte  thereof  executed  before  D:  V.  Hamel,  Secretary 
of  the  Colony  of  Reinselaars  Wyck,  dated  27th  September,  1658; 
and  whereas  the  words  of  the  contract  read  as  follows : —  'Firstly, 
Symon  Turck  shall  collect,  receive,  retain  and  dispose  of  as  his 
own  according  to  his  pleasure,  all  outstanding  debts  receivable, 
wherever  they  be ;  all  effects  and  goods  found  in  the  house  of  the 
deceased  Pieter  Cornelissen,  whether  belonging  to  him  individ- 
ually or  to  his  Company  or  Association;  On  the  other  hand,  Al- 
bert Andriesen  assumes  himself  all  the  debts  payable  where  and 
to  whomsoever  they  may  be,  relating  to  their  partnership. 
whether  these  stand  in  the  name  of  Pieter  Cornelissen  or  his  own 
name,  promising  to  release  Symon  Turck   from   all  claims  relat- 

26  Ibid.,    ni.,   pp.    102,    108. 

28  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

ing  hereunto.'  —  Having  looked  into,  examined  and  weighed 
everything  material.  Burgomasters  and  Schepens  find  it  right, 
that  the  pltf's  demand  be  dismissed,  inasmuch  as  they  find,  that 
the  two  hundred  guilders  were  not  to  be  received,  but  were  paid 
several  years  since  to  Joris  Rapalje,  who  sent  the  same  to  Albert 
Andriesen  Noorman  and  are  accordingly  not  payable  to  the  estate 
of  Pieter  Cornelissen,  but  whenever  Symon  Turck  or  his  attorney 
can  prove  that,  at  the  time  of  the  settlement  of  a^cs  and  writing  of 
the  contract,  Albert  Andriesen  Noorman  notified  Symon  Turck, 
that  he  should  receive  the  fl.  200.,  hereinbefore  in  question,  from 
Sybout  Clasen,  then  Albert  Andriesen  shall  give  and  pay  the  above 
mentioned  fl.  200.,  with  costs,  and  in  default  of  proof  the  pltf.  is 
condemned  in  the  costs  of  the  suit.  Regarding  the  demand  in  re- 
convention about  certain  planks,  no  disposition  can  be  made  therein 
as  the  same  is  moved  according  to  the  Lites  Contestatio.  Thus 
done  and  adjudged  by  the  Burgomaster  and  Schepens  of  the  City 
of  Amsterdam  in  New  Netherland  as  above. 

"Adj.  as  above 

"Martin  Kregier."^^ 
The  court  minutes  under  date  of  June  8,  1660,  regarding  this 
litigation,  state: 

"On  petition  of  Tielman  Van  Vleeck,  attorney  for  Symon 
Clasen  Turck,  wherein  he  requests  that  the  Court  may  not  only 
examine,  but  also  expedite  the  solution  given  by  him  relative  to 
the  fulfillment  of  the  interlocutory  judgment  pronounced  28th 
January  last,  it  is  ordered : — Copy  of  the  solution  shall  be  furnished 
to  party  to  answer  thereunto  at  the  next  Court  day."^* 

And  under  date  of  January  29,  1661,  the  minutes  pertaining 
to  this  case  read:  "On  the  petition  of  Tielman  van  Vleeck,  agent 
of  Symon  Clasen  Turck,  wherein  he  requests,  as  Albert  Andriesen 
Noorman  remains  in  default,  to  answer  the  solution  given  in  to 
Court  on  the  8th  of  June  1660,  that  the  above  named  Albert  An- 
dries(e)n  shall  in  contumacy  be  condemned  to  pay  him  petitioner 
the  computed  two  hundred  guilders  remaining  due  to  him ;  Where- 
upon was  ordered :  The  petitioner  shall  notify  his  party  hereof 
according  to  law."^® 

Albert  Andriessen  was  married  twice.     His    first    wife  died 

27  Tl)id.,    TIL,   pp.    117   ff. 

28  Ibid.,    III.,    p.    168 

29  Ibid.,    III.,    p.    256    f. 


before  June  5,  1662.     His  second  wife,  Pietertie  Jansen,  died  about 
the  beginning  of  1667  in  New  Amsterdam,  leaving    an    insolvent 
estate.     Her  son-in-law  was  Ebert  Benningh.^o 
Albert  Andriessen  died  June  7,  1686.81 

To  show  how  certain  documents  were  drafted  in  the  days  of 
our  pioneers,  we  append  the  following  exhibits,  in  which  Albert 
Andriessen   is  one  of  the  parties. 

"In  the  name  of  the  Lord,  Amen.  On  conditions  hereafter 
specified,  we,  Pieter  Cornelissen  van  munnickendam,  millwright, 
43  years  of  age,  Claesz  jans  van  naerden,  33  years  of  age,  house 
carpenter,  and  albert  andriessen  van  fredrickstadt,  29  years  of 
age,  tobacco  planter,  have  agreed  among  ourselves,  first,  to  sail 
in  God's  name  to  New  Netherland  in  the  small  vessel  which  now 
lies  ready  and  to  betake  ourselves  to  the  colony  of  Rensselaers- 
wyck  for  the  purpose  of  settling  there  on  the  following  conditions 
made  with  Mr.  Kiliaen  Van  Rensselaer,  as  patroon  of  the  said 
colony,  etc. 

"Thus  done  and  passed,  in  good  faith,  under  pledge  of  our 
persons  and  property  subject  to  all  courts  and  justices  for  the  ful- 
fillment of  what  is  aforewritten,  at  Amsterdam,  this  26th  of 
August   [1636]. 

*In  witness  whereof  we  have  signed  these  with  our  own  hands 
in  the  presence  of  the  undersigned  notary  public  .... 
"Kiliaen  Van  Rensselaer 

"Pieter  Cornelissen 
"albert   andriessen    .    ,    . 
"Claes  jansen. 
"J.  Vande  Ven,  Notary."82 

"Appeared  before  me  Robert  Livingston,  secretary  etc.,  and 
in  presence  of  the  honorable  Messieurs  Philip  Schuyler  and  Dirck 
Wessells,  commisaries  etc.,  Albert  Andriese  Bratt,  who  acknowledged 

30  Ibid.,  VI.,  pp.  56  ff.  Mr.  A.  T.  F.  van  Laer  says  he  married  Geertmy 
Pieters    Vosburgh,    Van    Rensselaer    Bowler    Manuscripts,    p.    810. 

31  Jonathan    Pearson,    A    History    of    the    Schenectady    Patent,     1883,    p.    93. 

32  Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manuscripts,  p.  676  ff.  In  reproducing  trnnslations 
of  originals  we  retain  the  phonetic  orthography,  the  use  of  small  letters  instead  of 
capitals,  and  other  peculiarities  that  fall  short  of  the  demands  of  the  ordinary  school 
"Rhetoric."  ■ —  Claes  Jansen  Ruyter  failed  to  accompany  his  partners  in  the  "Rens- 
selaerswyck"  in  1636.  He  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  by  "den  Harinck"  on 
March  28,  1638.  This  late  arrival  may  have  been  the  reason  for  Andriessen's 
dissolving  partnership  in  the  mill  company. 

:^0  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN   NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

that  he  is  well  and  truly  indebted  and  in  arrears  to  Mr.  Nicolaus 
Van  Renselaer,  director  of  colony  of  Renselaerswyck,  in  the  sum 
of  3,956  guilders,  as  appears  by  the  books  of  the  colony  of  Rense- 
laerswyck, growing  out  of  the  part  rent  for  the  mill  and  land; 
which  aforesaid  3,956  guilders  the  mortgagor,  to  the  aforenamed 
Mr.  Director  or  to  his  successors,  promise  to  pay,  provided  that 
whatever  he,  the  mortgagor  shall  make  appear  to  have  been  paid 
thereon  shall  be  deducted :  pledging  therefor,  specially,  the  produce 
of  his  orchard,  standing  behind  the  house  which  the  mortgagor  now 
possesses,  from  which  produce  of  the  orchard  he  promises  to  pay 
in  rent  during  life  twenty  guilders  in  patroon's  money  in  apples, 
and  generally  pledging  his  person  and  estate,  personal  and  real, 
present  and  future,  nothing  excepted ;  submitting  the  same  to  the 
force  of  all  laws  and  judges  to  promote  the  payment  thereof  in 
due  time,  if  need  be,  without  loss  or  cost. 

"Done  in  Albany,  without  craft  or  guile,  on  the  30th  of  Octo- 
ber, 1677. 

"Aalbert  Andriess  Brat. 

"Philip  Schuyler. 

"Dirck  Wessels. 

"Acknowledged  before  me, 

"Robt.  Livingstone,  Secr."^^ 


Eva  Albertse  [Andriessen]  was  the  daughter  of  Albert  An- 
driessen  of  Fredrikstad,  Norway.  She  arrived,  in  company  with 
her  parents  and  two  brothers,  one  of  whom  was  born  on  the  sea, 
at  New  Amsterdam,  March  4,  1637.  She  lived  with  them  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  present  Albany,  where  she  in  October,  1647,  was 
married  to  Antony  de  Hooges,  one  of  the  leading  men  in  the  colony 
of  Rensselaerswyck.     He  was  a  widower  with  several  children. 

After  his  death  she  was  married  August  13,  1657,  to  Roeloif 
Swartwout  who  became  sheriff  of  the  present  county  of  Ulster, 
New  York. 

A  concise  record  of  the  occupation  of  Eva's  first  husband  in 

33  Early  Records  of  the  City  and  County  of  Albany  and  Colony  of  Rens 
selaergwyck  165(5 — 1675.  Translated  from  the  original  Dutch,  with  notes.  By 
Jonathan   Pearson,    1969,   p.    165. 


the   colony   of    Rensselaerswyck    is   given   in    the    Van    Rensselaer 
Bowier  Manuscripts,  which  state : 

Antony  de  Hooges  was  engaged  as  underbookkeeper  and  as- 
sistant to  Arent  van  Curler,  and  sailed  from  the  Texel  by  den 
Conick  David,  July  30,  1641.  He  reached  New  Amsterdam  Nov. 
29,  1641,  but  apparently  did  not  arrive  in  the  colony  (Albany  and 
vicinity)  till  April  10,  1642,  being  credited  from  that  date  till  April 
10,  1644,  with  a  salary  of  f.  150  a  year.  From  van  Curler's  de- 
parture for  Holland,  in  Oct.,  1644,  till  van  Schlichtenhorst's  arrival 
on  March  22,  1648,  he  was  entrusted  with  the  business  manage- 
ment of  the  colony;  from  the  latter  date  till  his  death,  on  or  about 
Oct.  11,  1655,  he  held  the  office  of  secretary  and  gecommitteerde. 
In  the  accounts,  he  is  credited,  from  May  11,  1652,  to  Oct.  11,  1655, 
with  a  salary  of  f.  360  a  year  as  secretary,  and  for  the  same  period 
with  a  salary  of  f.  100  as  gecommitteerde,  also  with  f.  56  for 
salary  as  voorleser  (reader  in  the  church)  during  two  months  and 
one  week  in  1653. 

As  our  book  contains  a  facsimile  of  the  log  registering  the  birth 
of  Eva's  brother,  Storm,  so  it  reproduces  a  facsimile  of  an  order 
in  regard  to  the  transport  of  her  first  husband. 

The  translation  of  this  Order  of  the  West  India  Company  to 
Job  Arisz,  skipper  of  den  Conick  David,  to  transport  Antony  de 
Hooges  and  other,  July  10,  1641,  is,  according  to  the  version  in 
"Bowier  Manuscripts"  as  follows  (The  written  parts  of  the  manu- 
script are  printed  in  italics)  : 

"The  directors  of  the  West  India  Company,  Chamber  of  Am- 
sterdam order  and  direct  Job  Arissen,  skipper  of  the  ship  named 
d'  Co.  David  to  transport  in  said  ship  under  his  command  and  to 
permit  to  sleep  and  eat  in  the  cabin  the  person  of  Anthony  de 
Hogus  in  the  service  of  Mr  renselaer  and  Johan  V^heeck  with 
his  wife  and  daughter  and  maid  servant,  and  Geertgen  nanninx, 
with  son  and  little  daughter,  provided  he  bring  with  [him]  a 
musket  or  firelock  and  sword  of  [his]  own,  with  his  accompanying 
baggage  specified  below  and  marked  with  the  mark  of  the  Com- 
pany; and  for  transporting  these  the  skipper  shall  upon  [declara- 
tion] signed  by  said  Anthony  de  Hogus,  be  paid  for  board  —  stivers 
a  day,  according  to  the  amount  agreed  upon  tvith  Mr  ren^  for 
board  of  his  colonists.    Done  at  Amsterdam,  the  loth  of  July  1641. 

"[signed]  Fred^:  Schtdenb^: 
"6".  blomaert 

32  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

"I  went  on  board  the  2^rd  day  of  the  month  of  July 

and  left  the  ship  the  day  of  the  month  of 

Done  at  the 

"The  above  named  having  with  them  four  chests  large  and 
small  containing  their  apparel,  clothes,  linen  and  other  effects, 
further  some  furniture  and  miscellaneous  articles,  shall  pay  upon 
arrival  for  freight  twenty-eight  guilders,  I  say,  must  pay  for  freight 
f28:       Done  at  Amsterdam  this  igth  of  July  1641. 

"[signed]  /;  Eincklaen 

"For   Anthonij   de   hooges   _ f     8 

For  Jehan  Verbeeck,  his  wife,  child  and  maidservant  _.  f  10 

For  Gurtgen  Nanninx  and  two  children  _ f  10 

f  28 
"[Endorsed]     Renselaer" 

To  this  interesting  document  we  shall  append  a  copy  of  the 
marriage  contract  between  Eva  and  her  second  husband  Roeloff 

"In  the  name  of  the  Lord,  Amen,  be  it  known  by  the  contents 
of  this  present  instrument,  that  in  the  year  1657,  on  the  loth  day 
of  the  month  of  August,  appeared  before  me  Johannes  La  Mon- 
tagne,  in  the  service  of  the  General  Privileged  West  India  Com- 
pany, deputy  at  Fort  Orange  and  village  of  Beverwyck,  RoeloiF 
Swartwout,  in  the  presence  of  his  father,  Tomas  Swartwout,  on 
the  .  .  .,  and  Eva  Albertsen  (Bratt),  widow  of  the  late  Antony  De 
Hooges,  in  the  presence  of  Albert  Andriessen  (Bratt),  her  father 
of  the  other  side,  who  in  the  following  manner  have  covenanted 
this  marriage  contract,  to  wit,  that  for  the  honor  of  God  the  said 
Roeloff  Swartwout  and  Eva  Albertsen  after  the  manner  of  the 
Reformed  religion  respectively  held  by  them  shall  marry ;  secondly, 
that  the  said  married  people  shall  contribute  and  bring  together  all 
their  estates,  personal  and  real,  of  whatsoever  nature  they  may  be, 
to  be  used  by  them  in  common,  according  to  the  custom  of  Hol- 
land, except  that  the  bride,  Eva  Albertse,  in  presence  of  the  or- 
phanmasters,  recently  chosen,  to  wit,  Honorable  Jan  Verbeeck  and 
Evert  Wendels,  reserves  for  her  a  hundred  guilders,  to  wit,  for 
Maricken,  Anneken,  Catrina,  Johannes,  and  Eleonora  De  Hooges, 
for  which  sum  of  one  hundred  guilders  for  each  child  respectively 
(she)    mortgages  her  house  and  lot,  lying  here   in  the  village  of 

E  Bewintlichberca  vande  Wcil-incl;- 








ORDER   OF   THE  WEST   INDIA   COMPANY   TO   JOB    ARISZ.   skipper   of   den    Coiiinck 

David,    to   transport   Antony   de   Hooges   and    others,    July    10,    l(i41. 

From    Van    Rensselaer    Bowier    Manuscripts.    1908. 

(About    one-half    of    original    size.) 


Bevenvyck;  it  was  also  covenanted,  by  these  presents,  by  the 
mutual  consent  of  the  aforewritten  married  people,  that  Barent 
Albertse  (Bratt)  and  Teunis  Slingerland,  brother  and  brother-in- 
law  of  the  said  Eva  Albertse,  and  uncle  of  said  children,  should 
be  guardians  of  said  children,  to  which  the  aforesaid  orphanmasters 
have  consented ;  which  above  written  contract  the  respective  parties 
promise  to  hold  good,  on  pledge  of  their  persons  and  estates, 
personal  and  real,  present  and  future,  the  same  submitting  to  all 
laws  and  judges. 

"Done  in  Fort  Orange,  ut  supra,  in  presence  of  Pieter  Jacob- 
,sen  and  Johannes  Provost,  witnesses,  for  that  purpose  called. 

"Roeloff  Swartwout. 
"This  is  the  mark  of     -|-     Eva  Albertse. 

Thomas   Swartwout. 

Albert  Andriessen. 

Jan  Verbeeck. 

Evert  Wendel. 

Teunis  Cornelissen. 
"Johannes  Provoost,  witness 
"This  is  the  mark  of  -{-  Pieter  Jacobsen. 

"Acknowledged  before  me, 

"La  Montague,  Deputy  at  Fort  Orange."  3* 

//.-^'^i^    fUay^lju^t^c 

Signature  of   Roelof   Swartwout,    husband   of   Eva   Albertse. 


Arent  Andriessen  was  a  brother  of  Albert  Andriessen,  and, 
like  him,  a  tobacco  planter.  He  was  from  Fredrikstad,  Norway. 
He  appears  to  have  come  over  with  his  brother  on  the  "Rensselaers- 
wyck,"  which  sailed  from  Texel,  October  8,  1636,  and  arrived  at 
New  Amsterdam,  March  4,   1637.     He  also  appears  to  have  re- 

84   Ibid.,    p.    50. 

34  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS   IN   NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

mained  with  his  brother  in  the  colony  for  one  year.  His  wages  — 
fl.  75  a  year  —  began  April  2,  1637.  However,  he  soon  acquired 
a  plantation  of  his  own. 

The  tobacco  he  raised  on  his  own  farm  was  "extraordinary," 
judged  from  the  sample  he  had  sent  to  Kiliaen  Van  Rensselaer, 
the  patroon  whom  he  served,  but  it  had  "a  strange  aftertaste." 
The  patroon  wrote  in  1640  that  he  was  willing  to  grant  him  a  plan- 
tation on  the  basis  of  that  of  1639,  but  not  at  all  to  share  ex- 

Between  1638  and  1646  Arent  Andriessen  is  various  times 
credited  with  tobacco  furnished  to  the  superintendent  van  Curler 
and  Anthony  de  Hooges. 

On  April  23,  1652,  he  got  a  lot  in  Bewerwyck,  and  on  May 
1,  1658,  he  obtained  a  lease  from  Jan  Baptiste  van  Rensselaer  on 
all  the  tilled  land  on  the  island  opposite  the  center  of  the  village 
of  Bewerwyck,  that  is  opposite  the  fort,  apparently  what  is  known 
as  Boston  or  Van  Rensselaer  Island ;  also  on  all  the  land  which  he 
could  further  obtain  from  the  natives,  with  the  exception  of  the 
land  already  cultivated  by  van  Rensselaer.  The  rent  should  be 
100  guilders  a  year  besides  tithes  and  two  fowls  as  "toepacht," 
to  be  paid  in  good  wheat  and  oats  at  four  guilders  a  "mudde."  If 
the  lessee  should  be  prevented  from  using  the  land  by  the  savages 
or  otherwise,  he  should  be  free  from  the  obligation  of  the  lease  and 
pay  for  such  a  period  as  he  did  not  have  the  use  of  said  land.  The 
lease  was  to  expire  May  1,  1662.^^ 

Arent  was  one  of  the  first  white  men  to  settle  Schenectady,  a 
portion  of  the  Mohawk  valley,  which  is  sixteen  miles  long  and 
eight  miles  wide.  Here  he  became  a  proprietor,  but  died  soon 
afterward  leaving  a  widow  and  six  children.  His  wife  was 
Catalyntje,  daughter  of  Andries  De  Vos,  deputy  director  of  Rens- 
selaerwyck.-''^  After  the  death  of  her  husband,  the  grants  of  land 
allotted  to  him  were  confirmed  to  her.  The  children  Arent  An- 
driessen had  by  her  were  :Jesie(Aeffie),Ariantje, Andries, Cornelia, 
Samuel,  Dirk.  Their  ages  at  the  father's  death  were  13.  11,  9,  7, 
3,  1  years,  respectively. 

In  1664  his  widow  was  married  to  Barent  Jansen  Van  Dit- 
mars.     Her  ante-nuptial  contract  with  the  "orphan  masters,"   for 

35  Van    Rensselaer   Bowier    Manuscripts,    p.   513. 

36  Ibid.,    p.    758. 

37  February  27.  1656,  Arent  and  his  father-in-law,  Andries  de  Vos,  were 
appointed  curators  of  the  estate  of  Cornelia  Vedos,  wife  of  Chris.  Davids,  at  Port 
Orange.  See:  Calendar  of  N.  Y.  Historical  Manuscripts  in  the  Office  of  the  Secre- 
tary of  State.  Edited  by  E.  B.  O'Callaerhan,  p.  312.  Jonathan  Pearson,  A  His- 
tory  of  the  Schenectady   Patent,    1883,   p.   93. 


the  protection  of  the  interests  of  her  infant  children,  bears  the 
date  of  November  12,  1664.  It  binds  her  to  pay  to  them  their 
patrimonial  estate  of  1,000  guilders  at  their  majority,  and  mort- 
gages her  land  at  Schenectady  to  secure  the  payment  of  the  same. 
Her  second  husband  was  killed  in  the  French  and  Indian 
massacre,  February  9,  1690,  when  the  town  of  Schenectady  was 
completely  destroyed  by  the  Indians.  She  was  married  for  the 
third  time,  1691,  to  Claas  Janse  Van  Boekhoven.  By  their  ante- 
nuptial contract,  made  February  27,  1691,  they  agreed  that  on  the 
death  of  both,  their  property  should  go  to  their  children. ^^  Boek- 
,hoven  died  1707,  she  in  1712. 

The  real  estate  in  Schenectady  belonging  to  her  amounted  to 
the  sum  of  £976  12s.  6d,  current  money  of  the  Province,  and  that 
of  Boekhoven  in  Niskayuna  and  Albany,  to  the  sum  of  £700. 

Her  home  lot,  says  Pearson,  was  the  west  quarter  of  the  block 
bounded  by  Washington,  State,  and  Church  streets,  being  about 
200  feet  square.  Her  grandson  Capt.  Arent  Bratt  sold  in  1723 
the  corner  parcel  to  Hendrick  Vrooman,  but  it  soon  returned  to 
the  family,  and  was  again  sold  by  Arent  J.  Bratt,  in  1769,  to  James 
Shutter.  The  remainder  of  this  lot  remained  in  the  family  until 
the  beginning  of  last  century,  when  it  was  sold  to  Robert  Baker 
and  Isaac  De  Graaf.  "The  ancient  brick  house  standing  on  this 
lot,  one  of  the  few  specimens  of  Dutch  architecture  remaining 
in  the  city,  was  probably  built  by  Capt.  Arent  Bratt." 

The  eldest  son  of  Arent  Andriessen  was  Andries  Arentsen. 
He  had  a  brewery.  He  was  living  not  far  from  his  mother's  house 
in  1690,  when  he,  with  one  of  his  children,  was  slain  in  the  French- 
Indian  massacre.  His  wife  Margarita,  daughter  of  Jacques  Cor- 
nelise  Van  Slyck,  and  his  son  Arent  and  daughter  Batsheba  were 
spared.  It  was  this  son,  Arent,  who  became  known  as  Capt.  Arent 
Bratt;  who  was  made  trustee  of  the  common  lands  in  1714  and 
continued  in  office  until  1765,  being  for  the  last  fifteen  years  of  his 
life  sole  trustee;  who  in  1745  represented  the  county  of  Albany 
in  the  Provincial  Assembly ;  and  who  was  the  father  of  Capt.  An- 
dries, Johannes,  and  Harmanus,  well-to-do  men.  Tradition  says 
Harmanus  was  the  wealtiest  man  of  the  town. 

The  second  son  of  Arent  Andriessen  was  Samuel,  who  mar- 

38  Ibid.,  p.  94. 

36  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS   IN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

ried  Susanna,  daughter  of  Jacques  Cornelise  Van  Slyck.  He  died 
about  1713,  leaving  five  sons. 

The  third  son  of  Arent  Andriessen,  Dirk,  married  Maritjc. 
daughter  of  Jan  Baptist  Van  Eps.     He  died  in  1735. 

Of  Arent's  daughters,  Aeffie  married  John  Claas  van  Pelten ; 
Ariantje  married  first,  Helmar  Otten,  a  baker  in  Beverwyck ; 
secondly,  Ryder  Schermerhorn ;  Cornelia  married  Jan  Putnam 
(Postman),  supposed  to  be  the  first  of  the  Putnam  family  to 
have  emigrated  to  America.  Putnam  was  born  in  Holland  about 
1645.  A  descendant  of  Jan  and  Cornelia  Putnam  married  into  the 
Van  Burens  ("Peckham,  History  of  .  .  .  Van  Buren  .  .  ."  p.  297  f.) 

In  connection  with  Ariantje's  first  marriage  the  records  state 
that  it  was  strenuously  objected  to  by  Rev.  Jacob  Fabritius,  a 
Lutheran  minister  from  Silesia,  who  came  to  serve  the  Lutheran 
church  in  New  York.  He  arrived  to  this  country  in  Februar}'. 
1669.  In  April  he  had  a  pass  to  go  to  Albany.  While  there  he 
behaved  ill,  opposed  the  magistrates  and  imposed  a  fine  of  1000 
rix-dollars  on  the  person  of  Helmar  Otten  (of  Issens)  for  comply- 
ing with  the  magistrates  in  the  consummation  of  the  marriage 
with  "Adriantje  Arentz,  his  wife  according  to  the  law  of  the  land." 
On  this  offense,  one  of  many  similar  ones  committed  by  this  over- 
zealous  preacher.  Gov.  Lovlace  ordered  him  to  be  suspended  from 
his  ministerial  functions  at  Albany  until  his  friends  interceded  in 
his  behalf.  (See  Hazzard's  Annals,  p.  373.)  Otten  lived  in  Be- 
verwyck from  1663  to  1676. 

As  to  further  details  the  reader  may  consult  Jonathan  Pear- 
son, "A  History  of  the  Schenectady  Patent,"  from  which  several 
verbatim  quotations  have  been  made  in  preparing  this  sketch. 


Laurens  Andriessen,  often  called  Laurens  Noorman,  was  a  na- 
tive of  Norway.  Nothing  is  known  as  to  the  time  he  immigrated 
to  New  Netherland.  He  served  for  some  time  as  a  soldier  in  the 
war  against  the  Indians.  He  is  first  mentioned  in  the  beginning 
of  1644. 

In  the  Records  of  the  Reformed  Dutch  Church  in  New  Am- 
sterdam he  appears  as  a  sponsor,  February  22,  1644,  at  the  baptism 


of  the  son  of  a  Charles  Andries.*"  The  Record  calls  him  "Laurensz 
Andrieszen,  Van  Noordwegen"   [from  Norway]. 

Sponsorship  was  not  taken  seriously  in  those  days.  Laurens 
Andriessen  is  a  proof  of  that.  He  and  Cornelius  Pietersen  were 
prosecuted  September  29,  1644,  by  the  fiscal  in  New  Amsterdam, 
for  breach  of  peace  on  a  Sunday  and  for  wounding  a  certain 
Richard  Pinoyer.  They  were  condemned  to  pay  a  fine  of  150 
guilders,  and  to  ride  the  wooden  horse  during  the  parade,  and  to 
be  conveyed  thence  to  prison,  or  else  to  go  immediately  on  ship- 
board and  not  return  on  shore,  on   forfeiture  of   their  wages.*^ 

Laurens  seems  to  have  been  a  sailor  in  service  of  the  West 
India  Company.  Prior  to  his  sponsorship  he  had  taken  part  in  the 
war  against  the  Indians.  He  was  wounded  in  this  war.  His 
comrade,  John  Haes,  taking  advantage  of  his  helpless  condition, 
pulled  off  the  shoes  of  Laurens  and  sold  them  for  three  guilders, 
in  order  to  buy  whisky.  Haes,  who  had  also  stolen  a  gun  and 
shot  a  hog  not  belonging  to  him,  was  therefore  tried  for  mischief- 
making.  The  fiscal,  however,  pardoned  him  on  February  1,  1644, 
in  consideration  of  his  having  served  as  soldier  "in  the  present  com- 
pany, on  condition  that  he  give  security  for  the  damage  he  com- 
mitted, and  for  future  good  behavior ;  should  he  again  be  guilty 
of  similar  crimes,  he  shall  then  be  'hanged  without  mercy'."  *^ 

Laurens  Andriessen  was  one  of  the  signers  of  the  petition  of 
the  Lutherans  in  New  Amsterdam  sent  to  the  Director  and  Council 
of  New  Netherland,  requesting  that  the  order  of  the  government 
to  send  the  lately  arrived  Lutheran  pastor  Johannis  Ernestus  Goet- 
water  back  to  Europe  be  revoked. 

The  petition  reads  as  follows :  *2 

To  the  Noble  Honorable  Director-General,  and  the  Council  of  New 
Netherland : — 

With  all  due  respect,  we,  the  adherents  of  the  Unaltered 
Augsburg  Confession,  here  in  New  Netherland,  and  under  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  Lords  Principals  of  the  West  India  Company, 
hereby  show,  that  the  Burgomasters  of  this  City  of  Amsterdam  in 

39  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    II., 
p.   16. 

40  Calendar    of    Historical    Manuscripts.     Edited    by    E.    B.    O'Callaghan,    I., 
p.  91. 

41  Ibid.,  I.,  p.  87. 

42  Ecclesiastical   Records  of  the   State  of  New  York.     Published  by  the   State 
under  the  supervision   of  Hugh  Hastings,    1901.  I.,   p.   405f. 

38  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS   IN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

New  Netherland,  have  received  an  order  from  your  Honors,  first, 
by  the  City  Messenger  Gysbert  op  Dyck,  and  shortly  after  by  the 
Honorable  Fiscal,  Nicasius  de  Sille,  to  the  Rev.  Master  in  Theo- 
logy, Johannis  Ernestus  Goetwater,  that  he  must  and  shall  depart 
in  the  ship,  the  'Waag',  now  ready  to  sail.  Wherefore,  in  paying 
our  respects  to  your  Honors,  we  beg  to  say  that  in  accordance  with 
your  Honors'  orders  and  public  announcements  he  has  behaved  as 
an  honest  man,  and  has  never  refused  obedience  to  your  orders  and 
edicts,  but  has  always  given  good  heed  to  them ;  and  we,  too,  hav 
behaved  quietly  and  obediently,  while  we  expect  from  higher 
authority,  the  toleration  of  our  religion  —  that  of  the  Unaltered 
Augsburg  Confession.  To  this  result  we  still  look  forward  after 
the  receipt  of  another  letter  to  us. 

We  humbly  supplicate  your  Honors,  that  the  sudden  orders, 
the  one  by  the  City  Messenger,  and  the  other  by  the  Fiscal,  to 
Domine  Johannis  Ernestus  Goetwater,  may  be  revoked  by  your 
Honors,  until  we  receive  further  orders  from  their  High  Mighti 
nesses,  our  sovereigns,  and  from  the  Noble  Lord  Directors  of 
the  Privileged  West  India  Company.  Remaining  your  Honors 
faithful  and  watchful  (servants)  and  good  Christians,  all  adherents 
of  the  Unaltered  Augsburg  Confession,  and  having  been  admitted 
into  New  Netherland,  we,  in  the  absence  of  the  others,  have  signed 
this  petition. 

Mattheus  Capito, 
Christian  Niesen, 
Harmen  Eduwarsen, 
Hans  Dreper, 
Lourens  Andriesen 
Luycas  Dircksen, 
XX  Jan  Jansen 
XX  Jochem  Beeckman, 
Andries  Rees, 
Luycas  Eldersen, 
Harmen  Jansen, 
Jan  Cornelisse, 
Davidt  Wessels, 
Hans  Sillejavck, 
Hendrick  Hendricksen, 
XX  Meyndert  Barentsen, 
Harmen  Smeeman, 


Christian  Barentsen, 
George  Hanel, 
Pieter  Jansen, 
XX  Winckelhoeck, 
Claes  de  Witt, 
XX  Jacob  Elders, 
Hendrick  Willemse. 

We  await  your  Honors'  favorable  decision.  Amsterdam,  in 
New  Netherland,  this  10th  day  of  October,  Anno  1657. 

Laurens  Andriessen  must  have  been  quite  interested  in  having 
a  Lutheran  minister  in  New  Amsterdam.  In  a  letter  of  the  two 
Dutch  Reformed  ministers  in  New  Amsterdam,  Johannes  Mega- 
polensis  and  Samuel  Drisius,  dated  August  23,  1658  and  addressed 
to  the  Director-General  and  the  Council  of  New  Netherland,  it  is 
stated  that  "Laurence  Noorman"  had  acted  sponsor  at  a  baptism 
of  a  child  of  Lutheran  parents,  on  August  18,  1656,  and  that  this 
Laurence  was  the  person  believed  to  have  been  "the  host  who  con- 
cealed John  Gutwasser,  the  Lutheran  minister  last  winter." 

For  keeping  the  minister,  Laurens  Andriessen  received  six 
guilders  a  week  ($2.40). *3 

Rev.  Goetwater,  it  seems,  was  law-abiding.  No  one  will 
censure  him  for  having  ignored  the  unjust  command  of  Stuyve- 
sant,  who  in  this  matter  acted  as  a  summus  episcopus  of,  not  a 
state  religion,  but  a  company  (West  Indian)  religion.     The  minister 

43  Ibid.,  I.,  pp.  430.  433.  September  24,  1658,  the  pastors  in  New  Amster 
dam  wrote  to  the  Classis  of  Amsterdam:  "Your  letter  of  May  26th  last  (1658), 
came  safely  to  hand.  We  obsere  your  diligence  to  promote  the  interests  of  the 
church  of  Jesus  Christ  in  this  province,  that  confusion  may  be  prevented,  and  thai 
the  delightful  harmony  which  has  hitherto  existed  among  us  here,  may  continue.  .  .  . 
We  learn  that  one  of  the  English  towns,  through  lack  of  a  Presbyterian  minister, 
is  already  engaged  in  seeking  an  Independent  from  (New)  England.  The  raving 
Quakers  have  not  settled  down,  but  continue  to  disturb  the  people  of  the  province 
by  their  wandering  and  outcries.  For  although  our  government  has  issued  orders 
against  these  fanatics,  nevertheless  they  do  not  fail  to  pour  forth  their  venom. 
There  is  but  one  place  in  New  England  where  they  are  tolerated,  and  that  is  Rhode 
Island,  which  is  the  caeca  latrina  of  New  England.  Thence  they  swarm  to  and  fro 
sowing  their  tares.  The  matter  of  the  Lutherans  remains  still  in  a  very  obscure 
condition.  Last  year  the  Lutheran  pastor  was  directed  to  return  by  ship  to  Hol- 
land. Instead  of  this  he  went  out  of  the  city  and  concealed  himself  with  a  Lutheran 
fanner  during  the  whole  winter,  where  they  supported  him  at  the  rate  of  six  guilders 
per  week.  On  the  4th  of  August  last,  when  we  celebrated  the  Lord's  Supper,  they 
made  a  collection  among  themselves  for  him.  The  Fiscal  was  again  directed  to  ar- 
rest him,  and  compel  him  to  leave  by  one  of  the  earliest  ships.  In  the  meantime 
the  Lutherans  came  and  represented  to  the  Director-General  that  their  preaclier  was 
sick  at  the  farmer's,  and  besought  the  privilege  of  bringing  him  within  the  place 
for  treatment.  This  was  granted  him.  The  Fiscal  was  at  the  same  time  empowered 
to  watch  over  him,  and  when  well  again,  to  send  him  to  Holland.  Whether,  on  hjs 
recovery,  he  will  return  or  conceal  himself  again,  time  must  show.  We  fear  it  js 
a  Btrategem  to  hold  the  matter  in  suspense,  and  gain  more  time.  We  suspect  this 
the  more,  as  they  have  said  that  they  will  make  us  appear  in  an  unfavorable  light 
before  the  Hon.  Directors  of  the  West  India  Company.   ..." 

PART    OF    NEW    YOKK    CITY,*     1673.      Lenox    Library.    New    York    City. 

THE   LUTHEIIAN   CHURCH   IN   NEW  YORK   CITY.      Lenox   Library.   New   York  City. 

•  The  second  view  ib  an  enlargement  of  u  part  of  the  first.  "L, "  in  the 
first,  shows  where  the  templnm  Lutheranorum,  'temple  of  the  Lutherans,"  stood. 
It  is  seen  in  the  center  of  the  second  view. 

BAGGE.  41 

had  been  sent  to  New  Amsterdam  by  the  Lutheran  Consistory  in 
Amsterdam.  He  had  been  called  by  the  Lutherans  in  New  Am- 

From  the  baptismal  records  we  learn  that  Laurens  had  been 
sponsor  August  18,  1656,  for  Hendrick,  the  son  of  Jan  Hendrick- 
szen  and  Grities  Barents,  who  in  1663  are  registered  as  being  from 

It  is  probable  that  Laurens  Andriessen  was  sponsor  also  at 
the  baptism  of  a  child  of  Lubbert  Gerritszen,  March  16,  1653, 
though  another,  Laurens  Pietersen  Norman,  may  be  the  person 
meant  in  the  records,  which  simply  give  the  name  Laurence  de 

As  to  the  further  doings  of  Laurens  Andriessen,  the  sources 
give  no  information.  The  above  mentioned  Dutch  reformed 
pastors  claim  that  the  signers  of  the  Lutheran  petition  of  1657 
"were  the  least  respectable  of  the  Lutheran  denominations,"  and 
that  "the  most  influential  among  them  were  unwilling  to  trouble 
themselves  with  it."  There  were,  it  is  true,  many  Lutherans  in 
New  Amsterdam,  who  did  not  sign  the  petition.  But  the  reason 
assigned  by  Megapolensis  and  Drisius  may  be  questioned.  It  is 
a  fact,  however,  that  some  of  the  signers  were  not  model  church- 


Bernt  Bagge  (Bent  Bagge,  Bert  Bagge)  was,  judging  from  the 
^name,  a  Norwegian.  His  surname  was  likely  Bakke.  He  was  in 
Beverwyck   as   early  as   1664,   when  he   with   seven   others   signed 

44  Compare  note  42  with  the  New  York  Genealogical  and  Biographical  Record, 
VI.,   p.   41. 

4.5  Rev.  Isaac  Jogues,  who  was  in  New  Netherland  from  August,  1642.  to 
November,  1643.  said:  "No  religion  is  publicly  exercised  but  the  Calvinist,  and 
orders  are  to  admit  none  but  Calvinists.  but  this  is  not  observed,  for  there  are,  be- 
sides   Calvinists,    in    the    colony    Catholics,    English    Puritans,    Lutherans,    Anabaptists. 

W.  H.  Bennett.  "Catholic  Footsteps  in  Old  New  York,"  p.  33f,  relates  this 
incident  of  Rev.  Jogues  in  New  Amsterdam:  "As  he  (Jogues)  was  leaving  the  fort 
one  day.  a  young  man,  employed  by  a  merchant  of  the  town,  ran  to  him,  fell  on  his 
knees,  seized  the  mutilated  hands,  kissed  them,  and  with  tears  streaming  from  his 
eyes,  cried,  'Martyr  of  Jesus  Christ  I  Martyr  of  Jesus  Christ  1'  The  humble  priest, 
confused  and  embarassed  by  the  demonstration,  embraced  him  affectionately,  and, 
inquiring  if  he  was  a  Calvinist,  was  told  that  he  was  a  Polisli  Lutheran."  (July, 
1643).  (See  also  "Relation  de  Nouvelle  France  en  I'Annee  1643"  in  Relations  des 
Jesuites   .   .  Quebec,    1852.) 

There  were  Lutherans  in  Brazil,  as  early  as  in  the  sixteenth  century.  Quite 
a  number  were  i  Curacao  in  1648.  They  were  in  New  Netherland  as  early  as  1630, 
or  a  little  before.  In  New  Sweden,  or  Delaware,  the  first  Lutherans  (Swedes  and 
Finns),    settled   as    early    as    1639-1640. 

42  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGEANTS   IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

a  petition  to  the  Vice-Director  and  Commisaries  of  Fort  Orange 
and  the  village  of  Beverwyck.     The  petition  reads : 

"Show  respectfully  the  undersigned  petitioners,  burghers  and 
inhabitants  of  the  village  of  Beverwyck,  that  they  are  desirous  of 
purchasing  [of  the  Indians]  a  fine  piece  of  land  between  Kinder- 
hook  and  Neutenhook.  Whereas  the  petitioners  can  no  longer 
make  a  living  here  in  the  village,  they  are  obliged  to  settle  with 
their  families  in  the  country,  to  gain  their  bread  with  God's  help, 
and  honorably.  The  petitioners  know  well  that  they  cannot  do 
this  without  your  Honors'  order  and  consent,  and  therefore  they 
request  most  earnestly  that  your  Honors  will  give  them  permission 
to  purchase  the  land  while  they  promise  to  be  governed  by  the 
usages  of  the  country  like  other  inhabitants.  Awaiting  hereupon 
a  speedy  and  favorable  answer  they  remain"  etc. 

Bagge  signed  his  name  with  a  mark. 


Signature   of   Bernt   Bagge. 

On  June  24,  1664,  the  Court  of  Beverwyck  referred  the  peti- 
tion to  the  Director  and  Council  of  New  Netherland  "to  dispose 
thereof  according  to  their  pleasure."  This  body  granted  the  peti- 
tion, July  10,  1664. 

In  1669,  Bagge  was  living  in  Schenectady,  where  he  had  a 
house  and  lot.  July  12,  1669  he  let  this  house  and  lot  to  Jan 
Rinckhout,  a  baker,  for  one  year.  The  rent  was  to  be  "nine  good 

In  1701  Bernt  Bagge's  name  is  found  on  a  list  of  freeholders 
and  inhabitants  of  the  County  of  Albany  who,  as  Protestants,  pe- 
titioned King  William  III  for  certain  rights.  (See  New  York 
Colonial  Documents  XIII.,  pp.  374,  388;  IV.  p.  939.) 


Annetje  Barents,  wife  of  Albert  Andriessen  from  Fredrikstad 
in  Norway,  came  over  to  New  Netherland  by  the  ship  "Rinselaers 
Wijck,"  on  March  4,  1637.  She  was  accompanied  by  her  husband 
and  her  first  three  children,  one  of  whom,  Storm,  was  born  on 

BRUYN.  43 

the  ship,  November  2,  1636,  the  voyage  being  a  stormy  one.  See 
the  article  Albert  Andriessen  containing  facsimile  of  the  log  which 
has  the  entry  about  the  birth  of  Storm.  Annetje  settled  with  her 
husband  in  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck  and  gave  birth  to  five 
additional  children. 

There  is  a  possibility  that  she  was  Danish,  as  Christian  Barents 
from  Holstein  looked  after  the  interests  her  husband  had  in  New 
Amsterdam,  in  1655,  the  supposition  being  then  that  she  was  a 
sister  of  Barents.  It  is  probable,  however,  that  she  was  Nor- 
wegian. Mr.  A.  J.  F.  Van  Laer,  the  editor  of  "Bowier  Manu- 
scripts," states  that  she  was  from  Rolmers.  As  I  was  not  able  to 
locate  Rolmers,  I  communicated  with  Mr.  Van  Laer  and  suggested 
the  reading  Holmer  instead  of  Rolmers.  He  kindly  replied  that 
he  too  had  not  been  able  to  locate  Rolmers  and  thinks  that  the 
reading  Holmer  is  quite  likely  right. 

Holmer  occurs  now  and  then  in  older  writings  as  the  nomina- 
tive form  of  'Holme,'  not  far  from  Andriessen's  original  home.**^ 


Jacob  Bruyn  was  born  in  Norway,  probably  about  1645.  He 
was  a  ship  carpenter.  He  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  about  1660, 
went  later  to  Ulster  County,  settling  in  what  is  now  the  town  of 
Shawangunk.  About  1677  he  married  Gertrude  Esselstein  of 
Columbia  County.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Jan  Willemse  Essel- 
stein and  Willemtje  Jans.  She  had  been  baptized  in  New  Amster- 
dam on  May  22,  1650.  Bruyn  died  1684  or  1685,  leaving  widow 
and  three  children.  The  widow  soon  after  married  Severyn  Ten 
Hout,  a  Hollander.  Of  Bruyn's  children,  Jan  was  baptized  Octo- 
ber 6,  1678,  he  probably  died  young.  Jacobus  was  baptized  Novem- 
ber 30,  1680,  died  November  21,  1744.  (He  married,  November 
18,  1704,  Tryntie  Schoonmaker  [baptized  November  22,  1684,  died 
1763],  a  daughter  of  a  German,  Jochem  Hendricksen  Schoon- 
maker, and  Petronella  Sleght.)  The  third  child,  Esther  (Hester), 
was   baptized,   February      11,   1683 ;  she  was  married,  March  24, 

46  See  O.  Rygh,  Norske  Gaardnavne,  II.,  Akershus  Amt,  1898,  p.  18.  Ibid., 
IV.,  KriBtians  Amt,  Fjjrste  Halvdel.  1900,  p.  218.  Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manu- 

44  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

1706,  to  Zachariah   Hoffman,   son  of  Martin   Hoffman,   a   Swede, 
and  Emmertje  De  Witt. 

Among  the  descendants  of  Bruyn  can  be  mentioned  Jacobus 
Bruyn,  who  was  born  October  27,  1751,  and  served  in  the  Con- 
tinental army  during  the  Revolutionary  War,  attaining  the  rank 
of  a  lieutenant-colonel ;  also  Johannes  Bruyn  who  served  several 
terms  in  both  branches  of  the  New  York  state  legislature  and  was 
for  many  years  an  associate  judge  of  Ulster  County.*' 


Hans  Carelsen,  or  Hans  Carelsen  Noorman,  was  from  Nor- 
way. He  settled  in  Beverwyck  and  married  Neeltje,  a  daughter 
of  Cornelis  Segersen  van  Vorhoudt  (who  had  come  to  Beverwyck 
in  1644)  and  Brechtje  Jacobs.  Neeltje  was,  at  their  arrival,  eight 
years  of  age,  the  youngest  of  six  children. ^^ 

Carelsen  was  a  fur-trader.  An  entry  under  date  of  August 
6,  1657,  shows  that  he  sent  down  from  Albany  to  New  Amsterdam 
2,300  beavers,  and  in  the  following  month  of  September  1,100 

In  August,  1659,  Geertje  Hendricks  sued  him  for  a  balance 
of  12  beavers  and  fl.  18  in  seawan.  In  his  defense  Carelsen  claimed 
that  he  had  paid  her  more  than  what  belonged  to  her,  as  the  other 
half  concerned  Jacob  Coppe,  deceased.  The  contract  was  then 
produced  in  court,  whereupon  Carelsen  admitted  that  he  owed  the 
sum  demanded.  He  said,  however,  he  could  not  pay  it  at  present. 
But  the  court  ordered  him  to  pay  it  if  he  wanted  release  from 
arrest.  ^'^ 

In  October,  1661,  he  was  again  engaged  in  litigation,  this  time 
sueing  Pieter  Ryverdinck,  who  owed  him  a  sum  of  money  for 
freighting  goods  to  Ft.  Orange. ^^ 

47  The  New  York  Genealogical  and  Biographical  Record,  an  article  by  Thomas 
G.    Evans,   XX.,    pp.    26,    29. 

Gustave  Anjou,  Records  in  the  Office  of  the  Surrogate,  and  in  the  County 
Clerk's    office    at    Kingston,    New    York,    Ulster    County    Wills,    1906.    I.,    p.    127. 

R.Tndolph  Roswell  Hoes,  Baptismal  and  ^.larriage  Registers  of  the  Old  Dutch 
Church  of  Kingston   ....   1891.   No.    19. 

See  the  article  "Hoffman."  Part  TIT.  Also  "The  Hoffman  Genealogy" 
(1899),    p.   486. 

48  Van    Rensselaer    Bowier    Manuscripts,    p.    833. 

49  J.    Munsell,    Collections   on   the   History   of   Albanv,   IV.,    p.    144. 

50  The   Records   of   New    Amsterdam    1653-1674,    III.,    p.    31. 

51  Ibid.,   III.,   p.  387. 


On  April  22,  1662,  he  signed  his  name  as  a  witness  at  the 
conveyance  of  a  yacht. "^^ 

In  1662-1663  he  wanted  to  sell  his  house  near  Beverwyck. 
We  have  an  imperfect  and  unsigned  paper  stating  the  condition  on 
which  he  proposed  "to  sell  at  a  public  sale  to  the  highest  bidder 
his  house  and  lot  lying  near  the  village  of  Beverwyck  by  the  side 
of  the  hill  on  the  plain  where  he  at  present  dwells."  ^^ 

On  June  7,  1663,  his  house  at  Wiltwyck  was  burnt  by 

In  January,  1664,  a  carpenter  brought  suit  against  Carelsen 
for  the  amount  of  twenty-four  and  a  half  guilders  for  wages  earned 
on  the  boat  Carelsen  was  sailing.  Though  it  was  shown  that  the 
plaintiff  had  run  away  from  his  work,  the  court  ordered  Carelsen 
to  pay  the  sum  sued  for.^^'  He  had  engaged  the  carpenter  for  a 
year  at  the  rate  of  26  gl.  per  month. 

In  1666  Carelsen  was  prosecuting  a  suit  against  Andries  An- 
driessen,  either  a  Swede  or  a  Finn.  The  Court  decided  that  the 
matter,  the  particular  nature  of  which  we  do  now  know,  should 
be  adjusted  by  arbitrators. ^"^ 

In  1667.  his  wife  died.°^  There  was  poverty  in  his  home. 
The  Church  records  of  Albany  state  that  his  wife  had  received  aid 
from  the  deacons.  Also  after  her  death  the  deacons  continued  to 
aid  the  home  of  Carelsen.  In  December,  1667,  and  January,  1668, 
the  records  state  that  the  deacons  paid  "17  guilders  and  10  stivers 
for  beer  furnished  to  Hans  de  Noorman."  In  November,  1668.  it 
is  recorded  that  the  deacons  furnished  "bread  to  Hans  de  Noor- 

Hans  Carelsen  remained  a  widower  for  about  four  years.  April 
1,  1671,  he  married,  in  New  Amsterdam,  Geertje  Teunis,  widow 
of  Cors  Jansen.''^  In  April,  1685,  she  was  married  to  Francisco 
Anthony.^*'    Hans  Carelsen  must  have  died  some  time  before  this. 

52  Year  Book   of  the  Holland   Society   of  New   York,    1900,   p.    140. 

53  J.   Munsell,    Collections   on   the   History   of   Albany,    IV.,   p.   319. 

54  New  York   Colonial   Documents,   XIII.,   p.   247. 

55  The   Records  of   New   Amsterdam    1653-1674,   V.,   p.   126. 

56  Ibid.,    VI.,    p.   43. 

57  J.   Munsell,   Collections  on  the  History  of  Albany,  IV.,  p.   164. 

58  Ibid.,    I.,    p.   28f. 

59  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam    1653-1674,    VI.,   p.    634.     For   other   data 
see   Collections  on  the  History  of  Albany,   IV.,   pp.   85,    164,   244,    319. 

60  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 
pp.   35,   36. 

46  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS   IN   NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 


Jan  Carelszen,  whose  name  as  settler  in  Esopus  appears  first 
1662,  came  from  Langesund,  Norway,  eighteen  miles  from  Skien. 
His  wife  was  Helena  Hendricks,  sometimes  called  Helena  Rusten- 
burg.  In  1684  he  was  a  porter  or  carman  in  New  Amsterdam. 
March  29,  in  that  year,  he  and  fifteen  other  carmen  were  dis- 
charged by  the  common  council  for  refusing  to  obey  certain  orders 
and  regulations.  But  on  April  6,  he  and  two  others  were  re- 
admitted as  carmen  on  condition  of  paying  a  fine  of  six  shillings 
and  conforming  to  the  laws.  Jan  and  Helena  had  several  children : 
Carl  was  baptized  April  25,  1677;  Lucretia,  in  1679;  Lucretia, 
January  12,  1681;  Henricus,  March  11,  1683;  Johannes,  June  29, 
1684;  Petrus,  December  11,  1687;  Ibel,  June  22,  1690.  May 
21,  1693  Carelszen  and  his  wife  were  sponsors  at  the  baptism  of 
twins  belonging  to  Charles  Peters  and  Maria  Thomas. ^^ 


Carsten  Carstensen,  sometimes  called  Christen  Christensen, 
commonly  referred  to  as  Carsten  Carstensen  Noorman,  arrived 
by  the  "Rensselaerswyck"  at  New  Amsterdam,  March  4,  1637. ^^ 
He  came  from  Flekkero  in  Norway.  He  is  first  entered  in  the 
accounts  of  Van  Rensselaer,  the  patroon,  under  the  date  of  April 
17,  1637.  The  patroon  mentions  him  in  a  letter  of  May  13, 
1639,  to  the  superintendent  Arent  van  Curler.  He  says :  "Christen 
Christensen  Noorman  owes  his  mate  who  did  not  go  with  him 
fl.  20  for  tools  sold  to  him.  Let  him  pay  this  to  you,  he  will 
thereby  pay  me  there  what  I  have  advanced  him  [his  mate]  here. 
I  believe  his  name  is  Barent."^^  Before  1644  Carsten  Carstensen 
was  employed  as  a  farm  laborer,  sawyer,  stave  splitter,  mill  hand 
and  roof  thatcher.     He  seems  to  have  had  interests  in  a  saw  mill. 

61  Collections    of    the    New    York   Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    II., 
pp.    127,    145,    157,    163,    183,    197,    214. 

62  The  New  York  Genealogical   and  Biographical  Record,   XIV.,   p.   75. 

63  Van    Rensselaer   Bowier   Manuscripts,    p.    810. 


Afterwards  he  leased  a  garden,  which,  in  1650,  was  granted  to 
Gijsbert  Cornehsz,  from  Weesp.^^ 

The  sources  do  not  give  much  information  about  Carsten 
Carstensen.  We  find  his  name  in  a  document  in  Albany,  dated 
August  4,  1663,  which  he  signed  as  a  witness'  of  a  certain  trans- 
action.^^  May  7,  1667,  he  deeded  a  lot  lying  behind  Fort  Albany 
to  Claes  Teunissen :  "length  six  rods,  south  breath  three  rods,  east 
a  low  lot  six  rods,  north  the  broad  breadth  three  rods."  ^^ 


Signature  of   Carsten   Carstensen. 

He  was  a  poor  man,  as  is  shown  in  the  Deacon's  Account 
Book  of  the  Reformed  Church  in  Albany.  This  book  conveys 
the  information  that  the  church  furnished  in  1668  a  year's  board 
to  a  child  belonging  to  Carstensen.  The  board,  it  was  computed, 
would  amount  to  32  guilders  a  month  or  384  guilders  a  year.^^ 

Under  "Disbursements  for  the  poor,"  in  1665,  the  Deacon's 
Account  Book  shows  the  following  entries  concerning  the  affairs 
of  Carstensen: 

2  schepel  wheat  13. 

In  money,  and  3  lbs.  soap  @  1  gl.  a  lb., 

together  7.14 

Paid  for  barley  for  Karsten  Noorman  10. 

2  schepels  corn  from  Jan  Bac  10. 

2  schepels  wheat  13. 

In  money  3. 

Karsten  Noorman,  in  money  6. 

20  yards  linnen  [no  price] 

Cash  6. 

"Lenne  Roberts  was  engaged  to  nurse  the  child 
of  Karsten  Noorman  for  one  year  for  35 
guilders  a  month,  on  condition  that  if  the 
child  dies,  she  should  have  to  pay  for  the 
whole   [month]    in  which  it  might  die." 




















64  Ibid.,  p.  442. 

65  J.  Munsell,   Collections  on  the  History  of  Albany,  IV.,  p.  329. 

66  Ibid.,   IV.,  p.   423. 

67  Ibid.,  I.,  p.  3. 

BERGEN,    NORWAY,    ABOUT  THB  'i\  ( 
From    Braunius:  li: 

ai    urbium,    iv. 

See  i>.S4. 

.50  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

Nov.  22.         4  lbs.  butter  from  David  Scuyler  7. 

Nov.  27.  To  Lenne  Roberts  for  one  month's  nursing  of 

Carsten  Noorman's  child  

Dec.  10.          To   Karsten    for  Wood   cutting   1   and   %    days 
and  digging  post  holes  for  the  church  yard 
fence  8.15 

Dec.  15.  2  Linnen  diapers  from  Karsten  Noorman 

Dec.  15.         To  small  boy  of  Jan  Toms  ^^  living  with  Car- 
sten  Noorman,    1    and   %   yards  kersey,   re- 
ceived of  Gabriel  12. 
Dec.  29.          Sold  to  Karsten  Noorman's  wife  a  petticoat 
August           Margary  Deckers  was  paid  15  gulden  for  3  and 
%  ells  blue  linnen  for  aprons  and  wrappers 
for  Carsten  Noorman's  children. 

In  February,  1667,  the  children  of  Carsten  Noorman  are  again 
mentioned  as  recipients  of  charity.  In  September,  1668,  96  gulden 
were  given  to  Gerret  Jansen  Stavast  and  Guert  Hendricksen  for 
the  "maintenance  of  Karsten  Norman's  children,  the  remainder 
33g.  18  should  go  to  Hans  de  Norman."  In  November,  1671,  the 
deacons  again  gave  "40  gulden  for  a  month's  board  for  the  child 
of  Carsten  Noorman."  In  April,  1672,  the  following  entry  is 
made  in  the  Deacon's  Account  Book :  "The  recipients  of  alms  this 
month  were  Johann  Dyckman,  Jacob  Aertsen  and  Karsten  de 
Noorman    (2  .shirts,  24g.)  ^^ 

Carsten  Carstensen  died  in  1679  in  Albany.  He  left  two 
children,  Teunis,  aged  nineteen  years,  and  Elizabeth,  aged  fourteen. 
Teunis  settled  in  Schenectady,  where  he  married  Maritie,  the 
daughter  of  Pieter  Jacobse  Borsbom.  he  died  in  1691. ''<> 

68  Should   probably  be:    Noorman's   son   living   with   Jan   Toms. 

69  Collections    on    the    History    of    Albany,    IV.,    26,    27. 

70  .Jonathan  Pearson,  A  History  of  The  Schenectady  Patent,  p.  101.  A  lot 
conveyed  in  Schenectady,  June  23,  1671,  by  Ludwig  Cobes  to  Christiaen  Christianse, 
does  not  enter  into  consideration  here,  as  it  is  probably  the  Dane,  Chrietgen  Chris- 
tians, who  is  meant,  and  not  the  Norwegian.  See  article  Chrietgen  Christians  in 
Part  II.  Torstein  Jahr  in  "Symra,"  V.,  2,  p.  72,  makes  the  statement  that  the 
wife  of  Carstensen  accompanied  him  on  his  voyage  from  Norway,  1637.  I  have  not 
been  able  to  verify  it  by  the  revised  list  of  immigrants. 



Claes  Carstensen  was  one  of  the  early  settlers  in  New  Nether- 
land.  He  was  born  in  Norway  about  the  year  1607.  His  home 
was  Sande.  In  the  Dutch  Records  in  the  City  Clerk's  Office,  New 
York,  it  is  stated  under  date  of  May  11,  1657,  that  "Claes  Carsten- 
sen of  Sant  in  Norway,  fifty  years  old"  and  two  others  gave  testi- 
mony relative  to  the  children  of  a  certain  Jan  Corn.  .  .  of  Rotter- 
dam.'^ ^  It  would  appear  that  Carstensen  came  to  New  Netherland 
about  1641,  though  he  may  have  been  there  much  earlier,  as  he 
had  command  of  the  Indian  language  and  was  employed  as  inter- 
preter between  the  whites  and  the  Indians  on  August  30,  1645, 
when  the  Dutch  and  the  River-Indians  concluded  their  articles  of 
peace  at  the  general  gathering  upon  Schreyer's  Hoek,  south  of 
the  fort.  La  Montague  was  present  at  the  occasion.  Carstensen 
was  one  of  those  who  signed  the  articles  of  treaty. ''2  Thirteen 
years  later,  in  1658,  he  was  appointed  Indian  interpreter  to  the 

On  August  21,  1642,  we  find  him  making  a  declaration  that 
"he  was  thrown  out  of  a  boat  on  his  way  to  the  ship  yard."  '* 
In  1643  he  was  along  signing  the  resolution  adopted  by  the  Com- 
monality of  Manhattan.'^ ^ 

On  September  5,  1645,  when  he  was  doing  service  as  a  soldier, 
he  acquired  29  morgens,  about  60  acres,  of  land  on  Long  Island, 
behind  the  land  of  John  Forbus,  a  Swede,  to  whom  he  later  sold 
it.^®   It  was  on  the  East  River  and  Norman's  Kill  (Williamsburgh). 

On  April  15,  1646,  Carstensen  married  Hilletje  Hendricks.'^ 

On  March  25,  1647,  he  acquired  50  morgens  of  land  on  the 
west  side  of  the  North  River,  next  to  Dirck  Straatemakers.  It 
had  formerly  belonged  to  Barent  Jansen.'^^  Carstensen  sold  it  the 
same  year  to  Jan  Vinje,  a  Walloon.     In  1667  it  became  the  property 

71  Year  Book  of  the  Holland   Society  of  New  York,    1900,   p.   113. 

72  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    18.        J.    Riker,      Harlem,      Its 
Origin   and   Early   Annals,   p.    145. 

73  The    Register    of    New    Netherland,    1624-1674,     (compiled    by    E.    B.    O'Cal- 
laghan,   Albany,    1865),   p.    133. 

74  Calendar    of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    19. 

75  New  York  Colonial    Documents,   I.,    p.   193. 

76  Year    Book    of    the    Holland    Society    of    New    York,    1900,    p.    126.      Teunis 
Bergen,   Register  ....  of  Early  Settlers  of  King's  County,    1881,   p.   59. 

77  New   York   Genealogical   and  Biographical  Record,   VI.,   p.   36.      She   is  once 
called    Hilletje   Noorman.     This,    however,    is   no   proof    that    she    was   a    Norwegian. 

78  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    374. 

52  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

of  a  Dane,  Laurens  Andriessen.""  The  groundbrief  of  March  25, 
1647,  reads  as  follows :  "Patent  to  Claes  Carstensen  of  a  piece 
of  land  in  New  Jersey,  formerly  granted  to  Barent  Jansen  deceased 
.  .  .  situated  on  the  West  side  of  the  North  River  next  to  Dirck  the 
Streetpaver's  land,  stretching  from  a  wood  on  the  N.  N.W.  along 
a  small  kil  to  the  river  on  the  S.  S.E.  along  the  valley  to  the 
Paver's  land,  N.E.  by  E.  of  the  Paver's  kil,  the  wood  N.  N.W.  all 
covering  fifty  morgens,   .  .  ."'^^ 

On  May  3,  1649,  he  acquired  a  lot  in  New  Amsterdam.-^  The 
lot  was  about  thirty-seven  English  feet  wide,  fronting  to  Hoogh 
Straet,  or  High  Street,  now  31-35  High  Street. *2 

On  July  28,  1653,  he  deeded  to  Burgher  Joris.  29  morgens, 
553  rods  of  land  on  Long  Island,  on  the  river  side  in  the  rear  of 
Jan  the  Swede  (Forbus).  It  was  a  part  of  Newtown.'*^  On 
October  15,  in  the  same  year,  he  deeded  a  house  and  lot,  on 
Brouwer  Street   in   New  Amsterdam,   to  Jan   Nagel.^'* 

In  1663  he  served  as  a  corporal.  In  October,  1655,  he  gave 
fl.  10  as  a  voluntary  contribution  and  taxation  to  the  city,  follow- 
ing the  example  of  many  others.**^ 

On  April  13,  1657,  he  was  admitted  to  the  small  burgher's 

Carstensen  had  his  lawsuits,  like  many  other  citizens  in  New 
Netherland.  On  April  13,  1660,  he  was  to  prosecute  a  suit  against 
one  Goodman  Bets.  But  both  parties  were  in  default.*^  On  De- 
cember 13,  1661,  he  was  to  prosecute  a  suit  against  Fredrik  Aarzen 
(often  called  the  Spaniard).     Again  the  litigants  were  in  default. ^^ 


Signature    of    Claes    Carstensen. 

On  January  3,  1662,  Carstensen  appeared  in  court  as  a  wit- 
ness in  the  case  of  Jacobus  Vis  against  Geertje  Teunis,  who  in  self- 
defense  claimed  that  Jacobus  had    used    very    abusive    language 

79  New    Jersey    Archives.     First       Series,       XXI.,    p.    2.     See    article    LaurenB 
Andriessen,    Part   II. 

80  New   York    Colonial   Documents,    XIII.,   p.   21. 

81  E.   B.    O'Callaphan,    History   of   New   Netherland,    II.,    p.    586. 

82  J.  H.    Innes,    New    Amsterdam   and    Its   People,    1902,    pp.    80    (map),    261. 

83  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    378. 

84  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    379. 

85  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam.    1653-1674,    I.,    p.    370. 

86  Ibid.,    III.,   p.    153. 

87  Ibid.,  III.,  p.   424. 


against  her.     Carstensen   testified  that  he  had  heard  words,  but 
could  not  say  as  to  whether  they  were  abusive  or  not.^^ 

Under  date  of  June  1,  1662,  we  note  that  Claes  Carstensea 
Noorman  of  New  Amsterdam  acknowledged  that  he  owed 
Nicholas  De  Meyer,  from  Hamburg,  121  guilders,  11  stivers, 
money  advanced  to  the  wife  of  a  Carl  Jansen.*^ 

On  October  1,  in  the  same  year,  Carstensen  sued  Gerrit 
Hendricksen  van  Harderwyck,  demanding  that  Hendricksen  should 
be  condemned  to  pay  fifty  guilders,  "which  he  has  undertaken  to 
pay  Hendrick  Hendricksen  Smitt  for  him."  Gerrit  Hendricksen 
admitted  that  he  "had  accepted  the  fifty  guilders  to  pay  Smitt  for 
him,"  whereupon  he  was  condemned  by  the  Court  to  satisfy  and 
pay  the  debt."  ^^ 

On  October  13,  1662.  Claes  Carstensen  deeded  to  Albert  Con- 
inck :  "The  just  half  of  his  house  and  lot  in  company  with  Jan 
Barentsen  Kunst  (a  German),  situate  north  of  the  Hoogh  Straat ; 
bounded  west  by  brewery  of  Jacob  Van  Couwenhoven ;  north,  by 
the  Steegh  (South  William  Street)  ;  east,  by  house  and  lot  of 
Asser  Levy ;  and  south,  by  the  Hoogh  Straat,  aforesaid.  Broad, 
in  front,  on  the  street,  1  rod  9  feet  1  inch ;  in  the  rear,  1  rod  3  feet 
8  inches ;  and  on  the  east  side,  7  rods  8  feet,  with  a  free  drop  on 
the  east  side  of  8  inches.  (Valentine,  Manual  of  the  city  of  New 
York,  1865,  p.  696.) 

On  January  1,  1663,  Carstensen  joined  the  Dutch  Reformed 
Church.     This  Church  took  care  of  him  in  his  old  age. 

On  April  29,  1671,  he  was  granted  a  small  house  lot  to  use 
during  his  life  time,  but  without  the  right  of  succession.  "He 
had  seen  better  days,"  as  the  historian  of  Harlem,  J.  Riker, 
touchingly  adds.®^ 

On  November  6,  1679,  Carstensen  died  at  the  house  of  Jo- 
hannes Vermelje.  "He  had  been  for  some  time  in  needy  circum- 
stances and  was  aided  by  the  Deacons,  having  been  a  church  mem- 
ber for  many  years.  The  deacons  Arent  Herman  and  Jan  Nagel 
took  an  inventory  of  his  efifects  found  in  his  house.  These  were 
sold  on  November  10,  1679,  at  public  vendue  for  266  gulden  16 
stivers,  for  the  benefit  of  the  deaconery."  It  would  thus  appear 
that  he  left  no  relatives. 

88  Ibid.,   IV.,   p.   3. 

89  Year  Book   of  the   Holland   Society   of  New  York,    1900,    p.    142. 

90  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    IV.,    p.    155.      Cf.    pp.    193, 
220.   221. 

91  J.   Riker,   Harlem,   Its   Origin   and   Early   Annals,    p.   273. 

54  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGEANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 


Claes  Claesen,  from  Flekkero,  near  Christiansand,  Norway, 
sailed  by  "de  Eendracht"  on  March  21,  1630,  from  Texel,  and  ar- 
rived on  May  24,  1630,  at  New  Amsterdam.  He  served  as  farm 
hand  on  de  Laets  Burg  with  two  Norwegians,  Roelof  Jansen  of 
Marstrand,  and  Jakob  Goyversen  of  Flekkero.®^  After  1634  Claes 
Claesen's  name  does  not  appear  in  the  records  of  the  colony  of 
Rensselaerswyck.  Kiliaen  van  Rensselaer  had  written  to  Director 
Wouter  Van  Twiller,  April  25,  1634,  mentioning  Claes  Claesen  as 
a  person  in  whose  judgment  he  had  confidence.     He   says: 

"Please  take  charge  of  my  grain  raised  in  my  colony  for 
which  Jacob  Planck  has  no  use,  and  deliver  it  to  the  Company. 
I  hope,  however,  that  he  will  be  able  to  use  it  all  for  brandy- 
making  and  beer-brewing,  if  he  only  understands  his  business.  I 
have  had  him  examined  by  Claes  Claesen."  "^ 

There  were  several  persons  in  New  Netherland  by  the  name 
of  Claes  Claesen ;  e.  g.,  Claes  Claesen  Bording,  a  Dane.  We  can 
not  state  whether  Claesen  from  Flekkero  is  the  one  referred  to  in 
a  Patent  of  June  29,  1664,  granting  to  "Claes  Claesen  24  morgens 
of  upland,  3  morgens,  160  rods  of  valley,  numbered  11,  at  New 
Utrecht,  Long  Island."  ®^  A  person  by  his  name  acting  as  sponsor 
at  the  baptism  of  a  child  belonging  to  Barent  Janszen,  March  20, 
1650,  in  New  Netherland,  is  likely  Claes  Claesen  Bording.®^  One 
Claes  Claesen  was  from  Ravox. 


Frederik  Claesen  arrived  in  New  Netherland  in  1663  by  the 
ship  "de  Rooseboom,"  which  sailed  March  15,  1663.  It  had 
seventy-five  passengers  on  board  and  was  commanded  by  Captain 

92  Van    Rensselaer    Bowier    Manuscripts,    pp.    805,    222,    308.      (See     articles 
Boelof  Jansen,   Jakob   Goyversen.) 

93  Ibid.,    p.    282. 

94  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,   p.    386. 

95  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    II., 
p.  27. 


Pieter  Reyersz  van  Beets.     In  the  passenger  list,  the  words  "from 
Norway"  are  appended  to  the  name  of  Frederik  Claesen.^^ 


Harmen  Dircksen,  from  Norway,  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam 
in  1659  by  the  ship  "de  Bruynvis"  (Brownfish).  He  was  accom- 
panied by  his  wife  and  his  child,  four  years  old.  The  ship  sailed 
June  19,  1659,  and  was  commanded  by  Captain  Cornelis  Maert- 

It  is  perhaps  this  Harmen  Dircksen  that  is  meant  in  the  fol- 
lowing data  obtained  from  the  records  of  Esopus. 

In  proceedings  and  sentences  of  the  court  held  in  Esopus 
April  25,  26,  27,  1667,  resulting  from  complaints  of  inhabitants  in 
Esopus  against  violences  committed  by  the  soldiers  and  illtreatment 
from  Capt.  Brodhead,  it  was  shown  that  Harmen  Dircksen  was 
wounded  in  his  leg  by  Richard  Cugge,  in  so  much  "that  he  is  lame 
unto  the  present  day,"  "and  that  only  because  his  goats  where 
eaten  by  the  soldiers."  ^^  His  wife  was  taken  to  prison  by  Capt. 
Brodhead,  who  had  thrown  a  glass  of  beer  in  her  face,  called  her 
many  bad  names,  and  carried  her  to  the  Guard  a  prisoner.  Brod- 
head owned  this,  but  said  that  Harmen's  wife  had  called  his  sister 
a  whore,  hence  the  quarrel.®'' 


Mrs.  Harmen  Dircksen,  from  Norway,  arrived  at  New  Am- 
sterdam, June  19,  1659.  She  was  accompanied  by  her  husband 
and  her  four  years  old  child.  She  was  living  at  Esopus  in  1666, 
when,  as  stated  in  the  previous  article,  Capt.  Brodhead  threw  a 
glass  of  beer  in  her  face.  He  gave  as  reason  for  this  singular 
demonstration  of  gallantry  that  she  had  called  his  sister  names. 
See  article  "Harmen  Dircksen." 

96  List    of    passengers    in    Year   Book    of    the    Holland    Society    of    New    York, 

97  Ibid.,    1902. 

98  New   York   Colonial   Documents,   XIII.,    p.   98. 

99  Ibid.,    p.    99.      A    Harmen   Dircksen    is   referred    to    as    early   as    1639.      Sef 
Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,   p.    67. 

56  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 


Jacob  Goyversen,  or  Goyverttsen  (Govertsen),  was  from 
Flekkero  in  Norway.  He  left  Texel,  March  21,  1630,  by  the  ship 
"de  Eendracht"  and  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  May  24,  1630. 
He  was  accompanied  by  two  Norwegians,  Roelof  Jansen  from 
Marstrand  and  Claes  Claesen  from  Flekkero,  with  whom  he  also 
worked  on  de  Laets  Burg,  in  the  service  of  Kiliaen  van  Rensse- 
laer, loo 

His  name  appears  after  his  demise  in  the  court  minutes.  He 
had  given  Anneke  Jans,  the  wife  of  Roelof  Jansen,  his  countryman, 
some  dressgoods.  He  had  bought  it  of  Marijn  Andriesen.  But 
as  he  had  not  paid  for  it,  Andriesen  sued  Anneke's  second  husband 
the  Reverend  Bogardus,  claiming  that  Govertsen  had  no  right  tc 
donate  things  he  had  not  paid  for  and  that  the  recipient  of  such 
unpaid  gifts  was  obliged  to  pay  for  them.  The  court  settled  the 
matter  by  deciding  that  the  money  claimed  by  Andriesen  should 
be  paid  from  the  inheritance  left  by  Govertsen. 


Arent  Eldertszen  Groen  is  entered  in  the  church  records  of  the 
Dutch  Reformed  Church  in  New  Amsterdam  as  being  a  widower 
from  'Stalange'  (Stavanger),  in  Norway.  He  married,  July  26, 
1665,  in  New  Amsterdam,  Jannetje  Willems  van  der  Bosch  (from 
the  bush).i«i 


Hans  Hansen,  from  Bergen,  Norway,  is  the  common  ancestor 
of  the  Bergen  family  of  Long  Island,  New  Jersey  and  their 
vicinity.  He  was  a  ship  carpenter  by  trade,  went  from  Norway 
to  Holland,   and  thence,  in  1633,  to    New    Amsterdam.      In    the 

100  Van    Rensselaer   Bowier    Manuscripts,    p.    222,    308,    805. 

101  The   New   York   Genealogical   and   Biographical   Record,   VI.,   p.    147. 

HANSEN.  57 

records  his  name  appears  in  various  forms  most  commonly  Hans 
Hansen  Noorman,  Hans  Hansen  Boer. 

He  is  one  of  the  exceptions  among  the  Norwegian  settlers  in 
New  Amsterdam  in  so  far  that  he  has  been  mentioned  frequently 
in  Norwegian-American  books  and  papers  as  being  a  Norwegian, 
and  that  an  entire  book  has  been  written  about  him  and  his 
descendants  (Teunis  G.  Bergen,  Descendants  of  Hans  Hansen 
Bergen,  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  New  York,  with  notes  on  other 
Long  Island   families.   New  York,   1866;  enlarged  edition,    1876). 

The  assertion  which  has  sometimes  been  made  that  Hans 
Hansen  was  at  the  head  of  an  expedition  of  Dutch  and  Norwegians 
who  crossed  the  Hudson,  and  settled  where  the  present  Jersey  City 
is,  is  false.  It  has  also  been  asserted  that  Bergen  i  New  Jersey 
was  called  after  Hans  Hansen  Bergen.  But  this  statement  is 
equally  false.  For  Bergen  in  New  Jersey  was  named  after  Bergen 
op  Zoom  (there  is  a  Bergen  in  Holland  and  in  Germany  as  well  as 
in  Norway).  Hans  Hansen  had  no  property  on  the  west  of  the 
Hudson  where  Bergen  lay.^'^^  Bergen  in  New  Jersey  was  founded 
after  his  death. 

Hans  Hansen  married,  in  1639,  in  New  Amsterdam,  Sarah, 
daughter  of  Joris  Jansen  Rapalje  of  Walloon  ancestry.  She  was 
born  June  9,  1625,  at  Albany,  and  was  probably  the  first  female 
child  born  of  European  parentage  in  the  colony  of  New  Nether- 

Many  children  were  born  to  Hans  and  Sarah.  The  records  of 
the  Dutch  Reformed  church  in  New  Amsterdam  state  when  they 
were  baptized  and  who  acted  as  their  sponsors.  The  children  were : 
Anneken,  baptized  July  22,  1640;  Brecktje,  baptized  July  27,  1642; 
Jan,  baptized  April  17,  1644,  one  of  the  sponsors  being  the  Nor- 
wegian woman  from  Marstrand,  Anneke  Jans,  at  that  time  the 
wife  of  the  Dutch  pastor  in  New  Amsterdam,  Rev.  Bogardus  ;^'** 
Michiel,  baptized  November  4,  1646,  one  of  whose  sponsors  was 
Pieter  Jansen  Noorman,  a  Norwegian ;  ^°*  Joris,  baptized  July  18, 
1649 ;  Marretje,  baptized  October  8,  1651 ;  Jacob,  baptized  Sep- 
tember 21,  1653 ;  Catalyn,  a  twin  with  Jacob,  baptized  November 
30,  1653.10^ 

102  J.  O.  Evjen,  Nordmaend  i  Amerika  i  det  17de  Aarhttndrede,  in  "Folke 
bladet"     (Minneapolis),    Feb.    2,    1910. 

103  See  article   "Anneke  Jans."      Part  I. 

104  See  article    "Pieter  Jansen."      Part  I. 

105  Collections  of  the  New  York  Genealogical  and  Biographical  Society,  II. 
(Baptisms).  Teunis  G.  Bergen,  Register  ....  of  the  early  settlers  of  Kings  County 
in  Long  Island  ....   to   1700. 

58  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGEANTS    IN    NEW   YOEK,    1630-1674. 

Hans  Hansen,  we  find,  acted  as  sponsor  for  the  child  of  a 
Norwegian,  Laurens  Pietersen  Noorman,  June   1,   1642. 

In  July,  1638,  the  following  agreement  for  the  cultivation  of 
a  tobacco  plantation  on  Manhattan  Island  was  made  between  An- 
dries  Hudde  and  Hans  Hansen  Norman : 

"Conditions  and  stipulations  agreed  to  between  Andries 
Hudde  and  Hans  Hansen  Norman,  on  the  ninth  day  of  July,  Anno 
1638,  as  follows : 

"First,  the  said  Andries  Hudde  shall  by  first  opportunity  of 
ships  from  Holland  send  hither  to  Hans  Hansen  aforesaid  six  or 
eight  persons  with  implements  required  for  the  cultivation  of  to- 

"Hans  Hansen  shall  be  bound  to  place  the  said  persons  upon 
the  fiatland  on  the  Island  of  the  Manhates  behind  the  Corlears 

"Hudde  shall  bear  the  expense  of  the  transportation  and  of 
engaging  them  and  shall  send  the  vouchers  for  these  expenses  with 

"Hans  Hansen  shall  also  be  bound  to  furnish  as  many  dwel- 
lings and  tobacco  houses,  as  the  time  may  permit ;  further  to  put 
to  work  the  persons,  who  shall  come  from  the  Fatherland,  for 
the  profit  of  both  of  them.  Hans  Hansen  shall  also  have  authority 
over  them  in  Hudde's  absence  without  interference  by  anybody 
else.  He  shall  further  bear  and  repay  one  half  of  the  expenses, 
incurred  by  said  Hudde.  In  like  manner  he  must  provide  such 
supply  of  victuals,  as  shall  be  necessary  for  so  many  persons,  on 
condition  that  Andries  Hudde  shall  likewise  repay  one  half  of  the 
expenses  incurred  here  by  Hans  Hansen. 

"Mons.  Hudde  shall  also  be  bound  to  pay  Hans  Hansen  for 
his  industry  whatever  impartial  men  shall  deem  to  be  just. 

"Likewise  Hudde  shall  not  be  allowed  to  demand  from  said 
Hans  Hansen  any  rent  for  the  land,  but  shall  assist  in  every  way 
with  the  means,  which  he  has  here,  if  he  does  not  require  them 
and  is  not  prevented  and  all  this  until  Hudde's  return,  when  further 
arrangements  shall  be  made.  For  what  is  above  written,  parties 
pledge  their  persons  and  property  real  and  personal,  present  and 
future  submitting  to  the  Provincial  Court  of  Holland  and  all  other 
Courts,  Judges  and  Justices,  all  in  good  faith  without  reservation 
or  deceit. 

HANSEN.  59 

"Thus  done  at  Fort  Amsterdam  in  New  Netherland,  the  10th 
of  July  Anno  1638. 
"A.  Hudde. 
"This  is  the  mark 

H  X 

Signatures    of    Hans   Hansen. 

aforesaid."  ^^^ 

Under  date  of  July  18,  1638,  Hans  Hansen  gave  power  of 
attorney  to  Wouter  van  Twiller,  the  Director  of  New  Netherland. 

On  March  13,  1647,  he  acquired  a  lot  south  of  Fort  Am- 
sterdam "between  Jan  Snedeker  and  Joris  Rapalje,"  that  is,  next 
to  his  father-in-law.  On  March  30,  in  the  same  year,  he  acquired 
land  on  Long  Island  "on  the  kill  of  Joris  Rapalyey  bounded  by 
Lambert  Huybertsen's,  Jan  the  Swede's  plantation  and  by  Mespath 
Kill  as  far  as  Dirck  Volkertsen."  ^^'^  This  was  at  the  head  of  the 
Kill  of  Mespath  (Indian  name  for  Newton),  or  Newton  Creek, 
in  a  section  called  by  the  Dutch  "t  Kreuppelbosch,"  now  corrupted 
Cripple  Bush.     The  grant  amounted  to  400  acres. ^''^ 

Hans  Hansen  was  a  respectable  citizen,  and  this  was  stated 
as  the  cause  for  his  being  acquitted  when  found  guilty  of  smug- 
gling in  1648.  The  records  say  (May  26,  1648):  "Pardon  of 
Hans  Hansen,  for  fourteen  years  a  respectable  resident  in  New 
Amsterdam,  on  a  charge  of  having  aided  in  smuggling,  on  condition 
that  he  beg  pardon  of  God  and  the  court."  ^^^ 

He  died  probably  early  in  1654.  His  widow  later  became  the 
wife  of  Teunis  Gysbert  Bogert.  In  1656,  in  a  petition  asking  for 
a  grant  of  land,  she  described  herself  as  the  first  born  Christian 
daughter  in  New  Netherland. 

Hans  Hansen  as  well  as  his  wife  and  her  parents  never 
learned  to  write,  signing  their  names  with  marks,  as  the  great 
majority  of  the  inhabitants  of  New  Amsterdam  did. 

106  New   York   Colonial   Documents,    XIV.,    p.    11. 

107  See    articles    "Dirck   Holgersen,"    Part   I.,    and    "Jan   Forbus, "    Part   III. 

108  J.  Riker,   Annals  of  Newton,    1852. 

109  Calendar    of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    17. 

60  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 


Anneken  Hendricks,  from  Bergen,  in  Norway,  was  in  New 
Amsterdam  before  1650.  She  was  the  first  wife  of  Jan  Arentszen 
(Aertsen)  Van  der  Bilt  (Bilt  =  hill),  the  ancestor  of  the  Vander- 
bilts.  He  married  her  in  New  Amsterdam,  February  6,  1650.  The 
church  records  state  that  Anneke  was  from  Bergen,  Norway.^^" 
Her  husband  came  from  the  province  of  Utrecht,  Holland. 

In  1653  Anneken  figured  in  a  lawsuit.  Matevis  Vos,  curator, 
brought  suit  against  her  for  the  payment  of  24  fl.  18  stivers  book 
debts.  Jan  appeared  for  his  wife.  Since  he  was  in  doubt  as  to 
whether  she  had  not  already  paid,  the  court  condemned  the  defend- 
ant to  pay  within  a  month  or  prove  the  debt  had  been  paid  March 
10,  1653.111 

Anneke  and  Jan  had  three  children,  Gerritje.  Marritje,  and 
Aert.  Gerritje  was  baptized  December  4,  1650;  Marritje,  Decem- 
ber 3,  1651;  Aert,  April  20,  1651.  Aert  married.  Gerritje  or 
Gieritje  was  married  to  Jan  Spiegelar,  Marritje  was  married  to 
Rem  Remsen.  Thus  there  is  Norwegian  blood  both  in  the  Vander- 
bilt  and  the  Remsen  family. 

Marritje  was  quite  early  remembered  in  a  will,  what  is  seen 
from  the  account  in  the  Records  of  New  Amsterdam  1653 — 1674, 
VI.,  p.  110,  under  date  of  Septemer  27,  1659:  "Whereas  Jacob 
Coppe  has  died  and  there  has  been  found  among  his  papers  and 
property  here  a  testament,  made  December  14,  1653,  before  Notary 
D.  van  Schelluyne  and  witnesses,  in  favor  of  Lysbett  Cornelis, 
daughter  of  Cornelis  Aarsen,  and  Merritje  Jans,  daughter  of  Jan 
van  der  Bilt,  naming  them  both  heiresses  of  his  estate.  Therefore 
the  orphanmasters  have  resolved  to  appoint  administrators  of  said 
estate,  so  that  the  heiresses  may  come  to  their  own,  and  they  have 
elected  and  authorized,  as  they  hereby  do,  Timotheus  de  Gabry  and 
Isaaq  Kip,  who  are  directed  to  make  as  soon  as  possible  a  complete 
inventory  of  all  the  goods  and  property  left  by  Jan  Coppe,  his  debts 
and  credits  here  in  the  country,  as  well  as  in  this  place  as  else- 
where, and  to  report  the  same  to  the  Orphans  Court,  to  be  then 
disposed  of,  as  shall  be  deemed  advisable." 

After   the   death   of   Anneke,   Jan   married   Dierber    Cornelis. 

11(J  The   New   York   Genealogical    and  Biogrraphical   Record,    VI.,    p.    38. 
Ill   The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    I.,    p.    63. 

HAES.  61 

And  after  the  death  of  the  latter,  he  married,  on   November  13, 
1681,  Maddaleentje  Hanse. 

Jan  Aertsen  van  der  Bilt  had  also  a  son  named  Jacob,  who 
on  August  13,  1687  married  Maritje  Van  der  Vliet  (of  the  stream). 
I  cannot  say  whether  Jacob  was  born  in  the  first  or  the  second 
marriage  of  Jan.  Jacob  and  Maritje  had  a  son,  also  named 
Jacob,  who  was  born  in  1692,  and  married  Neeltje  (Cornelia) 
Denyson.  In  1718  "the  last  named  Jacob  purchased  a  farm  on 
Staten  Island  and  moved  thither  from  Flatbush,  Long  Island. 
From  him  descended  the  famous  'Commodore'. ^^2 


Signature  of  Aertse  Vanderbilt,   1661,   husband  of  Anneken  Hendricks. 

Jan  Aertsen  van  der  Bilt  signed  his  name  with  marks.  His 
mark  "resembles  a  window  sash  —  with  four  panes  of  glass."  He 
died  in  1705. 


Roelof  Jansen  Haes,  or  Roelof  de  Haes,  was,  according  to 
the  Records  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church  in  New  Amsterdam, 
a  native  of  Norway.  He  married,  April  19,  1643,  in  New  Am- 
sterdam, Gertruyd  Jacobs,  of  Emmenes,  widow  of  Gerrt  Janszen.^^-^ 
He  was  then  twenty  years  old,  according  to  his  own  testimony. ^^^ 
A  few  days  previous  to  this  marriage,  Gertruyd  Jacobs  arranged 
what  portion  of  their  father's  estate  should  go  to  the  children  she 
had  by  Gerrt  Janszen.  In  making  this  settlement  she  announced 
that  she  intended  to  marry  "Roelof  Jansen  Haes  of  Norway."  ^^'^ 

On  July  6,  1643,  Haes  was  granted  a  lot  on  the  south  end 
of   the   valley    (of   the   West    India    Company),    northeast    of    the 

112  New  Jersey  Archives,  First  Series,  vol.  XXII.,  p.  563;  Cornelius  B.  Har- 
vey, Genealogical  History  of  Hudson  and  Bergen  Counties,  1900,  p.  308.  T.  Ber- 
gen,  Register   ....   of   Settlers  of   Kings   County. 

113  The    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Record,    VI.,    p.    35. 

114  New  York   Colonial  Documents,   XII.,  p.   17. 

115  Calendar  of  Historical  Manuscripts,  I.,  p.  22.  "Norske  Rigs-Registran- 
ter."  Vo.  VIII.,  1641-1648,  refers  to  a  Hans  Haase  (Hass,  Haess)  as  citizen  of 
Bergen,  Norway. 

62  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

fort,  "containing  18  rods,  9  feet."  ^^  On  February  19,  1647,  he 
obtained  an  addition  to  it.^^^ 

On  November  3,  1643,  he  and  Pieter  Kock,  a  Dane,  made 
a  declaration  that  the  colony  of  Achter  Col  had  been  destroyed 
by  Indians,  who  were  swarming  in  that  district,  burning  and  slay- 
ing whatever  they  could  come  across.^^^ 

On  January  28,  1644,  he  made  a  declaration  as  to  a  debt 
claimed  by  Benedict  Hendricks  from  Burger  Joris.^^^  On  June 
18,  1649,  he  made  an  assignment,  to  Commissary  Keyser,  of  this 
claim  against  Burger  Joris  for  1000  guilders.^-*' 

On  February  1,  1646,  he  obtained  a  lot  northeast  of  Fort 
Amsterdam,  on  the  road  opposite  the  lots  of  Andries  Hudde  and 
Martin  Crieger.^^^ 

He  secured  a  lot  in  Water  Street,  at  present  No.  27  Pearl 
Street,  and  built  a  little  house,  the  picture  of  which  is  given  in 
a  view  of  the  "Marckveldt  and't  Water"  (1652),  which  is  enlarged 
in  the  illustrations  facing  page  58  of  Innes'  "New  Amsterdam 
and  Its  People."  This  lot  was  not  large,  as  Haes's  groundbrief, 
obtained  on  May  11,  1646,  shows.  It  is  "both  on  the  south  side 
and  the  north  side,  one  rod,  seven  feet,  Rhineland  measure, 
wide," — that  is  about  twenty  English  feet.  Haes's  neighbor  was 
the  German  physician,  from  Magdeburg,  Hans  Kierstede,  son-in- 
law  of  the   Norwegian   woman   Anneke  Jans.^^^ 

Haes  sold  this  lot,  1653,  to  Cornells  van  Steenwyck,  a 
merchant,  who  probably  had  his  store  on  it. 

On  April  11,  1647,  Governor  Stuyvesant  appointed  Haes  Re- 
ceiver-General of  excises, ^^^  thus  showing  he  had  confidence  in 
him,  what  is  also  noticed  in  the  following  letter,  of  the  directors 
in  Holland,  to   Stuyvesant,   dated  January   27,   1649 : 

"Your  Honor's  appointment  of  Roeloff  Jansen  as  Receiver- 
General  at  a  yearly  salary  of  480  fl.  without  rations  induces  us 
to  believe,  that  you  must  have  a  good  knowledge  of  his  honesty ; 

116  Year  Book  of  the   Holland   Society  of   New  York,    1901,   p.    125. 

117  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    367. 

118  Ibid.,    p.    25.     New   York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    16.      See    article 
Kock.      Part  II. 

119  Calendar   of  Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,   p.    26. 

120  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   39. 

121  Ibid.,   I.,   p.  370. 

122  The   Records    of   New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,   VII.,    p.    56. 

123  Calendar   of  Historical   Manuscripts,    I.,   p.    108. 

>  c     o 



Q    . 










>  o* 




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■^  cS 



A.  The  Hnisting  (_'r:nie.  B.  Southeast  Bastion  ot  loit  \msterdani.  C.  White 
Horse  Tavern.  D.  House,  late  of  Dominie  Bogardus  \\lio  man  led  Anneke  Jans,  a 
Norwegian  woman.  E.  Old  Store-Ho\ise  of  West  India  Co.  F.  The  "P^ive  Stone 
Houses"  of  West  India  Co.  G.  Brewery  of  West  India  Co.  H.  House  of  Cornelis 
Pietersen.  I.  Hoase  of  Pieter  van  Cuiwenhoven.  .T.  House  of  Jan  Jansen  Schep- 
moes.  K.  House  of  Gillis  Pietersen.  L.  House  of  Eghbert  von  Bnrsum.  M.  House 
of  Pieter  Cornelissen  van  der  Veen.  X.  House  of  Lambert  van  Valkenburgh,  Ger- 
man, ().  Schregers  Hoek  or  Capoke.  P.  House  of  Hans  Kiersted.  who  married  Sara 
Rolieffen,  a  Norwe,s;ian  woman.  Q.  Eoelof  Jansen  Haes.  a  Norwegian.  R.  Pieter 
Cornelissen.  S.  Paulus  Leendertsen  van  der  Grift.  T.  New  Store-House  of  West 
India  C  ).  V.  Augustyn  Herrman,  German.  V.  Jacob  Haes,  husband  of  Christina 
Capoen    Holgersen.    Norwegian.      W.    Old    Church    and    Lane. 

HAES.  63 

on  that  understanding  we  approve  of  it  herewith,  although  in  our 
straitened  circumstances  all  possible  retrenchments  should  be  made 
for  which  reason  we  have  here  discharged  all  subaltern  officers, 
and  we  believe  from  information  received,  that  there  are  more 
than  enough  officers;  all  unnecessary  officers  should  therefore  be 
discharged,  we  cannot  afford  to  keep  them."  ^^4 

In  a  letter  of  April  26,  1651,  from  Johan  le  Thor  and  Isaac 
van  Beeck,  in  Amsterdam,  to  Governor  Stuyvesant,  it  is  stated 
that  "Secretary  Cornelis  van  Tienhoven  had  reported  to  them  that 
Stuyvesant  had  appointed  him  receiver  in  the  place  of  Haes."  ^^^ 

On  August  6,  1649,  Cornelis  Coenrattsen,  skipper,  gave 
Power  of  Attorney  to  Claes  Jansen  Ruyter,  to  receive  from  Roelof 
Jansen  de  Haes  the  sum  of  360  guilders.^^e 

On  March  20,  1651,  Haes  gave  a  mortgage  to  Hendrick  van 
Dyck  in  his  house  and  lot  in  New  Amsterdam,  situate  east  of 
William  Beckman.127  q^  September  9,  in  the  same  year,  he  gave 
a  mortgage  in  his  house  to  Jan  Jansen  from  Goteborg,  Swe- 
den.^^s     Olof  Stevensen  van  Cortland  acted  as  his  agent. 

Roelof  Jansen  Haes  was  at  the  time  residing  at  Fort  Naussau. 
For  we  know  that  on  July  9,  1651,  he,  Andries  Hudde,  Jan  Andries, 
and  Pieter  Harmensen,  "all  four  free  inhabitants  and  traders  on 
the  river,  residing  at  Fort  Naussau  have  been  witnesses  for  the 
Director-General  of  a  treaty  between  the  Director-General  and  the 
Sachens  Indians."  ^^^ 

On  December  10,  1654,  Haes  secured  twenty-five  morgens  of 

He  must  have  died  shortly  afterward.  For  in  July,  1656, 
his  widow  and  Jacob  Crabbe,  a  native  of  Amsterdam,  gave  notice 
that  they  desired  to  enter  into  matrimony.  On  July  27  "appears 
Geertruyt  Jacops  widow  of  the  late  Mr.  Roeloff  de  Haes.  now 
betrothed  to  Jacob  Crabbe  and  declares  her  intention  of  proving 
and  assigning  their  father's  inheritance  to  the  children,  left  by  him, 
Mr.  de  Haes,  and  born  in  wedlock  by  her,  Geertruy  Jacops,  to  wit. 

124  New  York  Colonial   Documents,   XIV.,   p.  107. 

125  Ibid.,    XIV.,   p.    140. 

126  Calendar    of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    47. 

127  Ibid.,    I.,   p.    52. 

128  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   55. 

129  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    I.,    pp.    596,    599. 

130  E.   B.   O'Callaghan,   History   of   New   Netherland,    II.,    589. 

64  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

Joannes  de  Haes,  aged  about  10  years,  Marrietje  de  Haes,  aged 
about  9  years,  Annitje  about  3  years,  and  assigns  herewith  to  each 
of  the  aforesaid  children  the  sum  of  six  carolus  guilders,  declaring 
at  the  same  time  upon  her  conscience,  in  place  of  an  oath,  that 
she,  affiant,  hereby  satisfies  the  aforesaid  children  out  of  their 
father's  inheritance,  and  this  declaration  is  made  in  presence  and 
with  the  consent  of  her  affianced  husband  Jacobus  Crabbe.  .  .  ."^^^ 

By  the  23d  of  October,  1656,  the  widow  of  Haes  had  become 
the  w^ife  of  Jacob  Crabbe,  for  on  that  day  Crabbe  appeared  in 
court  "as  her  husband  and  guardian,"  demanding  a  payment  of 
fl.  125.11  from  Teunis  Tomassen,  a  mason.  The  books  of  Haes 
showed  that  Tomassen  was  indebted  to  Haes  for  this  sum.^^^ 

Of  Roelof  Jansen  Haes's  children,  Johannes  became  quite 
prominent.  Gertrud  was  married  to  John  Crocke  [Kreek],  and 
became  a  member  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church  in  1679.  She 
lived  on  South  William  Street.  A  skipper  contemporary  with 
Roelof  in  New  Amsterdam,  Jan  or  Jacob  Haes  by  name,  was  no 
relative  of  Roelof.  He  was  probably  not  a  Scandinavian :  his 
name  was  often  spelled  Huys. 


Herman  Hendricksen  (Rosenkranz)  was  from  Bergen,  Nor- 
way. It  is  not  known  when  he  came  to  New  Amsterdam,  wher*^ 
he,  on  March  3,  1657,  married  Magdalene  Dircks  (Madalena  Dirx), 
widow  of  Cornelius  Caper,  or  Cornelius  Hendricksen  from  Dort. 

She  had  been  married  to  her  first  husband  on  October  24, 
1652.^^^  At  her  marriage  with  Herman  she  had  a  minor  child 
named  Mara  Cornelis,  for  whom  she  set  apart  500  guilders,  mort- 
gaging her  house  and  lot  at  New  Amsterdam,  next  to  Evert  Duyck- 
ingh's.^3^  She  had  become  a  widow  in  1655,  and  as  her  deceased 
husband  had  no  relations  in  New  Netherland,  and  Jan  Vinje  was 
related  to  her,  she  requested,  on  November  9,  1655,  the  orphan- 

131  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  XII..  p.  149.  Marritje  or  Maryken  was 
baptized  May  13,  1646.  Her  sponsors  were  the  Director-General,  W.  Kieft,  and 
Anneken  Loockerman.  Arnoldus  was  baptized  March  14,  1649.  He  probably  died 
before    1656. 

132  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1635-1674,    II.,    p.    196. 

133  The    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Report,    VI.,    p.    85. 

134  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,   1900,   p.   162. 


masters  that  Jan  Vinje  and  Hendrick  Kip  be  appointed  guardians 
for  the  child.  The  request  was  granted,  but  Vinje  refused  to 
serve.  A  week  later  the  orphan-masters  appointed  as  guardians 
of  her  child  Abraham  Verplanck  and  Andries   de  Haas.^^^ 

Only  a  few  days  after  the  wedding  of  Herman  and  Magdalena, 
the  court   records   of   New   Amsterdam   registered   the    following: 

[March  15,  1657]  "The  Scout  N:  de  Silla,  pltf.  vjs  Madaleen 
Dirckx  and  her  bridegroom,  defts.  The  pltf.  says  that  the  defts. 
have  presumed  to  insult  the  Firewardens  of  this  City  on  the  pub- 
lic highway,  and  to  make  a  street  riot,  according  to  the  complaint 
made  to  his  Worship.  Requesting  for  the  maintenance  of  the 
aforesaid  gentlemen's  quality  that  the  petitioners  [  ?]  be  publicly 
punished  or  fined  as  their  W.  shall  think  proper.  Deft.  Madaleen 
Dircx  appears  alone  in  Court ;  admits,  that  she  and  her  sister 
passed  by  the  door  of  the  Firewarden  Litschoe.  and  as  they  always 
joked,  when  the  Firewarden  came  to  their  house,  she  said : — 
'there  is  the  chimney  sweep  in  the  door,  his  chimney  is  well  swept, 
and  not  another  word  was  said  about  it.'  And  as  such  cannot, 
and  ought  not  to  be  tolerated  on  account  of  its  bad  consequences, 
the  Burgomasters  condemn,  as  they  do  hereby,  the  abovenamed 
Madaleen  Dircx  in  a  fine  of  two  pounds  Flemish,  to  be  applied, 
one  half  for  the  Church  and  one  half  for  the  Poor,  and  notify 
her  at  the  same  time  to  avoid  all  such  and  similar  faults,  or  in 
default  thereof  other  disposition  shall  be  made.  Done  in  Court 
at  the  City  Hall  at  Amsterdam  in  N.  Netherland."  ^^e 

On  August  13,  1657,  "Herman  Hendricksen  conveyed  to 
Joost  Goderus  a  house  and  lot  between  Evert  Duyckingh  and 
Myndert  Barents ;  width  on  the  street  2  rods  and  7  feet,  and  in 
the  rear  1  rod,  8  feet.  Depth  on  the  east,  8  rods,  and  on  the 
west  8  rods,  4  feet,  being  premises  patented  to  Adrian  Dircksen 
Coen,  October,  1655."  ^^^  This  seems  to  have  been  the  house  Her- 
man got  by  his  marriage.  It  was  situated  at  the  present  South 
William  Street. 

On  November  12,  1658,  Herman  received  the  small  burgher's 

135  Ibid.,   p.    112.     Jan  Vinje  was  not,   as  has  been   supposed,   a  Scandinavian. 

136  Tlie    Records    of    New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    VII.,    p.    146. 

137  D.    T.    Valentine,    Manual    of    the    Corporation    of    the   City    of    New    York, 
1861,   p.   594. 

66  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS   IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

right  in  New  Amsterdam,  for  which  he  signed  an  obligation  to 
pay  to  the  treasurer  twenty  gulden  in  beavers  within  eight  days.^*" 

On  April  12,  1659,  he  had  his  child,  Alexander,  baptized  in 
the  Dutch  Reformed  Church  at  New  Amsterdam.  The  sponsors 
were  Barent  Gerritsen  and  Sarah  Dircx,  referred  to  above  as  the 
sister  of  Magdalene.^^® 

After  the  birth  of  this  child  the  parents  seem  to  have  moved 
to  Esopus.  On  September  29,  1659,  Herman  Hendricksen  escaped 
from  the  Indians  at  Esopuspby  whom  he  had  been  kept  a  prisoner. 
On  regaining  his  liberty  he  informed  Ensign  Dirck  Smith  of  their 
strength. i*<^ 

Other  children  were  born  to  Herman  and  Magdalene :  An- 
netje,  who  was  baptized  August  27,  1662,  the  sponsor  being  Lysbet 
Jans ;  Rachel,  who  was  baptized  October  21,  1663,  at  whose 
baptism  Aechjen  Ariaens  acted  sponsor;  Harmanus,  baptized  May 
2,  1666,  the  sponsor  being  Greetje  Hendricks ;  Anna,  who  was 
baptized  October  9,  1667,  no  name  of  any  sponsor  being  given. 
All  these  children  were  baptized  in  the  church  at  Esopus. i*^  One 
of  their  children  (no  name  given)  was  baptized  April  28.  1674,  in 
New  Amsterdam. 

It  seems  also  that  some  other  children  were  born  in  this 
marriage.  For  on  January  17,  1726,  Sarah  Rosenkranz,  who  was 
perhaps  the  child  above  referred  to  as  baptized  in  1674,  made  a 
will  which  reads  as  follows : 

"I,  Sarah  Rosenkrans,  being  in  perfect  health.  I  leave  to  my 
dear  mother,  Magdalena  Rosenkrans,  all  my  estate,  real  and 
personal,  during  her  life,  and  after  her  decease  as  follows :  To  my 
brother,  Alexander  Rosenkrans,  6  shillings.  All  the  rest  to  be 
divided  into  five  parts ;  One  part  to  my  brother  Hendrick,  and 
after  his  decease  to  his  son  Hermanus ;  One  part  to  my  brother 
Dirck,  and  after  his  decease  to  his  son  Harsama ;  One  part  to  my 
sister,  Rachel  Van  Gorden,  and  after  her  decease  to  Harma  Van 
Gorden ;  One  part  to  my  sister,  Johana  Davenport,  and  after  her 
decease  to  her  son  John ;  One  part  to  my  sister,  Christina  Cort- 
right,   and  after  her  decease  to  her  son   Hendrick   Cortright.     I 

138  The    Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    VII.,    p.    200. 

139  Collections   of   the    New    York    Genealogical    and   Bio^aphical    Society,    II., 
p.   52.      Sara  Dircks  is  called  Sara  Dircks  de  Noorman.      Cf.   Ibid.,   II.,   p.   55. 

140  New   York   Colonial   Documents,   XIII.,    p.    115. 

141  Hoes,    Baptismal    and    Marriage    Registers    of    the    old     Dutch     Church    of 
Kingston    (Esopus). 


NORWAY,     1640-1650. 
From   nn   etching   by   Jacob   Maschius,    of   Bergen,    aliout    the   middle   of   the    seventeenth 



leave  to  the  children  of  Alexander  Rosenkrans  £80,  viz. :  Harma, 
Helena,  and  Johanes.  I  leave  to  Helena  Davenport,  1  shilling  or 
12  pence.  New  York  currency.  To  Sarah  Cole  and  Christian  Van 
Gorden,  each  1  shilling.  I  make  my  brothers  Hendrick  and  Dirck 

"Witness,  Dirck  Krans,  Dirck  De  Witt,  William  Cortright. 
Proved  in  Ulster  County,  October  21,  1726."  (See  Collections 
New  York  Historical  Society,  for  the  Year  1893,  p.  372.) 

Under  date  of  May  19,  1700,  Magdalena  Rosenkranz  was 
sponsor  at  a  baptism  in  Kingston. i'*^ 

Herman  must  have  had  considerable  property,  for  under  date 
of  January  19,  1681,  a  document,  signed  by  five  Indians,  states: 

"This  day  all  the  Indians  have  acknowledged  that  the  land 
called  Easineh,  which  Kentkamin  has  given  to  Harmen  Hendricksen 
and  Hendricus  Beckman,  shall  belong  to  them  and  they  may  dispose 
of  it  at  their  pleasure."  This  and  other  papers  were  received  in 
Court  of  Sessions  of  Sarah  Rosenkranz,  October  3,  1732. i*^ 

Herman  Hendricksen  died  at  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  about  1697. 
His  descendants  are  known  as  the  Rosenkrans  family.  The  best 
known  member  of  this  family  is  General  William  Stark  Rosecrans, 
born  in  Ohio,  1819.  He  was  a  graduate  of  West  Point  Academy. 
In  the  civil  war  he  was  commissioned  as  a  Brigadier  General  of 
the  Regular  Army.  In  1867  he  resigned  his  commission  in  the 
army,  and  was  afterwards  Minister  to  Mexico.  He  served  one 
term  as  Congressman  from  California,  and  as  the  first  Register 
of  the  Treasury  under  President  Cleveland.  While  at  West  Point 
he  was  converted  to  the  Roman  Catholic  faith.  His  brother  Syl- 
vester Horton  Rosecrans  became  a  prominent  bishop  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church. 

In  1890,  a  genealogy  of  the  Rosenkrans  family  was  published, 
the  author  being  Allen  Rosenkrans.  It  gives  the  history  of  the 
family,  and  makes  public  much  of  the  correspondence  passed  be- 
tween the  author  and  various  archives  and  legations  in  Europe, 
for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  whence  Herman  Hendricksen 
originally  came.     "Rosenkrans"  may  be    German,  Dutch,  Danish, 

142  Ibid.,    Reference    39. 

143  New  York  Colonial  History,  XIII.,  p.  402.  Harmen  Hendricksen  Rosen- 
kranz must  not  be  confounded  with  Harmen  Hendricksen,  mentioned  in  Innes',  New 
Amsterdam   and   Its   People,   p.   168. 

68  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGEANTS   IN   NEW   YOEK,    1630-1674. 

Norwegian.  There  is  a  possibility  that  Herman  was  related  to 
Henrik  Rosenkrans  who  between  1617  and  1629  obtained  permis- 
sion to  the  fisherey  of  herring  and  whales  at  the  coast  of  Green- 
land and  Norway.  This  Henrik  was  likely  an  immigrated  Hol- 
lander, not,  however,  of  the  nobility. 

Herman  Hendricksen  was  in  all  probability  a  plain  born  Nor- 
wegian, without  title,  and  without  Dutch  pedigree.  There  were 
many  Herman  Hendricksens  in  New  Netherland,  and  still  more 
in  Scandinavia.  Why  should  Herman,  in  order  to  avoid  a  con- 
fusion of  names,  not  add  a  new  surname,  taking  the  name  of  one, 
for  whom  he,  perhaps,  had  worked  in  Bergen.  There  would  be 
no  objection  to  doing  this  in  the  New  World.  The  writer  knows 
of  an  instance  when  a  Norwegian  immigrant,  some  forty  years 
ago  took  the  surname  of  Kraft.  He  had  worked  for  a  Norwegian 
official  by  that  name.  Other  Norwegians,  upon  coming  to  our 
country,  have  taken  the  name  of  the  manor  where  they  had  worked 
or  were  born. 


Dirck  Holgersen,  or  Dirck  Volckertsen  Noorman,  was  from 
Norway.  We  do  not  know  when  he  came  to  New  Netherland. 
He  was,  however,  one  of  its  early  settlers.  The  claim  of  J.  H. 
Innes  ^^^  and  others  that  Holgersen  is  the  same  person  as  Dirck 
Vockertsen,  in  Hoorn,  who  chartered  a  ship  to  carry  on  trade  with 
New  Netherland,  is  unfounded.  Equally  unfounded  is  the  claim 
that  he  is  the  brother  of  a  contemporary  Cornelius  Volckertsen, 
in  New  Amsterdam. 

The  fact  is  that  there  was  a  Dirck  Volckertsen  and  a  Corne- 
lius Volckertsen  in  Hoorn,  who  as  early  as  1614  had  mercantile 
interests  in  the  New  World,  but  remained  in  the  Old.  There  was 
also  a  Dirck  "Volckertsen"  (Holgersen),  and  a  Cornelius  Volckert- 
sen in  New  Amsterdam.  These  were  not  brothers:  the  sources  do 
not  indicate  that  they  had  any  particular  interests  in  common ;  that 
they  either  associated  at  the  usual  family  gatherings  or  gave  any 
other  evidence  of  consanguineous  relationship.  Cornelius  was 
probably  Dutch,  he  was  never  called  Cornelius  Holgersen.     Dirck 

144  J.   H.   Innes,    New  Ajnsterdam   and  Its   People. 


Volckertsen  can  be  a  Dutch  name.  (As  early  as  1522  a  Dirck 
Volkertzoon  Coornhert,  known  in  the  annals  of  theology,  saw  the 
light  of  day).  Dirck  Holgersen  was  a  Norwegian,  as  is  indi- 
cated by  the  cognomen  "Noorman,"  so  frequently  given  to  him  in 
the  sources,  (Dirck  =  Hendrick  or  Didrik).  Whenever  he  is 
called  "Volckertsen."  a  corruption  of  "Holgersen"  is  evident. i*"^ 

Dirck  Holgersen  married,  before  1632,  Christine  Vigne,  a 
daughter  of  Adrienne  (Ariantje)  Cuville  and  Guillaume  Vigne, 
Walloons  from  Valenciennes  in  the  north-eastern  part  of  France. 
Adrienne  and  Guillaume  had  four  children :  Jan  Vigne,  who  was 
probably  the  first  white  child  born  in  New  Netherland ;  Maria, 
who  was  married  to  Abraham  Verplanck ;  Christine,  the  wife  of 
Dirck  Holgersen ;  and  Rachel,  the  wife  of  Cornelius  van  Tien- 
hoven.  Guillaume  died  before  1632,  when  Jan  Jansen  Damen 
married  his  widow. ^*^ 


Signatures    of    Dirck    Holgersen,    1651,    1658,    1661. 

Jan  Jansen  Damen  did  not  like  the  husbands  of  his  step- 
daughters, because  they  would  not  leave  him  master  of  his  house. 
In  July,  1638,  he  brought  suit  against  Abraham  Verplanck  and 
Dirck  Holgersen :  "On  motion  of  the  plaintiff  the  defendants  were 
ordered  to  quit  his  house  and  to  leave  him  master  thereof."  Dirck. 
however,  charged  Jan  Damen  with  assault  and  furnished  witnesses 
who  testified  "regarding  an  attempt  of  Jan  Damen  to  throw 
his  step-daughter,  Christine,  Dirck's  wife,  out  of  doors. "i*"  The 
published  sources  give  no  information  as  to  how  the  matter  was 

On  May  1,  1638,  Holgersen  gave  a  note  to  Director  Kieft 
for  720  guilders  ($288,  in  present  value  $1,152). i*«  On  May  18, 
1639,  Kieft  leased  to  him   a  "bouwery  and   stock  on  halves."  ^■*'* 

On  January  2,  1642,  the  Fiscal  arrested  Gerrit  Gerritsen  and 

145  J.  O.  Evjen,  Nordmaend  i  Amerika  i  det  syttende  Aarhundrede,  in  "Folke- 
bladet"  (Minneapolis),  February  2,  1910.  Cornelis  Volckertsen  was  fined  in  1642 
for  having  kept  a  disorderly  house.  Simon  Volckertsen  was  whipped,  and  banished 
from  New  Amsterdam  in  1644.  Neither  of  these  nor  a  Henry  Volckertsen,  men- 
tioned   in    a    contemporary    document    (1635),    appears    to    have    been    Scandinavian. 

146  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,   1653-1674,  II.,  p.  349,   note. 

147  Calendar  of   Historical   Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    163. 

148  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   2. 

149  Ibid.,  I.,  p.  8. 

70  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS   IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

Dirck  Holgersen  for  stealing  rope  from  the  yacht  of  the  West 
India  Company.  Gerritsen  was  brought,  in  chains,  to  the  guard 
house;  Holgersen  was  ordered  not  to  leave  until  the  case  had  been 
decided.  Two  weeks  later  Holgersen  declared,  on  oath,  that  he 
had  bought  the  rope  of  Gerritsen  in  good  faith.  The  court  now 
ordered  that  Gerritsen  and  the  sailors  of  the  yacht  "Reael"  should 
appear  on  the  next  court  day  "in  order  to  determine  by  lot  which 
of  them   shall  be  punished,   or  meanwhile   satisfy  the   Fiscal."  ^^^ 

In  November,  1642,  Holgersen  conveyed  to  Govert  Aertsen 
a  house  and  lot  on  Manhattan  Island. ^^^ 

On  April  3,  1645,  he  obtained  a  grant  of  twenty-five  morgens 
(fifty  acres)  on  East  River  and  Mespath  Kill.^^^  j^e  sold  a 
portion  of  this,  September  9,  1653,  to  Jacob  Hay  (Haes),^^^  who 
appears  to  have  married  his  daughter  Christina. 

On  July  2,  1647,  he  was  given  power  of  attorney  by  Albert 
Govertsen   to   receive  money    from   the   West   India   Company.^^* 

On  June  2,  1649,  he  gave  a  lease  of  land  to  Jochem  Calder. 
This  lease  is  signed  by  three  Norwegians.     It  reads  as  follows : 

"Before  me,  Cornells  van  Tienhoven,  Secretary  of  New 
Netherland,  appeared  Jochem  Calder  of  the  one  part,  and  Dirck 
Holgersen,  of  the  other  part,  who  in  presence  of  the  undernamed 
witnesses,  acknowledged  and  declared  that  they  had  in  all  love  and 
friendship  mutually  entered  into  and  concluded  a  certain  contract 
in  regard  to  the  lease  of  a  certain  tract  of  land  on  the  condition 
hereuntowritten : 

"Dirck  Holgersen  leases  to  Jochem  Calder  a  certain  lot  of 
land,  situate  on  Long  Island,  together  with  the  land  heretofore 
leased  by  him,  Dirck.  to  Jochem  Calder,  for  the  term  of  twenty 
consecutive  years,  commencing  Anno  1651  and  ending  Anno  1671. 
The  Lessee  shall  have  the  land  rent  free  for  the  first  six  years, 
and  during  the  other  fourteen  following  years  shall  pay,  annually, 
for  the  use  of  said  land,  which  big  and  little  he  shall  cultivate  and 
improve  as  he  thinks  proper,  the  sum  of  one  hundred  and  fifty 
guilders  in  such  pay  as  shall  then  be  current.  All  the  expenses 
that  the  Lessee  shall  incur  in  building,  fencing  and  whatever  else 

150  Calendar    of    Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    pp.    78,    79. 

151  Ibid.,   I.,  p.   33. 

152  E.  B.  O'Callaghan,  History  of  New  Netherland,   I.,   p.   583. 

153  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   278. 

154  Calendar  of  Historical  Manuscripts,  I.,  p.  38. 


is  necessary  shall  be  at  the  charge  of  the  Lessee,  who  shall  make 
such  improvements  as  he  will  think  fit ;  and  if  it  happen  that  he, 
the  Lessee,  should  die,  it  is  stipulated  that  the  Lessor  shall  not 
eject  the  wife  or  descendants  from  the  land  against  their  will. 
The  fences  and  other  improvements,  of  what  nature  soever  they 
may  be  made  by  the  Lessee,  shall  at  the  termination  of  the  twenty 
years,  belong  to  the  Lessor,  his  heirs  and  descendants  in  full  pro- 
priety without  disbursing  anything  thereof. 

"For  further  security  and  the  performance  of  this  contract, 
parties  pledge  their  respective  persons  and  properties,  submitting 
to  that  end  to  all  Courts  and  Judges. 

"In  testimony  this  is  signed  by  the  parties  with  Jan  Nagel 
and  Peter  Jansen  Noorman  witnesses  hereunto  subscribed,  this  2d 
of  June  Anno  1649,  New  Amsterdam. 

"This  is  the  X  mark  of  Dirck  Holgersen  made  by  himself. 
"This  is  the  +  mark  of  Jochem  Calder  made  by  himself. 
"This  is  the  PI  mark  of  Peter  Jansen,  witness,  made  by  him- 


|7acobKipn    Witnesses."!- 
Jan  Nagel  J 

On  March  22,  1651,  Holgersen  sold  to  Peter  Hudde  and  Abra- 
ham Jansen  a  parcel  of  land  on  "Mespachtes  Kill  opposite  Richard 
Bridnels"  twenty-two  morgens,  one  hundred  and  thirty-six  rods. 
We  give  the  deed  of  sale  below : 

"Before  me,  Jacob  Kip,  in  the  absence  of  the  Secretary  ap- 
pointed by  the  Honorable  Director-General  and  Council  of  New 
Netherland,  appeared  Dirck  Holgersen,  an  inhabitant  here  who  de- 
clared that  he  sold  and  conveyed,  as  he  does    hereby,    to    Peter 

155  New  York   Colonial  Documents,   XIV.,   p.    115. 

72  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN   NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

Hudde  and  Abraham  Jansen,  in  company,  a  certain  parcel  of  land 
situate  on  Mespachtes  Kill  opposite  Richard  Bridnels,  formerly 
the  property  of  one  Cornelis  Willemsen,  containing  according  to 
the  groundbrief,  twenty-two  morgens,  one  hundred  and  thirty-six 
rods;  which  land  he,  the  grantor,  conveys  to  the  said  Peter  Hudde 
and  Abraham  Jansen,  in  company,  in  one,  true,  free,  and  right 
ownership,  therefore  renouncing  the  right  and  property  had  there- 
to, with  authority  to  enter  on,  cultivate  and  use  the  said  land 
free  and  unmolested,  on  condition  that  the  reservation  mentioned 
in  the  ground  brief  in  regard  to  the  acknowledgement  of  the  Lords 
and  Patroons  of  this  country  be  complied  with ;  placing  the  said 
Peter  Hudde  and  Abram  Jansen  in  his  stead,  real  and  actual 
possession  of  the  land  aforesaid,  and  renouncing  all  pretension 
thereto  henceforth,  and  for  ever  he  promises  to  hold  fast  and 
inviolable  this  his  deed  and  conveyance  under  bond  as  by  law  pro- 

"In  testimony  I  have  signed  this  with  the  witnesses,  this  22d 
of    March,    Anno    1651,    New    Amsterdam    in    New    Neth.erland. 

"This  is  the   V  mark  of  Dirck  Holgersen  made  by  himself. 

"Jacob  Jansen  Huys,  witness. 
"Gerrit  Jansen,  witness. 

"To  my  knowledge  Jacob  Kip,  Clerk. 

"This  day  the  28th  of  March  Anno  1651,  the  Hon'ble  Petrus 
Stuyvesant  and  Council  of  New  Netherland  approved  this  fore- 
going proof  of  the  purchase  of  the  land  mentioned,  and  accord- 
ingly the  conveyance  above  executed  by  Dirck  Holgersen  in  favor 
of  Peter  Hudde  and  Abraham  Jansen  is  held  valid. 

"In  testimony  this  is  signed  by  the  Hon'ble  Director-General; 
dated  as  above,  Manhatan  in  New  Netherland. 

"P.  Stuyvesant."  i^^ 

On  September  18,  1651,  Holgersen  conveyed  to  Roelof 
Teunissen,  a  Swedish  sea  captain  from  Goteborg,  a  house  and 
lot  in  Smith's  Valley  on  Manhattan  Island.  He  had  had  this  place 
since  1645,  and  built  a  house  upon  it.     It  must  have  stood  upon 

156   Ibid.,    XI.,   p.    137f. 


the  whole  or  a  part  of  the  site  of  the  modern  building,  No.  259 
Pearl  Street.i^^ 

On  September  9,  1653,  Holgersen  conveyed  to  Jacob  Jansen 
Hey  (Huys  or  Haes)  twenty-five  morgens  of  land,  with  a  valley 
of  six  morgens,  "beginning  at  the  hook  of  Mespacht's  kill.  Long 
Island,  and  thence  running  S.S.W.   along  the  river."  ^^^ 

On  October  15,  1653,  he  sold  a  lot  to  Hage  Bruynsen,  who 
was  from  Sweden.  This  lot  was  situated  on  Smith's  valley, 
"fronting  on  the  strand  or  highway."  ^^^  On  February  16,  1654, 
he  brought  suit  against  Hage  Bruynsen  for  payment  of  this  lot.^^*' 

On   October   15,    1655,  he   was  taxed   fl.    lO.i^i 

Under  date  of  October  25,  1655,  the  court  minutes  contain 
the   following  entry  with   respect  to   Holgersen : 

"Reyer  Stoffelsen  vs.  Dirk  Holgersen.  Defendant  in  default. 
Default  was  granted  only  for  the  payment  of  fl.  9  (?),  now  due 
since  three  years."  ^^^  Under  date  of  November  8,  the  same  year, 
the  minutes  state :  "Sybout  Claesen,  as  att'y  for  Reyer  Stoffelsen, 
pltf.  v|s  Dirck  Holgersen,  deft.  Defts.  2d  default.  Being  for 
payment  of  fl.  8  belonging  to  Reyer  Stoffelsen.  Requests  se- 
questration and  satisfaction.  The  Court  ordered,  as  Dirck  Hol- 
gersen is  in  the  second  default,  that  he  deposit  the  said  fl.  8. 
within  8  days  in  the  Secretary's  office."  ^^^ 

The  next  lawsuit  in  which  Holgersen  was  involved  was  due 
to  his  having  wounded  a  cooper  in  a  fight.  We  shall  give  the 
history  of  this  case,  following  as  much  as  possible  the  version  of 
the  court  minutes : 

[Jan.  8,  1656]  "Jan  de  Perie  pltf.  vs  Dirck  de  Noorman  deft. 
Pltf.  exhibits  pursuant  to  the  order  of  18th  Dec.  last,  two  separate 
declarations,  one  of  Jan  Fredricksen  and  one  of  Paulus  Heymans, 
by  which  it  appears,  that  Dirck  de  Noorman  attacked  him,  the 
pltf.,  and  chased  him   from  the  Strand  to  the  Clapboards,  as  is 

157  Calendar  of  Historical  Manuscripts,  I.,  p.  55.  J.  H.  Innes,  New  Amster- 
dam  and    Its    People,    p.    323. 

158  Calendar  of   Historical   Manuscripts,    I.,   p.   378. 

159  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    879. 

160  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    I.,    p.    161. 

161  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    374. 

162  Ibid.,    I.,    p.   386. 

163  Ibid.,  I.,  p.  390.  In  this  suit  Dirck  is  called  Volckertsen.  In  quoting 
the  court  minutes  here  and  in  other  pertinent  places,  we  have  substituted  "Holger- 
sen"'   for  the   corrupted    "Volckertsen". 

74  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

more  fully  detailed  in  the  certificates  rendered  before  Notary  de 
Vos.  Requesting  as  before  that  the  deft,  be  therefore  condemned 
in  the  time  lost  by  him  and  Surgeon's  fees.  Deft,  says  that  he 
was  not  the  first  to  draw  his  knife,  but  that  the  pltf.  had  forced 
him  to  do  it,  he  having  first  struck  him  on  his  shoulder  with  a 
knife,  which  he  also  broke  having  struck  his  truss,  and  afterwards 
tried  to  kill  him  with  a  naked  dagger.  The  court  ordered  the 
deft,  to  prove  his  statement  by  the  next  Court  day."  ^^^ 

Several  months  passed,  and  the  case  was  still  pending. 
Schout  d'Silla  then  made  the  demand,  October  30,  1656,  that  "the 
Court  appoint  Commissaries  to  take  information  in  his  presence 
as  to  how  Dirck  Holgersen  wounded  Jan  Perie.  The  request 
being  deemed  just,  Schepens  Jacob  Strycker  and  Hendrick  Kip 
are  appointed  Commissioners."  ^^^ 

On  December  11  "Jan  de  Pree"  requested  "by  petition,  that  Dirck 
Holgersen  be  ordered  to  settle  with  him  for  the  pain,  surgeon's 
bill,  and  loss  of  time  which  he  incurred  from  a  stab  in  the  side  re- 
ceived from  said  Dirck.  Whereupon  is  endorsed  —  The  petitioner 
may  summon  his  party  at  the  next  Court  day,  and  then,  if  he  thinks 
fit,  institute  his  action. "^^^ 

A  week  later  "Jan  de  Pree"  renewed  his  demand  in  writing. 
Schout  d'Silla  maintained,  however,  that  "the  plaintiff  has  no 
cause  of  action,  as  he  began  the  quarrel,  and  wounded  the  de- 
fendant by  sticking  a  knife  in  his  body.  And  whereas  the  de- 
fendant is  in  default,  the  plaintiff  was  ordered  to  summon  him 
again,  and  then  to  prove  his  statement." 

Holgersen  now  summoned  a  Jan  Peeck,  his  wife  Mary,  and 
Perie's  servant,  Jan  Fredricksen,  to  appear  in  court  and  testify 
to  the  truth  of  what  they  saw  and  heard  transpiring  between  him- 
self and  Jan  Perie.^^' 

The  court  minutes  record  the  following  concerning  the  testi- 
mony of  Jan  and  Mary  Peeck: 

[Jan.  27,  1657.]  "Dirck  Holgersen,  pltf.  v|s  Jan  Peeck  and 
his  wife,  Mary,  defts.  Pltf.  requests  that  defts.,  whom  he  has 
summoned  as  witnesses  in  the  case  between  him  and  Jan  Perie, 

164  Ibid.,  II.,    p.   256. 

165  Ibid.,  II.,    p.   200. 

166  Ibid.,  II.,  p.  246. 

167  Ibid.,  II.,  p.  247. 


cooper,  would  please  testify  to  the  truth.  Jan  Peeck  therefore 
declared  that  in  the  morning  as  he  lay  abed,  he  saw  Jan  Perie 
and  Dirck  Holgersen  playing  at  dice  together  on  the  floor  for 
a  .  .  .  and  heard  Jan  Perie,  while  playing,  give  Dirck  Holgersen 
frequently  the  lie,  whereupon  Dirck  Holgersen  contradicted,  and 
a  fist  fight  followed :  and  as  he,  deponent,  said  to  them  that  he 
could  easily  sell  his  wine  without  trouble,  they  went  away,  without 
his  knowing  anything  more.  Mary  d'  Peeck,  also  heard,  confirms 
the  declaration  of  her  husband  above  given  and  declares  she  after- 
wards heard  Jan  Perie  say,  "There's  Dirck  the  Noorman,  who  has 
a  box  of  seawan  in  his  sack,  and  he  should  play  or  the  D  .  .  . 
should  take  him";  also,  that  Jan  Perie's  man  told  her,  he  saw 
his  master  thrust  his  knife  into  Dirck  Noorman's  truss.  Dirck 
Holgersen  answers  in  writing  Jan  Perie's  demand,  concluding  that 
the  pltf.  John  Perie's  entered  demand  be  dismissed  and  he  be  con- 
demned the  costs.  Whereupon  asked  if  he  have  further  evidence, 
he  says,  Yes ;  Jan  Perie's  man,  but  that  the  others  have  been  to  him, 
and  he  is  gone  away.  Wherefore  the  case  is  postponed."^®^ 
What  Perie's  servant  testified  is  seen  in  the   following: 

[January  29,  1657.]  "Dirck  Holgersen  v|s  Jan  Fredericksen, 
Jan  Perie's  servant,  deft.  Pltf.  requests,  that  deft,  shall  testify 
to  the  truth  before  the  Court  as  to  what  he  saw  relative  to  the 
drawing  of  the  knife  between  him  pltf.  and  Jan  Perie.  Therefore 
aforesaid  deft,  appeared  in  Court  and  declares  he  saw,  on  coming 
out  of  the  house,  Jan  Perie  and  Dirck  Holgersen  standing  opposite 
each  other,  each  with  a  knife  in  his  hand,  and  that  Dirck  Holger- 
sen thrust  first,  and  stabbed  Jan  Perie  in  his  belly,  and  that  Jan 
Perie  then  thrust  with  the  point  of  the  knife  on  Dirck  Holgersens 
truss,  and  saw  Jan  Perie  afterwards  chase  Dirck  Holgersen  with 
a  dagger.     And   further  he  cannot  declare. "^^® 

The  case  was  begun  in  December,  1655.  It  concluded  June 
29,  1658,  when  Holgersen,  who  was  then  city  carpenter,  consented 
to  pay  the  fine   for  wounding  Jan   Perie.^^^ 

Holgersen,   in  the  mean  time,  had  been  having  other  litiga- 

168  Ibid.,  II.,  p.  271.  Jan  Peeck  was  an  eccentric  character.  Indian  trader, 
broker,  Bpeculator.  His  wife,  Mary,  was  in  1664  fined  500  guilders  and  banished 
from  Manhattan  Island  for  selling  liquor  to  the  Indians  (Innes,  New  Amsterdam  and 
Its   People,,   p.   301). 

169  Ibid.,    II.,    p.   278. 

170  Calendar    of    Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    190. 

76  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

tion.  On  February  8,  1656,  he  had  been  sued  for  a  canoe  which 
he  had  found  on  his  land,  had  repaired  and  would  not  surrender 
before  he  had  been  paid  for  repairs  and  salvage.  The  court 
minutes  state: 

"Dirck  Claesgen  Pottebacker,  pltf.  v|s  Dirck  Holgersen,  deft. 
Pltf's  wife  appeared  in  Court,  says  that  she  has  missed  a  canoe, 
which  she  purchased  from  Peter  Van  der  Linde  and  after  seeking 
for  it  everywhere,  finally  found  it  before  deft's  house  and 
land,  who  refused  the  same  to  her,  notwithstanding  reasonable 
salvage  was  offered.  Requests  the  Court  condemn  him  to  deliver 
it.  Deft,  says  a  certain  canoe  was  brought  by  some  Englishmen 
on  his  land,  and  as  the  same  lay  a  long  time  there  without  a  person 
coming  after  it,  he  found,  that  it  was  very  much  out  of  repair. 
He  repaired  it  and  rebuilt  it.  Offers  to  give  it  up  to  the  pltf.  on 
the  condition  that  she  will  pay  him  for  the  repairs,  wages,  and 
salvage.  Parties  being  heard,  the  Court  referred  the  parties  to 
Lambert  Huybersen  Mol,  and  Cornelis  Jansen  Clopper  to  value 
the  labor  and  repair  expended  on  the  canoe,  and  if  possible  to 
reconcile  the  parties,  or  to  report  to  the  Board."  ^^^ 

On  April  3,  1656,  Holgersen  was  sued  by  Symon  Joosten  for 
a  debt.  The  Fiscal  "remained  bail  for  the  payment."  Holgersen 
was  ordered  "to  make  an  assignment  when  the  Fiscal  undertakes 
to  pay."  1^2 

On  March  8,  1658,  Holgersen  and  Maria  Verplanck,  his 
sister-in-law,  were  sued  by  Claes  van  Elslandt,  elder  of  the  Dutch 
Reformed  Church  in  New  Amsterdam,  for  not  paying  for  a  grave. 
According  to  the  court  minutes,  Claes  van  Elslandt  claimed  that 
"the  defendants  refused  to  pay  the  Church  money  for  a  grave  of 
their  deceased  mother,"  Ariantje,  who  died  1655.  (She  was  the 
mother  of  Maria  Verplanck,  and  mother-in-law  of  Holgersen.) 
The  defendants  replied  that  they  had  not  refused,  "as  they  have 
once  paid  and  counted  the  money  to  Cornelis  van  Tienhoven," 
their  brother-in-law.  Claes  van  Elslandt  was  then  asked,  why  he 
was  so  slow  in  collecting  the  Church  fees.  He  replied  that  Cornelis 
had  said,  "there  are  your  fees,  I  shall  make  it  right  with  the 
Church  wardens."    The  defendants  claimed  they  paid  fifty  guilders 

171  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    II.,   p.    38. 

172  Ibid.,   II.,   p.   83. 


— thirty  guilders  in  Holland  currency  and  the  remainder  in  sea- 
wan.  After  hearing  this,  the  court  ordered  that  the  heirs  in  com- 
mon should  satisfy  the  Church  wardens  within  a  week.i'^^  Hol- 
gersen  and  his  wife  Christine  were  members  of  the  Dutch  Re- 
formed Church  in  New  Amsterdam  since  1649.^^* 

In  April,  1657,  Holgersen  acquired  the  small  burgher's  rights 
in  New  Amsterdam. 

In  the  same  year  he  deeded  to  Roeloff  Teunissen  some 
property  that  had  been  conveyed  to  himself  on  August  4,  1649. 
It  was  on  the  present  west  side  of  Pearl  Street,  near  the  north 
corner  of  Lane.^'^^ 

After  the  cessation  of  the  Indian  troubles  Dirck  Holgersen 
appears  to  have  removed  to  his  farm  at  Norman's  Kill.  For  in 
a  deed  of  October  17,  1661,  "Dirck  Volkers,  of  Bushwyck,  as  hus- 
band and  guardian  of  Christina  Vinge,  daughter  of  the  late  Geleyn 
Vinge  and  Adriana  Cuvilje,"  conveyed  to  Augustine  Herman,  "his 
certain  fourth  part  of  the  inheritance  and  succession  which  belongs 
to  him  from  his  wife's  parents,  except  the  eighth  part  of  the  fourth 
part  of  a  little  field  to  pasture  cattle,  situated  on  the  Maadge 
Paadje,  in  the  rear  of  Lysbet  Tysen"  (Valentine,  Manual  of  .  .  . 
the  city  of  New  York,  1865,  p.  686f).i^6 

On  March  24,  1662,  some  landowners  of  Bushwick,  of  whom 
Holgersen  was  one,  petitioned  those  in  authority  to  get  a  road 
made  through  their  land  at  Bushwick. 

In  April,  1662,  they  petitioned  the  Director-General  and  Coun- 
cil to  be  excused  from  fencing  in  their  lands,  "especially  as  wood 
is  growing  scarce  around  there  and  hard  to  obtain,  and  the  fences 
would  cost  a  great  deal." 

It  appears  that  Holgersen  gave  some  of  his  land  to  the  village 
of  Bushwick. i''^  He  was  a  magistrate  of  the  place  in  1681,  and 
ensign  of  the  local  militia  in  1689.  He  was  assessed  there  in  1675. 
But  also  the  city  of  New  York  taxed  him  fl.  5,  in  1677.  In  1674 
his  name  is  found  on  a  list  of  owners  of  houses  and  lots  of  the 
city  of  New  Amsterdam.     His  property  was  classed   in   "fourth 

173  Itid.,    II.,   p.    350. 

174  Ibid.,   II.,   p.   349. 

175  D.    T.    Valentine,    Manual    of    the    Corporation    of    the    City    of    New    York, 
1861,    p.    597. 

176  Cf.   New  York  Colonial   Documents,   XIV.,   p.   511. 

177  Ibid.,    XrV.,    pp.    523,    524. 

78  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

class"  property,  no  value  being  given.^'^  It  was  situated  on  the 
west  side  of  the  present  Pearl  St.,  between  Franklin  Square  and 
Wall  St.,  known  at  that  time  as  Smith's  Valley. 

Dirck  Holgersen  had  several  children.  On  September  8,  1641, 
his  daughter  Rachel  was  baptized,  one  of  the  sponsors  being  a 
Norwegian,  Laurens  Pietersen  Noorman ;  his  son  Volckert  was 
baptized  in  November,  1643;  his  daughter  Ariaentje  (Adrienne), 
August  21,  1650 ;  his  daughter  Janneken,  December  7,  1653,  when 
Pieter  Jansen  Noorman,  a  Norwegian,  acted  as  sponsor. 

According  to  J.  H.  Innes,  Dirck  had  also  a  daughter  called 
Christina  Cappoens,  who  was  first  married  to  Jacob  Jansen  Huys 
(Hey,  Heys,  Hes,  Haes),  a  skipper  who  had  lived  in  the  West 
Indies.     Her  second  husband  was  David  Jochemsen. 

The  entire  tract  of  land  which  Holgersen  had  in  Bushwick 
eventually  "came  into  the  hands  of  the  Meserole  family,  descend- 
ants of  Dirck's  daughter,  Christina,  who  held  it  until  recent  years, 
and  may  still  have  some  portions  of  it."^''* 

178  Minutes  of  the  Common  Council  of  the  City  of  New  York,  1675-1776, 
1905,   I.,  p.   50.     Year  Book  of  Holland   Society,    1896,   p.   167. 

179  J.    H.    Innes,    New    Amsterdam    and    Its    People,   p.    323. 

Whence  the  name  Cappoens  (Cappoen,  Capoen)?  In  Dutch  we  have  the  name 
"kapoen,"  but  this  would  hardly  be  the  word  from  which  Christina  derived  the 
name.  In  Norwegian  "kapoen"  means  cape  island.  When  I  mentioned  this,  in  a 
letter  to  Mr.  J.  H.  Innes,   as  the  possible  meaning  of   "Cappoens,"    he  replied: 

"I  think  you  have  probably  hit  the  point.  The  Dirck  Volckertsen  farm,  of 
which  the  Northern  half  was  conveyed  to  Jacob  Haie,  first  husband  of  Christina, 
was  really  a  peninsula  lying  at  the  mouth  of  the  Mespat  Kill  .  .  .  The  place  has 
always  been  known  as  the  "point,"  .  .  .  Green  Point  ....  Bushwick  Point  .... 
Wood  Point.  Christina  married  again,  but  seems  to  have  retained  possession  of  the 
farm,  which  passed  to  her  daughter  Maria  by  Jacob  Haie,  and  she  (Maria)  married 
Peter  Praa  van  Landt  of  the  old  Bogardus  farm,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Mespat 
Kill,  and  from  these  the  Meseroles  and  other  late  possessors  of  the  property  are 

"Adopting  a  very  common  custom  around  old  New  York,  which  I  believe  is 
also  common  among  the  Northern  nations  of  Europe,  of  designating  persons  by 
their  dwelling  place  .  .  .  .,  nothing  is  more  likely,  it  seems  to  me,  than  that 
Christina  was  known  among  her  Scandinavian  neighbors  as  Christina  Kapoen's — 'at 
the  Cape  Island,'  or  'at  the  Point' — the  corrupted  form  no  doubt  came  from  the 
Dutch   spelling." 

In  June,  1687,  Christina  made  her  will,  her  second  husband  being  dead. 
She  gave  to  her  daughter,  Maria  Hays,  "first  my  small  house,"  "the  income  of  my 
land  and  meadow  and  Bowerey  lying  at  Maspeth  Kills,"  and  "my  silver  beaker, 
one  gold  vase,  diamond  ring,  a  silver  cup  and  pepper  box,  and  a  silver  cup  with 
silver  cover,  and  three  silver  spoons."  To  her  grand-daughter,  Sara  Molenaer,  she 
left  her  "great  house,"  also  "a  saltcellar  marked  with  the  full  name  of  Christina 
Roselaers  and  marked  with  her  coat  of  arms  (was  she  the  mother  of  Hay?),  also 
a  silver  bfnker  marked  the  same,  and  a  silver  mustard  pot  marked  with  the  name 
of  .Jacob  Hay.  Also  my  Church  book  with  silver  clasps  and  chain,  and  a  silver 
cup  and  six  silver  spoons  and  a  silver  chain,  one  great  ear  spangle  with  ear  jewels, 
and  my  largest  hoop  ring,  and  a  gold  finger  ring  with  a  diamond  in  it.  and  a  silver 
tumbler  marked  J.  H.'- — 'I'o  her   granddaughter   Catrina   Praa   she  left   a   silver   beaker 

and   six   silver  spoons  marked  J.  H 

The  "great  house  and  lot'"  is  now  No.  61  Stone  Street.  The  "small  house 
and  lot"  is  now  the  narrow  alley  leading  from  Stone  Street  to  South  William  Street, 
and  between  Nos.  61  and  63  Stone  Street.  It  is  the  only  street  in  the  City  of 
New   York    without    an   official   name,    but    was    in    former   days     popularly     known    as 

JANSEN.  79 

Under  date  of  December  14,  1643,  the  church  record  states 
that  Holgersen's  wife  acted  as  sponsor  for  a  child  belonging  to 
Roland  Hackwardt.  On  June  5,  1650,  both  Holgersen  and  his  wife 
stood  sponsors  at  the  baptism  of  a  child  belonging  to  Jochem 
Kier  (Kalder)  and  his  wife  Magdalena,  a  Lutheran  woman.  Hol- 
gersen had  leased  some  of  his  land  to  Kalder  in  1649.  April  23, 
1651,  Holgersen  stood  sponsor  for  the  child  of  Jan  Hermanszen 
Schutt  and  Margaritje  Dennis.^^*^ 


Paulus  Jansen,  referred  to  as  Paulus  Jansz  Noorman  and 
Paulus  de  Noorman,  was  from  Norway.  He  was  in  New  Nether- 
land  as  early  as  November  14,  1641,  when  he  brought  a  suit  against 
Maryn  Adriaensen  et  al.  The  nature  of  this  suit  is  not  revealed 
in  the  sources  at  our  disposal,  which  merely  state  that  it  was  re- 
ferred to  arbitration. 181  We  glean  from  the  records  that  Jansen 
was  wounded  at  three  different  times.  First  by  Jacob  Lambertsz 
van  Dortland,  who  in  April,  1648,  was  prosecuted  for  committing 
this  deed;  a  second  time,  by  a  carpenter,  Jacob  Jans  Plodder 
(Gardenir),  from  Kampen.i^z  Hq  ^^ras  wounded,  the  third  time, 
in  the  war  at  Esopus :  June  7,  1663  "Paulus  Noorman  was  found 
wounded  in  the  streets  of  Wiltwyck"  (=  Esopus). ^^^  He  was 
sergeant  at  Esopus  as  early  as  1660.^^*  Under  date  of  May  1, 
1664,   jan  Martensen,  at  Esopus,  made  a  written  statement  that 

"Jews'    Alley"    (Mr.   W.   S.    Pelletreau,   in    "Collections   of   the   New   York   Historical 
Society,    XXV.,    p.   229). 

The   inventory   of   the   estate   of   Christina   Cappoens   shows   a   very   long   list   of 
household  goods,   besides  a  considerable  amount  of  silver  ware: 
1   Silver  Beaker,    12   oz.,   at   7s.,    £4.4s. 
1  Gold  rose   diamond  ring,    £5. 
1    Silver   pepper   box,    2%    oz.,   at    7s.,    17s.    6d. 

1   Silver  beaker,  marked  Christina  Rasselaers,    16  oz.,   at   7s.,    £  5.12s. 
1   Silver  salt  cellar,   marked  Christina  Rasselaers,   14  oz.,    £4,    10s. 
1  Church   book   with   silver   clasps   and   chain,    £  1,    16s. 
1  Golden  ear  pendant,  2   oz.,   good,   at    £5  per   oz.,    £10. 

180  Collections   of    the    New   York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    II. 

181  Calendar  of  Historical   Manuscripts,   I.,   p.    77. 

182  Van  Rensselaer   Bowier  Manuscripts,   pp.   832,   838. 

183  New   York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    247. 

184  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    153. 

80  NOEWEGIAN   IMMIGRANTS   IN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

he  was  indebted  to  "Paulus  Noorman"   for  the  sum   of  twenty- 
eight  guilders. ^®^ 


Jan  Jansen  Noorman  was,  according  to  Munsell's  Collections 
on  the  History  of  Albany  (IV.,  p.  88),  a  resident  of  Albany,  from 
1673  to  1696.  He  married  Susanna  Dirx,  the  widow  of  Dirck 
Dircksen  Mayer.  On  April  21,  1673,  Jan  Jansen  Noorman  and  his 
wife  made  their  will,  the  witnesses  being  Pieter  Ryverdingh,  David 
Schuyler  and  Adrianvan  Ilpendam.  The  contents  of  the  will  are 
not  given  in  the  printed  sources.^^^  One  Jan  de  Noorman  who 
obtained,  April  28,  1667,  "a  lot  ten  rods  in  length  and  four  rods 
in  breadth"  is  probably  Jan  Jansen  Noorman. i®^ 


Jan  Janszen  and  wife  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  in  1663. 
Their  ship,  "de  Statyn,"  set  sail  from  Holland,  September  27,  1663. 
In  the  passenger  list  Norway  is  given  as  the  place  from  which 
they  emigrated.  At  least  two,  if  not  four,  other  passengers  in  their 
company  were  from  Norway.^^® 


Mrs.  Jan  Janszen  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  in  1663.  She 
came  in  company  with  her  husband.  Both  were  from  Norway. 
See  article  "Jan  Janszen." 

185  J.  Pearson,  Early  Records  of  .  .  .  Albany,  p.  350.  The  Paulus  Jansen 
who  acquired  land  near  Wilmington  (New  York  Colonial  Documents,  XII.,  p.  183), 
is   a   different  person. 

We  venture  here  to  correct  a  statement  in  O'Callaghan's  History  of  New 
Netherland,  II.,  p.  585,  viz.,  that  "Claes  Jansen  Noorman"  was  granted  on  March 
25,  1647,  twenty-five  morgens  of  land  on  the  West  side  of  the  North  River.  "Noor- 
man" must  here  be  a  corruption  of  "Naerden, "  or  perhaps  what  is  a  better  ex- 
planation,   Claes,   is  a  corrupt  reading   for  Paulus    =    Paulus  Jansen   Noorman. 

186  Calendar   of   Wills,    Compiled    by    B.    Fernow,    p.    289. 

187  Munsell,    Collections   of   the  History   of   Albany,   IV.,   p.   417. 

188  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,    1901,   p.  26. 

JANSEN.  81 


Pieter  Janzen,  of  Fredrikstad,  was  in  New  Netherland  about 
1658.  All  we  know  concerning  him  is  contained  in  two  entries  in 
the  court  minutes  of  New  Amsterdam : 

1.  (September  17,  1658)  "Jan  Rutgerzen,  pltf.  v|s  Mr. 
Allerton,  deft.  Pltf.  again  demands  from  deft,  payment  of  the 
sum  of  fl.  121.6  for  two  obligations  executed  by  Pieter  Janzen  of 
Frederickstatt  and  Barent  Eversen  of  Stockholm,  for  which  the 
deft,  has  signed  bail  to  pay  him.  Deft,  says,  he  will  prove,  that 
the  abovenamed  Pieter  Janzen  of  Frederickstatt  and  Barent  Evert- 
sen  of  Stockholm,  had  determined  to  run  away  from  the  ship ; 
maintaining  therefore  he  is  not  bound  to  pay.  The  Court  orders 
the  deft,  to  give  security  for  the  monies,  and  to  prove  within  three 
weeks  that  the  abovenamed  Pieter  Janzen  of  Frederickstatt  and 
Barent  Eversen  of  Stockholm  were  willing  to  run  away  from  the 
ship."  i«« 

2.  (May  8,  1663)  "Pieter  Janzen  Noorman,  pltf.  v|s  Joris 
Dopzen,  deft.  Deft,  in  default.  Pltf.  says  he  is  a  foreigner  and  is 
about  to  depart ;  as  he  cannot  come  to  any  settlement  with  the  deft. 
he  requests  an  order  to  settle  together.  Burgomasters  and 
Schepens  order  Joris  Dopzen  to  settle  with  Pieter  Janzen  Noorman 
without  delay,  as  he  is  about  to  depart  and  is  a  foreigner."  ^^^ 


Pieter  Jansen,  or  Pieter  Jansen  Noorman,  sometimes  called 
Pieter  Jansen  Trynenburgh  (Trimbol,  Tribolt)  was,  according  to 
the  records  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church  in  New  Amsterdam,  a 
native   of   Norway. ^^^     These    records   also     show    that   he    was 

189  The   Records  of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    III.,   p.    11. 

190  Ibid.,    IV.,    p.    236.     He   must   not   be    taken    for     Pieter   Jansen   Noorman, 
who  died   in   1662.      See   the   following   article. 

191  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 
p.    14.     Perhaps  he  was  from   Trelleborg,   which   has  belonged   to   Sweden   since    1658. 

82  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

sponsor  at  the  baptism  of  Norwegian  children,  e.  g. :  On  July  5, 
1646,  he  was  sponsor  for  Engel,  a  child  belonging  to  Laurens 
Pietersen ;  November  4,  1646,  for  Michel,  a  son  of  Han  Hansen 
from  Bergen ;  December  7,  1653,  for  Janneken,  a  daughter  of  Dirck 

He  married  on  July  7,  1647,  Lysbeth  Jansen  of  Amsterdam. ^^^ 

On  March  9,  1644,  he  testified  that  he  had  been  present  at 
the  burning  of  Jochem  Pietersen  Kuyter's  house  by  the  Indians, 
and  that  the  government  soldiers  did  not  come  out  from  the  place 
they  were  sleeping,  until  the  house  was  entirely  burned  down. 
Jansen  was  at  the  time  twenty  years  of  age.^^*  He  had  been  in 
the  employ  of  the  brave  Dane  Jochem  Pietersen  Kuyter.  At  the 
fearful  night  of  the  burning  of  the  property  of  Kuyter,  the  savages 
had  their  own  way,  as  the  defense  was  in  minority,  consisting  only 
of  dairymaids  four  soldiers  and  five  laborers,  of  whom  Jansen 
was  one.^®^ 

On  March  11,  1647,  Jansen  in  company  with  Huyck  Aertsen 
received  a  groundbrief  of  land,  74  morgens,  106  rods  between 
Montagishay  valley  and  Tobias  Teunissen's  bowery  "extending  to 
the  end  of  the  kill  ^^^  coming  out  of  the  North  River  and  thence 
N.E.  and  S.  by  N.  along  the  high  hill  on  Manhattan  Island. "^"^ 
The  next  year  Aertsen  died,  and  Jansen  was  left  in  sole  care  of 
the  bowery. 

On  April  27,  1649,  Pieter  Jansen  mortgaged  to  Jan  Forbus,  a 
Swede,  a  tract  of  land  on  the  East  River  "formerly  occupied  by 
the  Norwegian  Claes  Carstensen,  David  Andriesen  and  George 
Baxter. ^"^  It  appears  that  Forbus  had  sold  this  tract  of  land  to 

Pieter  Jansen  was  involved  in  much  litigation  on  account  of 
his  land,  some  of  which  he  leased  to  Herman  Barensen  and  finally 
sold  to  Jan  Cornelisen  Zealander. 

The  Court  minutes  throw  some  light  upon  this  litigation. 

Under  date  of  August  8,  1658,  Wilhelm  Beeckman  brought 
suit  against  Pieter  Jansen  Noorman:  The  plaintiff  demanded  of 

192  Ibid.,   II. 

193  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   14. 

194  New   York   Colonial   Documents,    XIV.,    p.   53. 

195  J.  Riker,   Harlem,   Its  Origin  and  Early  Annals,   1904.  p.   148. 

196  Sherman's  Creek. 

197  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    372. 

198  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    46. 

JANSEN.  83 

the  defendant  "a  balance  of  about  the  sum  of  230  g\.,  which  he 
deft,  agreed  to  pay  for  Jan  Forbis,  and  says  he  agreed  with  deft, 
for  firewood  to  be  delivered  to  him,  of  which  he  has  remained  in 
default  and  afterwards  offered  him,  pltf.,  pease,  demanding  pay- 
ment with  damages  and  cost.  Deft,  says  he  bought  a  piece  of 
land  from  Jan  Forbis  of  three  times  25  morgens  and  he  has  not 
conveyed  it  to  him,  maintaining  that  so  long  as  it  is  not  delivered 
he  is  not  bound  to  pay  Heer  Beeckman  and  that  he  has  nothing 
to  do  with  the  Heer  Beekman.  Pltf.  exhibits  to  the  Court  the 
deed  of  sale,  in  which  it  is  mentioned  that  the  land  must  first  be 
paid  for  before  it  shall  be  conveyed.  The  Court  having  heard 
parties,  condemn  the  deft,  to  pay  the  pltf.  the  sum  demanded  with 
costs  thereon  in  the  space  of  one  month."^^* 

Under  date  of  September  3,  1658,  Pieter  Jansen  brought  suit 
against  Herman  Barensen,  who  appears  to  have  been  in  litigation 
quite  often  and  was  finally  banished  from  New  Netherland. 

"Pieter  Jansen  Noorman,  pltf.  v|s  Hermen  Barensen,  deft. 
Pltf.  says,  he  hired  his  land  to  the  deft,  for  the  time  of  six  years 
for  which  the  deft,  shall  pay  rent  for  the  first  year  fl.  250  and 
every  year  after  fl.  300  to  the  end  of  the  lease  according  to  contract 
exhibited  in  Court,  but  that  the  deft,  has  not  fulfilled  the  contract. 
Deft,  answers  he  leased  the  land  from  the  pltf.,  when  the  grain 
was  standing  and  he  could  not  examine  it;  and  afterwards  found, 
that  the  land  was  nothing  else  than  rocks  and  stone  and  [he] 
could  not  make  that  money  of  it,  and  aided  the  pltf.  15  days : 
also  that  he  the  pltf.  leased  the  land  again  for  fl.  600  for  four 
years,  being  willing  to  prove  it.  Pieter  Jansen  is  asked  if  he  has 
hired  the  land  again?  Answers,  he  has  partly  agreed  with 
Lauwerens  Grootschoe,  but  has  not  concluded,  as  he  wants  fl.  200 
(?)  a  year  and  Lauwerens  will  not  give  more  than  fl.  200."  The 
Court  ordered  the  defendant  Herman  Barensen  to  prove  on  next 
court  day,  that  the  pltf.  Pieter  Jansen  has  re-leased  the  land.^^o 

On  the  next  court  day  Barensen  was  in  default. 

Pieter  Jansen  also  had  some  difficulties  with  Jan  Cornelisen, 
to  whom  he  had  sold  some  land. 

199  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,    1653-1674,   II.,   p.   371. 

200  Ibid.,    II.,    p.    2.     Grootschoe     (Big    Shoe)    was    a    nickname    for    Laurens 
Duyts,  a  Dane. 

84  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

He  brought  suit  against  Cornelisen  on  January  27,  1660,  claim- 
ing that  Cornehsen  had  "refused  [to  allow  him]  to  ride  over  his 
land,  over  which  a  wagon-road  passes  and  has  been  [refusing  this] 
for  some  years,  and  that  he  permits  freely  the  deft,  to  ride  over 
his  valley."  To  quote  from  the  Court  Records,  he  "requests  the 
Magistrates  will  be  pleased  to  aid  him  therein.  Deft,  appeals  to 
the  ground  brief,  saying,  if  this  be  exibited,  it  could  be  seen  where 
the  fault  lies  and  the  Magistrates  could  find  more  light.  The 
Court  orders  Pieter  the  Noorman  to  produce  the  ground  brief  on 
the  next  court  day."  ^oi 


Signature    of    Pieter    Jansen. 

A  few  days  later  Cornelisen  appeared  in  court.  But  he  was 
ordered  to  have  Pieter  Jansen  notified  by  the  Court  Messenger. 

On  February  10,  1660,  the  two  litigants  again  appeared. 

Cornelisen's  demand  was,  that  the  defendant  should  exhibit 
the  ground  brief,  so  as  to  see  the  error  in  question.  "Deft,  ex- 
hibits the  ground  brief.  Pltf.  says,  he  bought  25  morgens  of  land 
from  deft.,  showing  a  declaration  dated  7th  February,  1660,  of 
Lauwerens  Pieters  and  Barent  Joosten,  who  testify  that  Pieter 
the  Noorman  sold  the  25  morgens  to  Jan  Cornelissen.  Deft.  says. 
he  sold  pltf.  no  more,  than  Claas  van  Elslant  measured,  and  the 
land  was  pointed  out  in  the  pltf's  presence.  Jan  Cornelisen,  the 
Zealander,  is  asked  why  he  summoned  Pieter  the  Noorman?  An- 
swers on  a|c  of  the  cart  road  and  declares,  that  the  witnesses 
heard  from  Pieter  the  Noorman,  that  he  sold  to  Jan  Cornelisen 
the  Zealander  25  morgens  of  land  and  says,  no  one  but  they  and 
their  wives  were  by  at  the  sale.  The  Court  orders  pltf.  to  bring 
in  proper  form  a  notarial  declaration,  that  deft,  sold  him  twenty- 
five  morgens  of  land."  202 

Cornelisen  next  appeared  in  Court  on  March  2,  and  produced 
the  notarial  declaration  of  Lauwerens  Pieters  and  Barent  Joosten, 
dated  February  25,  1660.  They  stated  they  heard  Jansen  say 
that  he  sold  Cornelisen  twenty-five  morgens  of  land.  Jansen  now 
requested  copy  of  the  declaration,  but  Cornelisen  demanded  "to 
proceed  for  costs  and  damages."     This  demand  was  granted. 

201  Ibid.,    III.,    p.    115. 

202  Ibid.,    III.,   p.    135. 

JANSEN.  85 

On  March  16,  Jansen  answered  the  declaration  of  the  persons 
produced  by  Jan  Cornelisen,  and  the  Court  ordered  a  copy  to  be 
furnished  to  Cornelisen.  The  latter  did  not  seem  to  mind,  and 
on  April  27,  1660,  Pieter  Jansen  requested  that  Cornelisen  give 
a  reply: 

"Pieter  Jansen  Trynenburgh,  alias  Noorman,  requests  by 
petition,  that  Jan  Cornelisen  the  Zealander  shall  be  again  ordered 
to  render  his  reply  on  the  next  Court  day,  on  pain  of  nonsuit  with 
costs,  inasmuch  as  he  has  remained  in  default  to  reply  according 
to  the  order  of  the  16th  March  last.  Jan  Cornelisen  the  Zea- 
lander is  hereby  for  the  second  time  ordered  by  the  court  of  this 
city  to  prosecute  his  suit,  that  he  has  against  Pieter  Jansen  Noor- 
man, and  to  reply  to  the  aforesaid  Pieter  Jansen's  answer  on  the 
next  Court  day."203 

It  seems  as  if  Cornelisen  finally  dropped  the  case.  We  hear 
nothing  more  of  it. 

Jansen's  litigation  with  Cornelisen  caused  him  to  sue  Forbus, 
who  had  sold  him  the  land  but  failed  to  give  him  the  deed.  The 
matter  was  treated  in  court,  resulting  in  a  letter  sent  to  Forbus 
by  the  secretary  of  the  Council  of  New  Amsterdam.  It  was  dated 
February  7,  1660: 

"Jan  Forbus —  Whereas  you  have  as  yet  failed  to  convey  in 
due  form  to  Pieter  Jansen  Trynburgh,  commonly  called  Pieter  the 
Noorman,  the  land  you  sold  to  aforesaid  Pieter  Jansen  and  for 
which  you  received  payment ;  and  Pieter  Jansen  has  sold  the  land 
again  to  Jan  Cornelisen  the  Zealander,  and  Jan  Cornelisen  demands 
the  deeds  of  said  lands  from  him ;  and  whereas  Pieter  Jansen 
has  received  as  yet  no  deed  from  you,  therefore  cannot  give  any 
conveyance :  you  are  in  consequence  hereby  ordered  and  charged 
by  the  Presiding  Burgomaster  to  come  immediately  hither  and  to 
convey  the  aforesaid  land  to  the  above  named  Pieter  Jansen  and 
in  default  thereof  to  bear  all  costs  that  may  accrue  thereto.  Where- 
by you  have   to   regulate  yourself. 

203  Ibid.,   III.,  p.   157. 

86  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

"Done  Amsterdam  in  N :  Netherland  7th  Febr.  1660. 
"By  the  Order  of  the  presiding  Burgomaster  of  the  City  above- 

"Joannes  Nevius,  Secy."  ^o* 

Jansen's  difficulties  with  CorneHsen  may  have  been  due  partly 
to  the  former's  arbitrating  a  case  in  which  Cornelisen  was  con- 
cerned. This  took  place  seven  years  before  as  is  shown  in  the 
Court  minutes.  Borger  Joris  had  brought  suit  against  Jan  Corneli- 
sen to  obtain  payment  for  a  building  which  Cornelissen  had  erected 
on  the  land  he  had  hired  from  Burger  Joris.  also  to  settle  a  matter 
concerning  some  cows  let  on  calves.  The  Burgomasters  and 
Schepens  referred  the  dispute  of  the  parties  to  two  arbitrators, 
Peter  Noorman  and  Jochem  Calder,  who  were  to  inspect  the 
premises  and  examine  the  matter  and  finally  decide  the  question 
according  to  their  ability.  Perhaps  Jansen  decided  in  favor  of 

On  June  29,  1660,  Pieter  Jansen  was  again  involved  in  litiga- 
tion, this  time  being  the  plaintiff  in  a  case  against  Frederick  Herm- 
zen,  of  whom  he  demanded  "fl.  85.  balance  of  fl.  90.  purchase  of 
a  small  house"  Hermzen  did  not  deny  that  he  owed  Jansen  this 
sum.  He  offered  "the  interest  due  and  to  give  security  for  pay- 
ment" and  he  requested  time,  saying,  he  would  find  means.  The 
Court,  however,  ordered  Hermzen  to  pay  the  debt.^os 

On  January  20,  1661,  the  Council  ordered  Burgher  Joris  and 
Pieter  Jansen  Noorman  to  move  their  houses  and  barns,  from  the 
boweries,  to  the  village  ^o^  of  Bushwick.  It  would  appear  that  the 
order  was  obeyed. 

In  1662,  probably  in  the  early  part  of  the  year,  Jansen  peti- 
tioned the  Council  that  he  might  move  away  from  Bushwick.  The 
Year-Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,  1900,  p.  141,  con- 
tains the  following  extract  of  the  petition. 

"1662.  [No  date.]  Petition  by  Pieter  Jansen  Trimbol,  alias 
De  Noorman,  whose  land  is  situated  on  this  side  of  Noorman's 

204  Ibid.,   VII.,   p.   246. 

205  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    142. 

206  Ibid.,  III.,  p.  183. 

207  Calendar  of  Historical  Manuscripts,   I.,  p.   220. 

JANSEN.  87 

Kill,  Long  Island,  requesting  Director-General  and  Council  to  be 
permitted,  on  account  of  the  distance,  to  move  away  from  Bos- 
wyck,  and  also  for  the  purpose  of  assisting  people,  etc.,  who  are 
obliged  to  travel  by  night  and  in  inclement  weather.  Four  or  five 
families  are  ready  also  to  erect  houses  and  form  a  hamlet  there. 
He  has  already  partitioned  off  two  lots  on  his  property,  one  for 
Isaack  De  Forest,  and  one  for  Harmen  Steppe  (or  Stegge).  .  .  . 
Pieter  Jansen  was  charged  3  guilders  15  stivers  by  Notary  La 
Chair  for  writing  above  petition." 

Under  date  of  May  25,  1662,  a  notice  states  that  the  Council 
permitted  Jansen  "to  make  a  concentration  of  four  families  on  his 
land,  on  the  south   side  of  Noorman's  Kill,  near  Bushwick."  ^os 

He  seems  to  have  had  a  boat  of  considerable  size,  as  he  was 
sued  in  March,  1661,  by  Arien  Symonson  who  demanded  of  him 
40  guilders  for  a  "mizzen  mast."  ^o"  Possibly  the  fragmentary 
notice  "Peter  Noorman's  negro  belonged  to  the  Pilot"  (August 
1656,  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  H.,  p.  31),  refers  to  this. 

Jansen  must  have  been  a  man  of  some  ability.  Riker  calls 
him  a  "hardy  Norwegian."  We  have  noted  that  he  served  as 
arbitrator  in  the  Cornelissen — Joris  dispute.  He  also  served  as 
guardian  for  Magdalena  Walen's  five  children,  after  the  death 
of  her  husband  Jochem  Kalder.  She  was  Lutheran,  as  the  Re- 
formed preachers  in  New  Amsterdam,  Johannes  Megapolensis  and 
Samuel  Drisius,  stated  in  a  letter  to  the  Council. ^lo 

Also  Pieter  Jansen  Noorman  was  a  Lutheran ;  and  the  pastors 
Megapolensis  and  Drisius  made  mention  of  that  too.  He  was  one 
of  the  signers  of  the  petition  of  the  Lutherans  requesting  that  the 
order  to  deport  the  Lutheran  pastor  Johannis  Ernestus  Goetwater 
might  be  revoked  (Reference  42).  He  was,  no  doubt,  the  person 
whom  Megapolensis  and  Drisius,  in  their  letter  of  August  23,  1658, 
to  the  Director-General  and  Council  of  New  Netherland,  were 
pleased  to  call  a  "stupid  northerner  who  was  neither  a  Lutheran 
nor  of  the  Reformed  Religion  and  who  had  not  intelligence  enough 
to  understand  the  difference  between  them,"  a  man  who  "about 
two  years  ago"  "nibbled  at"  certain  questions  concerning  baptism, 

208  Ibid.,   I.,   p.    237. 

209  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,    1653-1674,  III.,   p.   287. 

210  Ecclesiastical  Records  of  the  State  of  New  York,   I.,   p.   430. 

88  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

"but  could  not  give  any  reasons  against  them,  or  receive  or  try 
to  understand  a  reason  in  their  favor."2ii 

These  pastors  were  not  any  too  w^ell  disposed  to  the  Lu- 
therans, as  the  following  extract  from  their  letter,  just  referred 
to,  indicates.  After  giving  their  opinion  about  the  "stupid  north- 
erner," they  continue : 

"Nevertheless  they  [the  Lutherans]  have  sought,  for  five  or 
six  years,  to  call  a  Lutheran  preacher,  as  Paulus  Schrick  once 
said  to  Heyer  Stoffels,  whom  he  took  to  be  a  Lutheran,  because 
he  sang  German  songs  on  shipboard  on  the  way  to  Holland.  When 
Schrick  returned  from  Holland  in  1655  he  became  a  chief  pro- 
moter of  this  work.  Separate  meetings  began  to  be  held,  until  the 
year  1656,  when  your  decree  forbidding  them  was  issued.  We 
believe  that,  as  the  Pharisees  were  offended  at  the  words  of  Christ, 
Matt.  15:  12,  13,  so  also  has  it  been  in  this  case;  that  not  only 
a  few  words  in  the  Form  for  the  administration  of  baptism  but 
also  the  preaching  of  the  divine  Word  itself  was  objectionable  to 
them ;  for  blind  men  easily  run  against  any  obstacle.  We  say 
blind  men,  for  to  our  knowledge,  there  is  hardly  one  among  them 
here  who  has  any  proper  acquaintance  with  the  teachings  of  Dr. 
Luther.  They  praise  Luther  only  because  they  call  themselves  by 
his  name.  They  are  Lutherans,  and  will  remain  such,  because 
their  parents  and  ancestors  were  Lutherans,  as  Paulus  Schrick 
their  leader  in  his  wisdom  once  declared."^^^ 

Of  Lysbeth  Jansen,  the  wife  of  Pieter  Jansen,  we  know  but 
little.  Once  in  August,  1659,  when  she  was  present  in  "respectable 
company,"  the  wife  of  Hendrick  Jansen  Sluyter  started  to  fight 
with  her  and  committed  such  indecencies  and  damage  that  the 
matter  was  brought  before  the  court.  Lysbeth  Jansen  was  spared. 
But  Sluyter  had  to  promise  to  send  his  wife  away  to  Holland 
or  to  pay  the  fine  and  the  "damage  done  by  fighting."2i3  Sluyter 
himself  had  no  good  record.  He  had  been  dismissed  from  his 
position   as    watchman    on    Rattle    watch. -i"*      He    took    sod    from 

211  Ibid.,    p.    428.     There   were   probably   two    Pieter   Jansens    who    signed   the 
petition    of    1657.     The    other   was    Pieter   Jansen    of   Winckelhock. 

212   Schrick    was    from    Nuernberg,    Germany,    one    of    the    leading    men    in    New 

213  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    III.,    p.   23. 

214  Ibid.,   VII.,    p.   208. 

JANSEN.  89 

Christina   Capoen's   land   and   was    reprimanded. ^i'^      He   "wanted 
to  tap,  but  was  denied  for  good  reasons."  ^le 

Pieter  Jansen  died  before  October  6,  1662,  when  his  widow 
married  Joost  Janszen  Cocquyt,  from  Brugge,  who  was  at  the  time 
an  inhabitant  of  Bushwick.^i" 


Roelof  Jansen  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  by  "de  Eendracht," 
May  24,  1630.2i«  The  ship  sailed  from  the  Texel,  March  21,  1630 
He  was  to  work  in  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck  for  $72  a 
year.21®  He  was  accompanied  by  his  wife  Anneke  (Anetje)  Jans, 
his  daughters  Sarah,  (Katrina)  and  Fytje.220  Until  quite  recently 
it  has  been  believed  that  Roelof  Jansen  and  his  family  were  Dutch. 
In  the  "Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manuscripts,"  (p.  56f.  note)  it  is 
shown  by  A.  T.  F.  van  Laer,  Archivist  of  New  York  State,  that 
they  were  not  from  "Maasterland,"  but  from  "Masterland"  or 
"Maesterland,"  meaning  Marstrand,  which  is  on  a  small  island 
off  the  coast  of  Sweden,  near  Goteborg  (Gothenburg).  The 
editor  and  translator  of  "Bowier  Manuscripts"  concludes  therefore 
that  Jansen's  family  probably  were  Swedes.  But  why  not  Nor- 
wegians? Marstrand  belonged  to  Norway  prior  to  1658,  and  it  is 
significant  that  Claes  Claesen  and  Jacob  Goyversen,  both  from 
Flekkero,  Norway,  sailed  with  Roelof  and  worked  with  him  on 
"de  Laets  Burg."  There  were  on  July  20,  1632,  only  three  men 
on  this  farm :    Jansen,   Claesen,   Goyversen,  three   Norwegians.221 

On  July  1,  1632,  Roelof  Jansen  was  appointed  schepens.    The 
oath  of  the  schepens,  administered  by  the  Schout  to  Jansen,  and 

p.   28. 

215  Ibid.,  III.,  p.  341. 

216  Ibid.,   I.,   p.  288.      Christina  was  a  daughter  of  Dirck  Holgersen. 

217  Collections   of   the    New   York    Genealogical    and   Biographical    Society,    II.. 

218  Van   Rensselaer   Bowier   Manuscripts,    p.    218. 

219  Year  Book   of   the   Holland    Society  of   New   York,    1896,    p.    131. 

220  Van  Rensselaer  Bowier   Manuscripts,   p.    308. 

221  Ibid.,  pp.  805,  222.  Masterlandt  is  explained  as  Marstrand  in  a  letter 
of  the  year  1644,  in  "Bijdragen  en  Mededeelingen  van  het  Historisch  Genootschap 
(Gevestigd  te  Utrecht).  Negen  en  twintigste  deel,"  Amsterdam,  1908,  p.  279. 
The  first  writer  who  made  the  claim  that  the  family  of  Roelof  Jansen  was  Norwegian, 
was  Mr.  Torstein  Jahr,  in  "Symra"  (Decorah,  Iowa),  Vol.  IX.,  Part  1,  p.  8f: 
"Nordmenn  i  Ny  Nederland.  Anneke  Jans  fra  Marstrand,  hennes  farm  og  hennes 
slekt".     See    "Preface"    to    the   present    volume. 

90  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

Other  schepens,  among  whom    was    Laurens    Laurensen,    another 
Norwegian,  was  as  follows: 

"This  you  swear,  that  you  will  be  good  schepens,  that  you 
will  be  loyal  and  feal  to  my  gracious  lord  and  support  and 
strengthen  him  in  his  affairs  as  much  as  is  in  your  power;  that 
you  will  pass  honest  judgment  between  the  lord  and  the  farmer, 
the  farmer  and  the  lord,  and  in  the  proceedings  between  two 
farmers,  and  that  you  will  not  fail  to  do  this  on  any  consideration 

"So  help  you  God." 

As  schepen,  Roelof  Jansen  got  a  "black  hat,  with  silver 
bands. 222 

As  to  Roelof's  farming,  but  little  can  be  said.  Van  Rens- 
selaer, always  exacting  in  his  demands,  complained  in  a  letter 
written  July  20,  1632,  to  Wolfert  Gerritz,  that  it  showed  "bad 
management  that  Roeloff  Jansen  could  not  get  any  winter  seed. 
I  hope  that  he  has  sown  the  more  summer  seed."  ^23 

Likewise  in  a  letter  of  April  23,  1634,  to  Director  Wouter 
van  Twiller,  the  Patroon  said :  "I  see  that  Roeloff  Janssen  has 
grossly  run  up  my  account  in  drawing  the  provisions,  yes,  prac- 
tically the  full  allowance  [even]  when  there  was  [enough  in] 
stock.  I  think  that  his  wife,  mother,  and  sister  and  others  must 
have  given  things  away,  which  can  not  be  allowed.  He  complains 
that  your  honor  has  dismissed  him  from  the  farm,  and  your  honor 
writes  me  that  he  wanted  to  leave  it."  224  it  would  thus  appear 
that  Jansen  left  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck  in  1634. 

Roelof  Jansen  moved  with  his  family  to  New  Amsterdam 
about  1634  or  a  little  later.  In  1636  he  received  a  groundbrief  of 
thirty-one  morgens  of  land  lying  along  East  River.225  "It  formed 
a  sort  of  peninsula  between  the  river  and  the  swamps  which  then 
covered  the  sites  of  Canal  Street  and  West  Broadway."  Here 
Jansen  "probably  erected  a  small  farmhouse  upon  a  low  hill  near 
the  river  shore  at  about  the  present  Jay  Street;  but  he  had  hardly 
made  a  beginning  in  the  work  of  getting  his  bouwery  under  culti- 

222  Van   Rensselaer  Bowier   Manuscripts,   p.   203. 

223  Ibid.,   p.   219. 

224  Ibid.,     p.     281.     His    mother-in-law,     Tryn     Jonas,     and     his     sister-in-law, 
Marritje,   are   meant.      See   articles    "Tryn   Jonas"    and    "Marritje  Jans." 

225  E.    B.    O'Oallaghan,    History   of   New   Netherland,    II.,    p.    581. 

From  a 




'  '    4H. 

'•■^'.>.    11377. 
J^-  ;topendael 


JANS.  91 

vation  when  he  died,  leaving  his  widow  the  arduous  task  of  caring 
for  a  family  of  five  children  in  a  colony  hardly  settled  as  yet."22« 
Of  Jansen's  children,  Sarah,  Katrina  and  Sofia  married  in  New 
Netherland  (See  the  articles  following).  Annetje  died  as  a  child. 
Jan  (Roelofsen)  settled  in  Schenectady  and  was  killed  by  the 
Indians  in  the  massacre  of  1690. 

Jansen's  widow  married  again.  The  Dutch  Reformed  preach- 
er in  New  Amsterdam  Everardus  Bogardus  took  her  for  his  wife 
in  1638.  See  the  article  "Anneke  Jans."  Of  all  Scandinavian 
immigrants  in  early  New  York  she  is  probably  the  best  known. 


Anneke  Jans  arrived  with  her  husband  and  three  children  at 
New  Amsterdam  May  24,  1630.  As  we  have  seen  in  the  fore- 
going sketch,  she  came  from  Marstrand,  Norway.  She  was  with 
her  husband  at  Fort  Orange  until  1634  or  1635  when  the  family 
moved  down  to  New  Amsterdam  and  settled  on  sixty-two  acres 
of  land,  which  Jansen  received  in  1636.     He  died  shortly  afterward. 

Anneke  was  left  with  five  children,  though  she,  no  doubt  re- 
ceived some  aid  from  her  mother,  Tryn  Jonas,  midwife,  and  from 
her  sister,  Marritje,  both  of  whom  were  in  New  Amsterdam. 
Kiliaen  van  Rensselaer  released  her  from  what  she  owed  him.  In 
a  letter  of  September  21,  1637,  to  Director  van  Twiller  he  said: 
"I  only  have  from  you  the  recommendation  of  the  widow  ox 
Roeloef  Jansen,  written  to  me  hastily  and  with  few  words  and 
your  oral  greetings  by  Jacob  Wolphertsen.  I  released  the  said 
widow  from  her  debt  long  ago.  My  reason  for  so  doing  I  will 
tell  you  orally,  when  we  meet,  God  willing,   in  good  health.'  ^2^ 

In  March,  1638,  Anneke  was  married  to  the  Dutch  Reformed 
pastor  in  New  Amsterdam,  Everardus  Bogardus,  who  in  1633  had 
come  to  New  Amsterdam  to  succeed  the  ministry  of  Jonas 
Michaelis.     He  had  at  the  time  a  little  church  on  the  East  River 

226  J.  H.  Innes,  New  Amsterdam  and  Its  People,  p.  18.  "The  present 
boundaries  of  the  land  Jansen  obtained  in  1636  are  the  North  River,  Christopher 
Street,  Bedford  Street,  West  Houston  Street,  Sullivan  Street,  Canal  Street,  West 
Broadway,  Barclay  Street,  Broadway,  and  Fulton  Street,  around  to  the  river  again" 
(Appleton's   Cyclopaedia   of   American  Biography,    I.,    p.   301). 

227  Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manuscripts,  p.  352.  Anne  is  the  Norwegian 
spelling  of  Annetje  or  Anneke. 

92  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

shore,  or  upon  the  present  Pearl  Street,  between  Whitehall  and 
Broad  Streets,  and  adjoining  it  was  the  parsonage.  In  addition 
to  his  clerical  duties  he  assumed  the  cares  of  a  landed  proprietor. 
In  the  marriage  settlement,  still  extant,  Anneke  had  provided  for 
the  securing  to  her  first  husband's  children  the  sum  of  200  guilders 
each. 228 

The  sixty-two  acres  of  land  which  she  inherited  from  her 
first  husband  now  got  the  name  of  the  "Domine's  Bouwerie." 
"United  in  early  English  days  to  the  Company's  Bouwerie,  ic 
formed  part  of  the  famous  tract,  which,  bestowed  in  the  time  of 
Queen  Anne  upon  Trinity  Church,  in  the  eighteenth  and  nineteenth 
centuries  was  the  subject  of  repeated  and  hotly  contested  action 
at  law  in  which  Annetje's  name  conspicuously  figured. "22^ 

On  August  12,  1638,  Everardus  Bogardus,  as  the  "husband 
of  the  widow  of  Roelof  Jansen  of  Masterlandt"  gave  Power  of 
Attorney  to  Director  van  Twiller  "to  collect  money  due  said 

Anneke,  no  doubt,  was  now  a  lady  of  leisure  compared  to  what 
she  had  been  when  she  was  farming  with  Roelof  on  de  Laets  Burg. 
But  her  position  as  the  wife  of  a  parson  was  severely  tested  im- 
mediately after  her  second  marriage.  Anthony  Jansen  from  Salee 
and  his  wife,  Grietje  Reiners,  were  none  too  well  disposed  to 
Domine  Bogardus  and  Anneke.  Grietje  found  an  opportunity  of 
circulating  the  report  that  Anneke  had  given  public  offense.  An- 
thony Jansen,  whose  tongue  vied  with  that  of  his  wife,  helped  to 
spread  the  report.    The  matter  came  before  the  Court. 2^1 

Mrs.  Lamb's  version  of  this  case  is  as  follows : 

"Mrs.  Bogardus  went  to  pay  a  friendly  visit  to  a  neighbor ; 
but  on  getting  into  the  'entry',  discovered  that  Greitje  Reinirs,  a 
woman  of  questionable  reputation,  was  in  the  house,  and  there- 
upon turned  about  and  went  home.  Grietje  was  greatly  offended 
at  this  'snubbing'  from  the  Dominie's  lady,  and  followed  her,  mak- 
ing disagreeable  remarks.  While  passing  a  blacksmith's  shop, 
where  the  road  was  muddy,  Mrs.  Bogardus  raised  her  dress  a  little, 
and  Grietje  was  very  invidious   in  her  criticisms.     The   Doniime 

228  J.    H.   Innes,    New    Amsterdam    and    Its    People,    p.    16. 
229  Ibid.,    p.     14.      It    must    not    be     confounded    with    Dominies    Hock, 
other  land  belonging  to  Bogardus. 

230  Calendar  of  Historical   Manuscripts,   I.,   p.   3. 

231  Ibid.,    I.,   pp.   4,    65. 

JANS.  93 

thought  fit  to  make  an  example  of  her;  hence  the  suit.  Grietje's 
husband  being  in  arrears  for  church  dues,  Bogardus  sent  for  him 
and  ordered  payment,  and  not  getting  it,  finally  sued  for  the 
amount."  (See  Lamb,  History  of  the  City  of  New  York,  I.  p.  86). 

Anneke's  second  husband  was  a  fearless  and  outspoken  person. 
He  was  at  variance  with  Governor  Van  Twiller  as  well  as  with  his 
successor  Governor  Kieft.  He  accused  Van  Twiller  of  mal- 
administration and  in  consequence  was  himself  charged  with  un- 
becoming conduct,  and  was  about  to  depart  for  Holland  to  defend 
himself,  but  was  detained  by  Governor  Kieft.  He  opposed  Kieft's 
policy  in  regard  to  the  Indians,  and  in  1645  denounced  him  for 
drunkenness  and  rapacity.  He  was  therefore  brought  to  trial,  but 
compromised  with  Kieft.  But  the  old  difficulties  appeared  again. 
In  1646  the  Director  and  Council  of  Nevv^  Amsterdam  summoned 
Bogardus  to  appear  and  answer  charges  against  him.  The  "sum- 
mons" is  as  long  as  it  is  violent,  likely  the  work  of  Kieft.  We 
shall  give  a  few  extracts  from  it : 

".  .  .  We  have  letters  in  your  own  hand,  among  others,  one 
dated  June  17,  1634,  wherein  you  do  not  appear  to  be  moved  ty 
the  Spirit  of  the  Lord,  but  on  the  contrary  by  a  feeling  becoming 
heathen,  let  alone  Christians,  much  less  a  preacher  of  the  Gospel. 
You  there  berate  your  magistrate,  placed  over  you  by  God,  as  a 
child  of  the  Devil,  an  incarnate  villain,  whose  buck  goats  are  better 
than  he,  and  promise  him  that  you  would  so  pitch  into  him  from 
the  pulpit  on  the  following  Sunday,  that  both  you  and  his  bulwarks 
would  tremble.  .  .  . 

"You  have  indulged  no  less  in  scattering  abuse  during  our 
administration.  Scarcely  a  person  in  the  entire  land  have  you 
spared;  not  even  your  own  wife,  or  her  sister,  particularly  when 
you  were  in  good  company  and  jolly.  Still,  mixing  up  your  human 
passions  with  the  chain  of  truth  which  has  continued  from  time  to 
time,  you  associated  with  the  greatest  criminals  in  the  country, 
taking  their  part  and  defending  them.  .  .  . 

"On  the  25th  of  September,  1639,  having  celebrated  the  Lord's 
Supper,  observing  afterwards  in  the  evening  a  bright  fire  in  the 
Director's  house,  whilst  you  were  at  Jacob  van  Curler's,  being 
thoroughly  drunk,  you  grossly  abused  the  Director  and  Jochim 
Pietersen,  with  whom  you  were  angry.  .  .  . 

94  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

"Since  that  time  many  acts  have  been  committed  by  you, 
which  no  clergyman  would  think  of  doing.  .  .  . 

"Maryn  Adriaensen  came  into  the  Director's  room  with  pre- 
determined purpose  to  murder  him.  He,  notwithstanding,  was  sent 
to  Holland  in  chains  against  your  will.  Whereupon  you  fulminated 
terribly  for  about  fourteen  days  and  desecrated  your  pulpit  by 
your  passion.  .  .  .  Finally,  you  made  up  friends  with  the  Director, 
and  things  became  quiet.  .  .  . 

"In  the  summer  of  .  .  .  (1644)  when  minister  Douthey  ad- 
ministered the  Lord's  Supper  in  the  morning,  you  came  drunk 
into  the  pulpit  in  the  afternoon ;  also  on  Friday  before  Christmas 
of  the  same  year,  when  you  preached  the  sermon  calling  to  repent- 
ance.      .     .     . 

"On  the  21st  March,  1645,  being  at  a  wedding  feast  at  Adam 
Brouwer's  and  pretty  drunk,  you  commenced  scolding  the  Fiscal 
and  Secretary  then  present,  censuring  also  the  Director  not  a  little, 

giving  as  your  reason  that  he  had  called  your  wife  a ,  though 

he  said  there  that  it  was  not  true  and  that  he  never  entertained 
such  a  thought,  and  it  never  could  be  proved.  .  .  . 

"You  administered  the  Lord's  Supper  .  .  .  without  partaking 
of  it  yourself,  setting  yourself  as  a  partisan.  .  ."  ^32 

Such  was  the  husband  of  Anneke  Jans  in  the  opinion  of 
the  highest  official  in  the  land  who  himself  was  so  hateful  to  the 
people  that  he  was  obliged  to  resign. 

Signature    of   Everhard   Boghardus,    second   husband   of   Anneke  Jans. 

When  Kieft  returned  to  Holland,  after  the  arrival  of  Governor 
Stuyvesant  in  1647,  Bogardus  sailed  in  the  same  vessel  to  answer 
the  charges  brought  against  him,  before  the  classis  in  Amsterdam.. 
The  vessel  entered  Bristol  Channel  by  mistake,  and  struck  upon 
a  rock,  going  down  with  eighty  persons,  among  them  Bogardus  and 
Kieft.     This  happened  on  September  27,  1647. 

232   Ecclesiastical   Records   of  the   State  of   New  York,    I.,  p.   196flf. 

JANS.  95 

Anneke  was  thus  widow  for  the  second  time  of  her  days. 
No  doubt  she  had  borne  her  share  of  the  discomfort  caused  by  the 
enmity  between  Kieft  and  Bogardus.  The  following  extract  of 
a  letter  of  Rev.  Megapolensis  in  Albany,  written  August  25,  1648. 
to  the  Classis  of  Amsterdam  shows  what  she  still  had  to  contend 
against,  and  what  was  his  opinion  of  the  Kieft-Bogardus  feud. 

"After  the  Lord  God  was  pleased  to  cut  short  the  thread  of 
life  of  Domine  Bogardus  by  shipwreck  .  .  .,  his  widow  came  here 
to  Fort  Orange  ...  to  reside  and  make  her  living.  She  has  nine 
children  living,  some  by  a  former  husband  and  some  by  Domine 
Bogardus,  and  is  also  deeply  in  debt.  She  has,  however,  no  wav 
to  liquidate  her  debts,  nor  means  for  her  own  subsistence,  unless 
the  West  India  Company  pay  her  the  arrears  of  salary  due  her 
husband.  Domine  Bogardus  repeatedly  asserted  that  a  higher 
salary  was  promised  him,  before  leaving  Holland,  than  he  ever 
received  here.  .  . 

"It  is  now  about  two  years  since  I  was  called  upon  by  Director- 
General  William  Kieft,  to  settle  the  difficulties  between  said  Kieft 
and  Domine  Bogardus.  I  attempted  several  times  to  smooth  the 
differences  which  had  arisen  here,  but  all  in  vain.  Domine  Bo- 
gardus asserted  that  it  could  not  be  done  here,  but  that  the  matter 
ought  to  be  laid  before  the  Hon.  Directors ;  or  even  if  it  could  be 
determined  here,  he  would,  nevertheless,  be  obliged  to  go  home, 
in  order  to  demand,  before  his  death,  the  salary  promisd  him, 
for  the  maintenance  and  support  of  his  family.  .  .  . 

"He  had  been  paid  for  a  considerable  time  only  46  guilders 
per  month,  with  150  guilders  extra  per  year  for  board  money.  .  . 

"Annetje  Bogardus  .  .  .  has  requested  me  to  write  to  the 
Rev.  Classis,  in  her  name  and  in  her  behalf,  in  order  that  the 
Rev.  Classis,  or  the  Deputies  thereof,  might,  for  the  sake  of  a 
preacher's  widow,  petition  the  Company  for  the  money  due  her, 
to  be  paid  to  her  or  her  attorney,  to  enable  her  to  pay  her  debts 
and  support  her  family.  .  .  ."  ^ss 

The  letter  of  Megapolensis,  it  would  appear,  does  not  ex- 
aggerate her  distress.  She  had  several  little  children  to  support, 
though  three  of  her  grown-up  daughters  were  married.  Her  house 
in  New  York  was  situate  on  what  is  now  No.  23  Whitehall  Street 

233  Itid.,   I.,   p.   237. 

96  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

In  1652  she  was  enabled  to  buy  a  lot  in  Albany  on  the  corner  of 
James  and  State  Streets.  Here  she  built  a  house  and  resided  the 
remainder  of  her  life.  It  would  appear  that  her  son-in-law  Pieter 
Hartgers  secured  this  property  for  her.  It  was  "bounded  east  by 
land  of  Jonas  and  Peter  Bogardus,  and  west  by  Evert  Janse  Wen- 
dell. Being  2  rods  8^  feet  wide,  and  5  rods  9  feet  long."  On 
June  21,  1663,  after  the  death  of  Anneke,  it  was  sold  by  the  heirs 
to  Dirck  Wessells.  The  price  was  "1,000  guilders  in  good 
merchantable  beaver  skins,  at  8  guilders  a  piece."  (Collections  of 
the  New  York  Historical  Society,  IV.,  p.  488). 

In  1654  she  obtained  from  Governor  Stuyvesant  a  patent  in 
her  own  name  on  the  land  she  had  inherited  from  her  first  husband. 

This  Patent  reads  as  follows : 

"Petrus  Stuyvesant,  Director-General  of  New  Netherland. 
Curacao  and  the  Islands  thereof,  on  the  behalf  of  their  Noble  High 
Mightinesses  the  Lords  States-General  of  the  United  Netherlands 
and  the  Honorable  Directors  of  the  Incorporated  West  India  Com- 
pany, together  with  the  Honorable  Councillors,  declare  that  We  on 
this  day,  date  underwritten,  have  given  and  granted  to  Annetje 
Jans,  widow  of  the  late  Everardus  Bogardus,  a  piece  of  land  situate 
on  the  Island  of  Manhattan  on  the  North  River,  beginning  at  the 
palisades  near  the  house  on  the  Strand  it  goes  north  by  east  up 
to  the  partition  line  of  old  Jan's  land  is  long  210  rods ;  from  thence 
along  the  partition  line  of  said  Old  Jan's  land  it  extends  E.  by  S. 
up  to  the  Cripple  bush  (swamp)  it  runs  S.  W.  long  160  rods  from 
the  Cripple  bush,  to  the  Strand  it  runs  westerly  in  breadth  50  rods ; 
the  land  that  lies  to  the  south  of  the  house  to  the  partition  line  of 
the  Company's  land  begins  on  the  east  side,  from  the  palisades 
southward  to  the  posts  and  rails  of  the  Company's  land,  without 
obstruction  to  the  path,  it  is  broad  60  rods ;  long  on  the  south  side 
along  the  posts  and  rails  160  rods;  at  the  east  side  to  the  corner 
of  Kalchhook  is  broad  30  rods;  to  the  division  line  of  the  afore- 
said piece  of  land  it  goes  westerly  in  length  100  rods ;  it  makes  all- 
together  31  morgens."  (Historic  New  York.  Ed.  by  Goodwin, 
Royce  and  Putnam  I.,  p.  84  f.) 

Her  will,  dated  January  29,  1663,  and  on  record  in  the  original 
Dutch  in  book  of  Notarial  Papers,  in  the  County  Clerk's  office, 
Albany,  reads  as  follows : 

JANS.  97 

"Will  of  Anneke  Jans  Bogardus.  —  In  the  name  of  the  Lord, 
Amen.  Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  That  this  day,  the  29th 
of  January,  1663,  in  the  afternoon,  about  four  o'clock,  appeared 
before  me,  Derrick  Van  Schelluyne,  notary  public,  in  the  presence 
of  the  witnesses  hereafter  mentioned,  Anneke  Janse,  widow  of 
Roeloff  Janse,  of  Master  Land,  and  now  lastly  widow  of  the 
Reverend  Everhardus  Bogardus,  residing  in  the  village  of  Bever- 
wyck,  and  well  known  to  us,  notary  and  witnesses ;  the  said  Anneke 
Janse  lying  on  her  bed  in  a  state  of  sickness,  but  perfectly  sensible 
and  in  the  full  possession  of  her  mental  powers,  and  capable  to 
testate,  to  which  sound  state  of  mind  we  can  fully  testify.  The 
said  Anneke  Janse  considering  the  shortness  of  life  and  certainty 
of  death  and  the  uncertainty  of  the  hour  or  time,  she,  the  said 
Anneke  Janse,  declared  after  due  consideration,  without  any 
persuasion,  compulsion,  or  retraction,  this  present  document  to  be 
her  last  will  and  testament,  in  manner  following:  First  of  all 
recommending  her  immortal  soul  to  the  Almighty  God,  her  Creator 
and  Redeemer,  and  consigning  her  body  to  Christian  burial,  and 
herewith  revoking  and  annulling  all  prior  testamentary  dispositions 
of  any  kind  whatsoever,  and  now  proceeding  anew,  she  declared 
to  nominate  and  institute  as  her  sole  and  universal  heirs  her  chil- 
dren, Sarah  Roellofson,  wife  of  Hans  Kierstede ;  Catrina  Roeloff- 
sen,  wife  of  Johannes  Van  Brugh.;  also  Jannetje  and  Rachel 
Hartgers,  the  children  of  her  deceased  daughter,  Fytie  Roeloffsen, 
during  her  life  the  wife  of  Peter  Hartgers,  representing  together 
their  mother's  place;  also  her  son  Jan  Roeloffsen,  and  finally,  Wil- 
liam, Cornelius,  Jonas,  and  Peter  Bogardus,  and  to  them  to  be- 
queath all  her  real  estate,  chattels,  money,  gold  and  silver,  coined 
and  uncoined,  jewels,  clothes,  linen,  woolen,  household  furniture, 
and  all  property  what  soever,  without  reserve  or  restriction  of  any 
kind,  to  be  disposed  of  after  her  decease  and  divided  by  them  in 
equal  shares,  to  do  with  the  same  at  their  own  will  and  pleasure 
without  any  hindrance  whatsoever;  provided  never  the  less  with 
this  express  condition  and  restriction  that  her  four  first  born 
children  shall  divide  between  them  out  of  their  father's  property 
the  sum  of  one  thousand  guilders,  to  be  paid  to  them  out  of  the 
proceeds  of  a  certain  farm,  situate  on  Manhattan  Island,  bounded 
on  the  North  river,  and  that  before  any  other  dividend  takes  place ; 
and  as  three  of  these  children  at  the  time  of  their  marriage  received 
certain  donations,  and  as  Jan  Roeloffsen  is  yet  unmarried,  he  is  to 

98  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

receive  a  bed  and  milch  cow ;  and  to  Jonas  and  Peter  Bogardus  she 
gives  a  house  and  lot  situated  to  the  westward  of  the  house  of  the 
testatrix  in  the  village  of  Beverwyck,  going  in  length  until  the  end 
of  a  bleaching  spot,  and  in  breadth  up  to  the  room  of  her,  the 
testatrix,  house,  besides  a  bed  for  both  of  them  and  a  milch  cow 
to  each  of  them,  the  above  to  be  an  equivalent  of  what  the  married 
children  have  received.  Finally,  she,  the  testatrix,  gives  to  Roeloif 
Kierstede,  the  child  of  her  daughter  Sara,  a  silver  mug;  to  Annetje 
Van  Brugh,  the  child  of  her  daughter  Catrina,  also  a  silver  "mug; 
and  to  Jannetje  and  Rachel  Hartgers,  the  children  of  her  daughter 
Fytie,  a  silver  mug  each;  and  to  the  child  of  William  Bogardus 
named  Fytie  also  a  silver  mug;  all  the  above  donations  to  be 
provided  for  out  of  the  first  moneys  received,  and  afterwards  the 
remainder  of  the  property  to  be  divided  and  shared  aforesaid. 
The  testatrix  declares  this  document  to  be  her  only  true  last  will 
and  testament,  and  desiring  that  after  her  decease  it  may  supersede 
all  other  testaments,  codicils,  donations,  or  any  other  instruments 
whatsoever;  and  in  case  any  formalities  may  have  been  omitted, 
it  is  her  will  and  desire  the  same  benefits  may  occur  as  if  they 
actually  had  been  observed ;  and  she  requested  me,  notary  public, 
to  make  one  or  more  lawful  instruments  in  the  usual  form  of 
this,  her,  testatrix,  last  will  and  desire.  Signed,  sealed,  and  de- 
livered at  the  house  of  the  testatrix  in  the  village  of  Beverwyck,  in 
New  Netherland,  in  the  presence  of  Ruth  Jacobse  Van  Schoonder- 
weert  and  Evert  Wendell,  witnesses. 

"This  is  the  -|-  mark  of  Anneke  Janse  with  her  own  hand. 

"Rutger  Jacobus, 
"Evert  Jacobus  Wendell. 
"D.  V.  Schelluyne,  Notary  Public,  1663." 
(For  this  and  other  translations  I  am  indebted  to  Collections 
of  the  New  York  Historical  Society,  IV.,  p.487  fif.) 

Anneke  died  March  19,  1663.  and  lies  buried  in  the  Middle 
Dutch  Church  Yard,  on  Beaver  Street. 

She  was  the  first  Norwegian  "predikantsvrouw"  (pastor's 
wife),  in  New  York.     And  of  all  the  pastors'  wives  in  New  York 

JANS.  99 

she  has  become  the  most  famous.  But  this  fame  is  due  to  chance 
and  circumstance  rather  than  to  Anneke  herself.  Mrs.  Lamb  says : 
"Although  she  (Anneke)  may  not  have  seemed  rich  in  the  days 
when  great  landed  estates  were  to  be  bought  for  a  few  strings  of 
beads,  yet  she  is  reverenced  by  her  numerous  descendants  as  among 
the  very  goddesses  of  wealth.  She  was  a  small  well-formed  woman 
with  delicate  features,  transparent  complexion,  and  bright,  beauti- 
ful dark  eyes.  She  had  a  well-balanced  mind,  a  sunny  disposition, 
winning  manners,  and  a  kind  heart.  .  .  " 

Anneke  Jans'  fame  rests  on  property  and  progeny.  Her  de- 
scendants are  numerous.  Many  of  them  are  wealthy,  some  of 
them  have  been  conspicuous  in  the  litigation  regarding  Anneke 
Jans'  farm.  John  Fiske  speaks  of  this  litigation  as  "one  of  the 
most  pertinacious  cases  of  litigation  known  to  modern  history." 
(The  Dutch  and  Quaker  Colonies  in  America,  II.,  p.  32). 

We  have  mentioned  that  Director  Stuyvesant  gave  the  heirs 
of  Anneke  a  patent,  on  the  land  in  question,  in  1654.  This  patent 
was  confirmed  in  1664  by  Governor  Nicolls,  after  the  English  had 
conquered  New  Netherland.  In  1671  five  of  the  heirs  conveyd  the 
whole  farm  to  Col.  Francis  Lovlace,  then  governor  of  the  province 
of  New  York.  In  1674  the  Duke  of  York  confiscated  it,  so  that 
it  was  the  "Duke's  Farm"  until  1685,  when  with  James'  accession 
to  the  throne  it  became  the  "King's  Farm."  In  1705  it  was  leased 
or  granted  by  the  colonial  authorities  under  Queen  Anne  to  Trinity 
Church.  One  of  Anneke's  sons,  Cornelius,  had  not  joined  in  the 
conveyance  of  1671 ;  the  heirs  of  this  son  have  claimed  that  h's 
failure  to  join  invalidated  the  sale  and  that  they  therefore  had  a 
right  to  their  share  of  the  property.  Between  1750  and  1847  not 
less  than  sixteen  or  seventeen  suits  in  ejectment  were  brought 
against  Trinity  Church  by  heirs  who  coveted  the  property.  They 
were  brought  "with  such  a  persistency  which  seemed  to  learn  no 
lesson  from  defeat.  In  1847  Vice-Chancellor  Sanford  decided 
that,  after  waving  all  other  points,  the  church  had  acquired  a  valid 
title  by  prescription,  and  all  the  adverse  claims  were  vitiated  by 
lapse  of  time"  (Fiske,  Dutch  and  Quaker  Colonies,  II.,  p.  258). 

Let  us  also  quote  from  the  article  "Annetje  Jans'  Farm," 
in  "Historic  New  York"    (I.,  p.  95)  : 

100  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGEANTS    IN    NEW    YOEK,    1630-1674. 

"Sixty-eight  years  after  the  sale  to  Lovlace,  and  thirty-one 
years  after  Queen  Anne's  grant,  the  descendants  of  Corneliu- 
Bogardus  began  to  protest  against  the  occupancy  of  Trinity  Church. 
There  was  a  confused  notion  then  as  to  what  they  could  claim, 
and  this  confusion  has  increased  in  the  minds  of  the  "heirs"  during 
two  hundred  years.  The  history  of  the  repeated  suits  is  long 
and  involved.  No  court  has  sustained  the  claims  of  the  "heirs" 
for  a  minute,  and  yet,  with  every  generation,  new  claimants  appear, 
though  every  possible  right  has  long  since  been  outlawed.  Mr. 
Schuyler  says  in  his  Colonial  New  York:  'In  view  of  the  repeated 
decisions  of  the  highest  judicial  tribunals  and  of  their  publicity, 
any  lawyer  who  can  now  advise  or  encourage  the  descendants  of 
Annetje  Jans  to  waste  their  money  in  any  proceedings  to  recover 
this  property  must  be  considered  as  playing  on  the  ignorance  of 
simple  people,  and  as  guilty  of  conscious  fraud,  and  of  an  attempt 
to  obtain  money  under  false  pretenses.'  Mr.  Schuyler  made  a 
close  study  of  the  subject,  and  is  himself  a  distinguished  descendant 
of  Roelof  and  Annetje  Jans." 

As  late  as  1891  Trinity  Corporation  found  it  necessary  to 
publish  the  following: 

"To  all  whom  it  may  concern : 

"As  letters  are  being  constantly  received  from  various  places 
in  the  United  States  making  inquiries  about  suits  pending  against 
this  corporation  in  respect  to  its  property,  or  about  negotiations 
assumed  to  be  on  foot  in  respect  to  the  alleged  claims  of  the 
descendants  of  Anneke  Jans  or  of  other  persons,  notice  is  hereby 
given  that  no  such  suits  are  pending,  and  no  such  negotiations  are 
going  on,  and  all  persons  who  suppose  themselves  to  be  descend- 
ants of  Anneke  Jans,  or  otherwise  interested  in  claims  hostile  to 
this  corporation,  are  cautioned  against  paying  out  money  to  any 
person  alleging  the  pendency  of  such  suits  or  negotiations." 

Societies  have  been  formed  like  the  Anneke  Jans  Association, 
founded  in  Astor  House  Library  in  New  York,  1867,  The  Anneke 
Jans  International  Union,  etc.  But  no  organized  endeavor  has  as 
yet  succeeded  in  invalidating  the  claim  of  the  Trinity  Corporation. 
It  has  continued  to  enjoy  all  the  benefits  and  revenues  of  the  vast 
property  to  this  day.  No  wonder  that  Trinity  Church  can  con- 
tribute more  than  four  hundred  thousand  dollars  a  year  to  charity! 

EOELOFS   (JANSE).  101 

Trinity  Church  is  Episcopal.  It  is  the  wealthiest  church  organiza- 
tion in  America  and  it  is  continually  reminded  of  it,  even  in  the 
twentieth  century. 

For  as  late  as  1909  Trinity  Corporation  was  sued  again  by 
an  heir  of  Anneke  Jans.  Mary  Fonda  wanted,  as  heir,  one  per  cent 
of  valuable  Trinity  property. 

Regarding  the  descendants  of  Anneke  Jans,  see :  I.  Munsell, 
Collections  on  the  History  of  Albany  II. ;  and  The  New  York 
Genealogical  and  Biographical  Record. 

See  also  S.  P.  Nash,  Anneke  Jans  Bogardus,  her  farm,  and 
how  it  became  the  Property  of  Trinity  Church,  New  York,  1896. 

Of  the  many  prominent  families  which  by  ties  of  marriage 
have  augmented  the  genealogy  of  Anneke  Jans,  Mr.  Torstein  Jahr's 
article  in  "Symra"  mentions  Bayard,  De  Lancey,  De  Peyster, 
Jouverneur,  Jay,  Knickerbocker,  Morris,  Schuyler,  Stuyvesant, 
Van  Cortland  and  Van  Rensselaer. 


Fyntie  Roelofs  (Janse)  accompanied  her  parents,  Roelof 
Jansen  and  Anneke  Jans,  to  New  Netherland,  in  1630.  She  was 
from  Marstrand,  then  belonging  to  Norway.  She  lived  from  1630 
to  about  1634  with  her  parents  on  de  Laets  Burg,  and  since  1635 
in  New  Amsterdam.  She  married  Pieter  Hartgers,  who  came  to 
New  Amsterdam  in  1643  in  the  service  of  the  West  India  Com- 
pany, and  first  settled  at  Fort  Orange.  He  was  engaged  much  of 
his  time  in  trading  with  the  Indians.  He  made  long  expeditions 
into  the  forest  to  get  their  trade.  From  November  1,  1644,  to 
February  1,  1648,  he  received  in  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck 
a  salary  of  fl.  14  a  month.  During  this  period  he  seems  to  havo 
assisted  de  Hooges  in  the  management  of  the  colony  of  Rensselaers- 
wyck. As  early  as  1646  he  appears  to  have  had  a  brewery.  On 
May  4,  1649,  he  and  de  Hooges  leased,  for  three  years,  a  garden 
between  Fort  Orange  and  the  patroon's  hoof,  where  formerly  the 
patroon's  trading  house  stood.  About  the  same  time  he  agreed 
to  pay  an  annual  rent,  beginning  in  1653,  of  four  beavers  for  a 
lot  for  his  mother-in-law,  Anneke  Jans,  on  which  lot  he  built  a 

102  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGEANTS    IN    NEW    YOEK,    1630-1674. 

house  for  her.  From  May  1,  1653  to  May  1,  1658  Pieter  Hartgers, 
Volckert  Janszz  (a  Dane),  and  Jan  Thomasz  were  joint  lessees 
of  a  farm  on  Papscanee  Island. 

Signature  of  Pieter  Hartgers,  husband  of  Fyntie  Roelofs. 

He  was  one  of  the  magistrates  in  Albany  in  1658.  He  ac- 
quired the  reputation  of  a  great  expert  as  to  the  value  of  Indian 
money  (shell  money),  and  was  appointed  in  1659  a  commissioner 
at  Albany  to  estimate  Indian  wampum. 

In  1652  he  bought  a  parcel  of  ground,  in  New  Amsterdam, 
from  Van  Couwenhoven.  (About  his  house  and  lot  in  New  Am- 
sterdam, see  Valentine's  Manual  of  the  City  of  New  York  1865, 
pp.  659,  663.) 

In  1664  his  property  was  confiscated,  perhaps  on  account  oi 
a  refusal  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  English  government. 

By  Fyntie  Roelofs,  Hartgers  had  two  children,  Jannetys  and 
Rachel.  Fyntie  died  before  1663,  when  her  mother  Anneke  Jans 
made  her  will.  The  portion  of  inheritance  which  Fyntie  was 
entitled  to  was  therefore  willed  to  her  daughters  Jannetys  and 
Rachel.  (See  Van  Rensselaer  Bowie  Manuscripts,  p.  834 ;  J.  H. 
Innes,  New  Amsterdam  and  Its  People,  p.  80.)  Jannetys  (Jan- 
neke)  was  baptized  September  5,  1649. 


Katrina  Roelofs  (Janse),  a  daughter  of  Roelof  Jansen  and 
Anneke  Jans,  from  Marstrand,  Norway,  came  with  her  parents 
to  New  Netherland  in  1630.  She  lived  with  them  on  de  Laets 
Burg  till  1634 — 1635,  when  the  entire  family  moved  to  New  Am- 
sterdam. She  was  married  first  to  Lukas  Rodenburgh,  who  was 
Vice  Director  of  Curacao  (1644  to  1655),  then,  on  April  24,  1658, 
to  Johannes  Pietersen  van  Brugh,  who  was  a  merchant  and  later 
member  of  the  first  board  of  aldermen  in  New  Amsterdam,  captain 

EOELOFS   (JANSE).  103 

in  the  New  York  militia,  burgomaster  of  New  Orange.  (New 
Amsterdam  or  New  York  was  called  New  Orange  from  February, 
1673  to  November  1674.)  In  1674  Katrina  and  her  husband  lived 
in  their  house,  rated  as  first  class  and  valued  at  $15,000,  in  New 
Amsterdam,  on  the  present  west  side  of  Pearl  St.  between  Wall 
and  William  St.  (Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York, 
1896,  p.  167.)    They  were  members  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church. 

XJL^  YlM 

t/?>*t^^/t^ -^^^ 

Signature  of  Johannes  Van  Brugh,    1659,   second  husband  of  Katrina  Roelofs. 

Katrina  and  one  of  her  daughters  whom  she  had  by  Roden- 
burgh  are  mentioned  several  times  in  the  Journal  of  Jasper  Danck- 
aerts,  1679—1680  (edited  by  Rev.  B.  B.  James,  in  "Original  Narra- 
tives of  Early  American  History,"  1913).  Danckaerts  and  his 
companion,  Sluyter,  were  Labadists  who  had  come  over  to  this 
country  in  order  to  find  a  location  for  the  establishment  of  a 
colony  of  Labadists.  Aided  by  Ephraim  Herrman,  who  was  the 
eldest  son  of  Augustine  Herrman  and  had  married  Elizabeth 
Rodenburgh,  September,  1679,  they  received  a  tract  of  3,750  acres 
upon  Bohemia  Manor,  in  Maryland,  a  part  of  the  24,000  acres 
of  land  belonging  to  Augustine  Herrman  of  Prague.  The  elder 
Herrman  was  at  first  favorably  impressed  with  Danckaerts  and 
Sluyter,  and,  as  he  was  ambitious  of  colonizing  and  developing  his 
estates,  he  consented  to  deed  them  a  large  tract  of  land.  The 
two  Labadists  soon  set  sail  for  Europe.  But  when  they  returned 
in  1683,  Augustine  Herrman  had  repented  of  his  bargain.  By 
recourse  of  law  the  Labadists  compelled  him  to  live  up  to  its  terms, 
and  in  consequence  received  the  tract  of  3,750  acres. 

We  shall  quote  the  following,  from  Jasper  Danckaert's 
Journal   (September,   1679): 

"Ephraim  had   for  a  long  time  sought   in   marriage   at   New 

104  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

York  a  daughter  of  the  late  governor  of  Carsou  .  .  .  Johan  van 
Rodenburgh.  She  Hved  with  her  mother  on  the  Manhatan,  who, 
after  the  death  of  her  husband,  Rodenburgh,  married  one  Johannes 
van  Burgh,  by  whom  she  had  several  children.  Her  daughter, 
Elizabeth  van  Rodenburgh,  being  of  a  quiet  turn  of  mind,  and 
quite  sickly,  had  great  inclination  to  remain  single.  Ephraim,  how 
ever,  finally  succeeded  in  his  suit,  and  married  her  at  New  York. 
He  brought  her  with  him  to  Newcastle  on  the  South  River,  and  we 
accompanied  them  on  the  journey  .  .  .  Elizabeth  van  Rodenburg 
has  the  quietest  disposition  we  have  observed  in  America.  She 
is  politely  educated.  She  had  through  her  entire  youth  a  sleeping 
sickness  of  which  she  seems  now  to  be  free.  She  has  withdrawn 
herself  much  from  the  idle  company  of  youth,  seeking  God  in 
quiet  and  solitude.  She  professes  the  Reformed  religion,  is  a 
member  of  that  Church,  and  searches  for  the  truth  which  she 
has  found  nowhere  except  in  the  word  and  preaching,  which  she 
therefore  much  attended  upon  and  loved,  but  which  never  satisfied 
her,  as  she  felt  a  want  and  yearning  after  something  more.  She 
vvas  so  pleased  at  our  being  near  her,  and  lodged  at  her  house, 
she  could  not  abstain  from  frequently  declaring  so,  receiving  all 
that  we  said  to  her  with  gratitude,  desiring  always  to  be  near  us; 
and  following  the  example  of  her  husband,  she  corrected  many 
things,  with  the  hope  and  promise  of  persevering  if  the  Lord 
would  be  pleased  so  to  give  her  grace.  We  were  indeed  much 
comforted  with  these  two  persons,  who  have  done  much  for  us 
out  of  sincere  love." 

Under  date  of  January  2,  1680,  Danckaerts  relates  that  he 
and  his  companion,  on  a  journey  northward,  had  letters  along  from 
Ephraim  and  his  wife  which  they  gave  "to  her  mother  and  father 
(step-father  Van  Brugh),  who  welcomed  us.  We  told  them  of  the 
good  health  of  their  children,  and  the  comfort  and  hope  which 
they  gave  us,  which  pleased  them."  February  6.  the  same  year, 
Danckaerts  writes :  "I  .  .  translated  the  Verheffinge  des  Geestes 
tot  God  [The  Lifting  up  of  the  Soul  to  God.  Labadie's  publica- 
tion, 1667]  to  Dutch  [evidently  he  had  the  original  French  text 
in  hand],  for  Elizabeth  Rodenburgh  ...  in  order  to  send  her  i 
token  of  gratitude  for  the  acts  of  kindness  enjoyed  at  her  house, 
as  she  had  evinced  a  great  inclination  for  it,  and  relished  it  much, 
when  sometimes  we  read  portions  of  it  to  her  while  we  were  there." 

EOELOFS   (JANSE).  105 

It  was  not  Elizabeth,  but  her  husband  that  the  Labadists  suc- 
ceeded in  converting.  Ephraim,  after  living  with  his  wife  for 
nine  years,  abandoned  wife  and  family  to  join  the  Labadists. 
He  soon  repented  of  his  step,  returned  home,  became  insane  and 
"died  cursed  by  his  father  for  having  associated  with  those  re- 
ligious visionaries." 

On  March  24,  1692,  Elizabeth,  then  a  widow,  was  married  to 
John  Donaldson,  from  'Galleway'.  Catharina,  whom  Katrina 
Roelofs  had  by  her  second  husband,  married,  March  19,  1689  (?), 
Hendrick  van  Rensselaer,  grandson  of  Kiliaen  Van  Rensselaer. 
She  had  nine  children. 

An  extract  of  the  will  of  Katrina  Roelofs  third  husband  is 
found  in  "Collections  of  the  New  York  Hist.  Society,"  XXV.. 
pp.  89  f.,  93  f. 


Sara  Roelofs  (Janse)  was  the  first  daughter  of  Roelof  and 
Anneke  Jans,  with  whom  she  arrived  in  New  Netherland  in  1630. 
She  was  with  them  on  "de  Laets  Burg"  till  1634 — 1635,  when  the 
family  removed  to  New  Amsterdam  and  settled  on  their  farm 
of  62  acres,  on  which  Roelof  had  obtained  a  patent  in  1636. 

Sara  was  married  three  times.  Her  first  husband,  to  whom 
she  was  married  June  29,  1642,  was  Hans  Kierstede,  a  German, 
from  Magdeburg.  He  was  a  physician  in  New  Amsterdam.  Sara 
and  Hans  lived  in  the  house  next  to  that  of  a  Norwegian,  Roelof 
Jansen  Haes.  It  was  at  their  wedding,  that  Governor  Kieft,  tak- 
ing advantage  of  the  condition  of  the  guests  after  the  fourth  or 
fifth  drink,  induced  them  to  subscribe  very  liberally  toward  build- 
ing a  new  church  in  the  Fort.  "The  disposition  to  be  generous 
was  not  wanting  at  such  a  time.  Each  guest  emulated  his  neighbor, 
and  a  handsome  list  was  made  out.  When  the  morning  came,  a 
few  were  found  desirous  of  reconsidering  the  transaction  of  the 
wedding  feast.  But  Director  Kieft  would  allow  no  such  second 
thought.  They  must  all  pay  without  exception."  By  Hans 
Kierstede  Sara  had  ten  children.  Both  Hans  and  Sara  were  mem- 
bers of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church. 

Mrs.  Van  Rensselaer,  in  "History  of  the  City  of  New  York," 

106  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

I.,  p.  190,  says,  Kierstede  and  La  Montagne  "were  the  chief 
physicians  of  New  Amsterdam,  although  one  named  Van  der  Bo- 
gaert  practised  before  their  arrival,  and  by  1638  there  were  three 
others,  probably  ships'  surgeons  whose  stay  was  brief.  Kierstede's 
descendants  followed  in  his  steps :  it  is  believed  that  always  since 
his  time  New  York  has  had  a  physician  or  an  apothecary  of  his 
blood  and  name." 

Sara  was  styled  one  of  the  "good  women"  of  New  Amster- 
dam, at  least  in  1662,  as  is  seen  from  the  following: 

On  September  19,  1662,  a  Jan  Gelder  sued  Grietje  Pieters 
for  three  guilders,  sixteen  stivers,  wages  she  owed  him.  Grietje 
admitted  the  debt,  but  said  that  she  had  given  to  Gelder's  wife 
some  linen  to  make  caps,  and  she  spoiled  the  caps.  The  Court 
referred  "the  matter  in  question  to  Sara  Roeloftzen,  wife  of  Mr. 
Hans  Kierstede,  and  to  Metje  Greveraats  to  take  up  the  matter 
in  question,  to  inspect  the  linen  caps,  to  settle  parties'  case,  and 
if  possible  to  reconcile  them ;  if  not  to  report  their  decision  to  the 
Court."  On  October  3,  the  case  was  again  before  the  court.  The 
defendant  was  in  default.  "Pltf.  says  that  the  deft,  is  not  willing 
to  appear  before  the  "good  women"  (female  arbitrators),  and  that 
Sara  Roelofs,  appointed  by  the  W.  Court  will  not  have  anything 
to  do  with  the  matter,  as  she  will  not  be  opposed  to  either  one  party 
or  the  other."  The  Court  insited  that  Janneke  van  Gelder  must 
either  appear  before  the  "good  women"  or  make  good  the  damage 
estimated  by  them.^^* 

Sara  was  more  than  the  ordinary  arbitrating  "good  woman." 
She  was  well  acquainted  with  the  Indian  language,  and  acted  on 
divers  occasions  as  interpreter  for  Peter  Stuyvesant  and  the 
Indians.  In  return  for  her  service,  Oratany,  sachem  of  Hackingke- 
sacky.  made  her  a  present  of  a  large  neck  or  tract  of  land  on 
the  west  side  of  the  Hudson. 

Her  second  husband,  to  whom  she  was  married  September  1, 
1669,  was  Cornelius  of  Dorsum,  owner  of  the  Long  Island  ferry. 
Her  third  husband  was  Elbert  Elbertsen  Stouthoff.  She  was 
married  to  him  in  1683. 

234  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,    1653-1674,   IV.,   pp.   136,   143. 

EOELOFS   (JANSE).  107 

Sara  had  several  slaves  as  appears  from  her  will  which  reads 
as  follows : 

"Sara  Roelofifse."  In  the  name  of  God,  Amen.  Be  it  known 
to  all  whom  it  may  concern,  that  I,  Sara  Roeloffse,  late  widow 
of  Elbert  Elbertse  Stouthoff,  considering  the  frailty  and  shortness 
of  Human  life,  Do  make  my  last  will  in  manner  folowing.  1st. 
I  commit  my  immortal  Soul  into  the  merciful  hands  of  God  Al- 
mighty, and  my  body  to  a  decent  burial.  2nd.  I  revoke  all  other 
wills.  Now  I  will  before  anything  else  to  my  daughter  Blandina, 
of  this  city,  a  negro  boy,  Hans.  To  my  son  Luycas  Kierstede, 
my  Indian,  named  Ande.  To  my  daughter  Catharine  Kierstede, 
a  negress,  named  Susannah.  To  my  son-in-law,  Johannes  Kip, 
husband  of  my  said  daughter  Catharine,  my  negro,  Sarah,  in  con- 
sideration of  great  trouble  in  settling  the  accounts  of  my  late 
husband,  Cornelius  Van  Dorsum,  in  Esopus  and  elsewhere.  To 
my  son  Jochem  Kierstede,  a  little  negro,  called  Maria,  during  his 
life,  and  then  to  Sarah,  the  eldest  daughter  of  my  son  Roeloff 
Kierstede  by  Ytie  Kierstede.  To  my  son  Johannes  Kierstede,  a 
negro  boy  Peter.  I  leave  to  my  daughter  Anna  Van  Dorsum,  by 
my  former  husband,  Cornelius  Van  Dorsum,  on  account  of  her 
simplicity,  my  small  house  and  kitchen,  and  lot  situate  in  this  city, 
between  the  land  of  Jacob  Mauritz  and  my  bake  house,  with  this 
express  condition,  that  she  shall  not  be  permitted  to  dispose  of 
the  same  by  will  or  otherwise,  but  to  be  hers  for  life  and  then 
to  the  heirs  mentioned  in  this  will. 

"It  is  my  will  that  my  son  Luycas  Kierstede  shall  have  the 
privilege  of  buying  the  house  where  he  now  lives  and  the  bake 
house  and  lot  belonging  to  the  same  and  to  pay  the  money  for 
the  same  to  the  other  heirs,  he  to  retain  his  share.  I  have  fully 
satisfied  my  sons  Hans  Kierstede  and  Roelofif  Kierstede  for  their 
share  in  thier  father's  estate,  being  40  Deavers,  as  by  account  for 
the  same,  the  rest  of  my  estate  I  leave  to  the  seven  children  of 
me  and  my  deceased  husband,  Hans  Kierstede,  viz,  Roeloff,  Dlan- 
dina,  Jochem,  Luycas,  Catrine,  Jacobus,  Rachel,  and  the  children 
of  my  deceased  son  Hans  Kierstede  by  his  wife  Jannike  equally. 
Only  Hans  Kierstede  the  eldest  son  of  my  deceased  son  Hans 
Kierstede  shall  have  £1  for  his  birthright.  I  appoint  as  guardians 
of  my  daughter  Anna  Van  Dorsum,  and  managers  of  her  house 
and  lot  my  son-in-law  Johannes  Kip,  and  my  son  Luycas  Kierstede, 

108  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

and  my  son-in-law  Wni  Teller,  giving  them  full  power  as  executors. 

"Dated  July  29,  1693.  Witnesses  VVm.  Bogardus,  Jacobus 
Maurits,  —  Hoaglandt. 

"Codicil,  August  7,  1693,  confirms  the  above  will  and  leaves 
all  her  clothing  to  her  daughters  Blandina,  Catharine  and  Rachel, 
and  to  each  of  the  wives  of  my  5  sons  a  silver  spoon." 

"Witness    Brandt    Schuyler,   Justice    of    the    Peace.     Proved, 
October  21,  1693." 

(Collections  of  the  New  York  Historical  Society,  XXV.,  pp. 
225.     The  will  is  corrected  according  to  ibid.  XL.,  p.  24.) 


Tryn  Jonas,  or  Kathrine  Jonas,  was  from  Marstrand,  Nor- 
way.235  She  was  the  mother  of  Anneke  Jans,  wife  of  Roelof 
Jansen,  who  with  his  family  immigrated  to  New  Netherland  in 
1630.  For  a  long  time  she  occupied  a  position  under  the  West 
India  Company  as  its  official  midwife,  an  incident  showing  how 
the  Company  made  provision  for  the  welfare  of  its  colonists. 
"She  was,"  says  J.  H.  Innes,  "duly  sensible  of  the  dignity  and 
importance  of  her  office,  which  she  exercised  with  great  independ- 
ence, even  to  the  extent  of  refusing  upon  various  occasions  to 
attend  certain  of  her  patients  with  whose  antecedents  she  was 
not  satisfied."  236  Under  date  of  August  31,  1642,  Catalina  Trico 
and  her  daughter  Sarah  Rapalji  made  a  declaration  "respecting 
the  conduct  of  Tryn  Jonas,  midwife,  when  sent  for  to  attend  said 
Trico."  237  ^g  (Jq  j^qI-  i^now  the  nature  of  this  declaration,  nor 
of  another  declaration  of  the  midwife  herself,  on  July  7,  1644, 
"respecting  a  confession  of  Helligond  Joris  as  to  the  paternity 
of  her  child"23s  —  very  likely  some  of  the  manuscript  material  in 
Albany  will  reveal  it  —  but  it  seems  that  Tryn  Jones  was  an  exact- 
ing midwife. 

It  would  appear  that  she  stayed  sometime  with  her  daughter 

235  Van    Rensselaer   Bowier    Manuscripts,    57,    note. 

236  J.   H.   Innes,    New  Amsterdam   and   Its   People,    p.    15. 

237  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    20. 

238  Ibid.,    I.,   p.    28. 

JONAS.  109 

in  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck.  For  Kiliaen  van  Rensselaer 
complained  in  a  letter  of  April  23,  1634,  that  Roelof  Jansen  was 
drawing  too  heavily  on  his  accounts.  He  was  inclined  to  believe 
that  Roelof's  wife,  sister-in-law,  and  mother-in-law  had  given 
things  away.-^® 

After  Jansen  had  moved  down  to  New  Amsterdam,  Tryn 
Jonas  had  no  reason  to  be  lonesome.  Her  daughter  Anneke  had 
several  daughters  who  married  and  got  children.  Anneke  herself 
had  children  by  her  second  husband  Domine  Bogardus,  whom  she 
married  in  1638.  We  find  Tryn  Jonas  as  sponsor  at  the  baptism 
of  Anneke's  and  Bogardus's  child,  Cornelis,  who  was  baptized  on 
September  9,  1640 ;  likewise  at  the  baptism  of  their  child,  Jan, 
January  4,  1643.  On  September  21,  1644,  she  was  sponsor  at  the 
baptism  of  Jan,  son  of  her  granddaughter  Sara  and  Dr.  Kier- 
stede.2*o  Tryn  Jonas  could  also  visit  her  other  daughter,  Marritjc, 
whenever  she  desired ;  for  she,  too,  lived  in  New  Amsterdam  and 
had  a  family. 

On  February  4,  1644,  Tryn  Jonas  obtained  a  grant  of  land 
from  the  West  India  Company,  a  lot  upon  Pearl  Street  where 
she  built  a  house.^*! 

On  September  15,  1644,  her  son-in-law,  Bogardus  brought,  in 
her  behalf,  action  against  Jacob  Ray  (Kay,  Hay?)  "for  a  small 
piece  of  ground."  It  was  ordered  "that  the  Director  and  Council 
examine  the  ground  in  dispute."  2*2 

She  died  before  1647.  The  West  India  Company  was  owing 
her  money  at  the  time.  Her  daughters  claimed  it,  and  her  son- 
in-law.  Rev.  Bogardus,  was  to  collect  it.  Dirck  Cornelissen,  the 
second  husband  of  her  daughter  Marritje  (he  had  married  her 
September  9,  1646),  gave,  in  1647,  power  of  attorney  to  Bogardus 
"to  receive  money  due  said  midwife  by  the  West  India  Com- 
pany." 243  After  the  death  of  Rev.  Bogardus,  his  widow  Anneke 
gave  power  of  attorney  to  Cornelis  Willemsen  Bogaert,  a  brother 
of  the  pastor  and  a  resident  of  Leyden,  "to  receive  moneys  due 

239  Van    Rensselaer    Bowier    Manuscripts,    p.    281.     It    is    possible    that    Tryn 
Jonas  was  in  New  Amsterdam  before  1630. 

240  Collections   of    the   New    York    Genealogical    and   Biographical    Society,    II., 
pp.  11,   14,   16,   18. 

241  Calendar   of   Historical    Mannscripts,   I.,    p.    368.     Year   Book    of   the   Hol- 
land Society  of  New  York,   1901,  p.   125. 

242  Calendar  of  Historical   Manuscripts,    I.,   p.    91. 

243  Ibid.,    I.,   p.    41. 

110  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

Tryn  Jansen,  her  mother,  late  midwife,  by  the  West  India  Com- 
pany at  Amsterdam."  2** 


Marritje  Janse  was  the  sister  of  Anneke  Jans  from  Marstrand 
and  the  daughter  of  Tryn  Jonas.  Kiliaen  van  Rensselaer  men- 
tions her  in  a  letter  of  April,  1634,  as  being,  in  his  opinion,  partly 
to  blame  for  Roelof  Jansen's  "grossly"  running  up  his  accounts 
in  drawing  provisions :  "I  think  that  his  wife,  mother  and  sister 
and  others  must  have  given  things  away,  which  can  not  be  al- 

Marritje  married  three  times.  Her  first  husband  was  Tymen 
Jansen  (born  in  1603)  who  for  several  years,  from  1633  or  perhaps 
earlier,  was  the  leading  shipwright  in  New  Amsterdam,  where  he 
constructed  many  vessels.  At  the  request  of  the  Director  he  made 
in  1639  a  list  of  the  ships  that  had  been  built  or  repaired  in  New 
Amsterdam  during  Van  Twiller's  administration  (1633 — 1638). 
He,  too,  may  have  been  from  Marstrand. ^^^ 

We  shall  give  the  following  data  concerning  Tymen.  On 
May  30,  1639,  he  gave  a  note  for  100  guilders  to  the  deacons  of 
the  church  in  New  Amsterdam. ^-^^  On  September  29,  in  the  same 
year,  he  gave  power  of  attorney  to  Laurens  Laurensen,  to  collect 
money  due  him  in  Holland. ^^^  On  February  17,  1640,  he  and 
Domine  Bogardus  furnished  bond  as  guardians  of  the  children  of 
the  "late  Cornells  van  Vorst."  248  Qn  August  2,  1640,  he  sued 
Laurens  Haen  for  slander.     On  August  23,  he  won  his  case,  and 

244  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   49. 

245  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  XIV.,  p.  17.  Mrs.  Van  Rensselaer,  in 
"History  of  the  City  of  New  York,"  I.,  p.  103,  says  that  Director  Minuit  subsidized 
in  1631  certain  Swedish  shipwrights,  who,  bringing  the  timber  from  far  up  the 
North  River,  built  at  Manhattan  a  great  Ship  called  the  "New  Netherland, "  one  of 
the  largest  merchantmen  then  afloat,  everywhere  exciting  wonder  by  its  size  and 
by  the  excellence  and  variety  of  the  timber  used  in  its  construction.  Is  the  asser- 
tion that  they  were  Swedish  an  inference?  I  have  found  no  documentary  evidence 
in  support  of  it.  Would  the  supposition  be  unfounded  that  Tymen.  as  one  of  these 
shipwrights,  originally  was  from  Marstrand,  or  from  some  other  part  of  Norway,  or 
from   Denmark?     He   appears   to   have   lived   for   some   time    at    "Munikendamm". 

Marritje   probably    came   to   New   York   in    1630. 

246  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    8. 

247  Ibid.,   p.    11. 

248  Ibid.,  p.   12. 

JANSE.  Ill 

Laurens  Haen  was  fined. 2-*''  On  September  9,  Tymen  was  sponsor 
at  the  baptism  of  Cornells,  son  of  Bogardus. 

In  1642  he  received  land  on  the  east  side  of  Mespachtes  kill, 
behind  Domine's  Hook   (Newton,  Long  Island). ^'^o 

On  April  31,  1642,  he  gave  power  of  attorney  to  Dirck  Cor- 
sen  Stam  to  receive  a  certain  procuration  from  Dr.  Thomas  Sees. 
In  August  he  was  in  litigation  with  Dirck  Corsen  Stam  concerning 
a  collection  of  550    guilders. ^''i 

On  December  6,  he  gave  power  of  attorney  to  George  Grace 
to  receive  certain  tobacco  for  him  in  Virginia.^^^ 

On  July  3,  1643,  he  obtained  a  patent  of  640  rods.  10  fee^ 
5  inches  of  land  on  the  Island  of  Manhattan.  On  July  13,  in  the 
same  year,  he  received  a  groundbrief  of  22  morgens,  324  rods 
of  land  with  valley  on  Long  Island   (Newton). 2^3 

Tymen  must  have  resided  upon  the  land  which  he  received, 
July  3,  1643,  for  ten  or  twelve  years  before  he  obtained  the  patent 
of  it.  "It  seems  to  have  stretched  along  the  river  road,  about 
from  the  present  No.  125  Pearl  Street  to  what  is  now  the  rear 
of  the  Seaman's  Savings  Bank  building  at  the  northwest  corner  of 
Pearl  and  Wall  streets,  —  a  distance  of  about  four  hundred  and 
fifty  feet.  In  depth  this  plot  of  ground  averaged  almost  two 
hundred  and  twenty-five  feet,  so  that  its  area  amounted  to  more 
than  two  acres."  ^54  jn  1544  jt  became  the  property  of  Jan  Jansen 
Damen,  the  step-father  of  Dirk  Holgersen's  wife. 

The  land  which  Tymen  received  in  1642  and  July  3,  1643, 
covers  "the  site  of  the  present  court  house  of  Queen's  County  and 
its  vicinity,  in  Long  Island  City."  ^^s 

In  1644  the  Director  and  Council  complained  against  "Andrie^ 
Rouloffsen,  the  Company's  boatswain,  and  Tymen  Jansen"  for 
neglecting  to  repair  the  yachts  "Amsterdam"  and  "Prins  Willem." 
Tymen  replied  "that  he  has  done  his  best,  and  cannot  know  when 
a  vessel  is  leaky  unless  those  in  charge  inform  him  of  the  fact; 
furthermore  that  nothing  can  be  done  without  means."  ^^s  Hq 
was  independent. 

249  Ibid.,   pp.   72f. 

250  Ibid.,   p.   366. 

251  Ibid.,   p.    81. 

252  Ibid.,   p.  367. 

253  Ibid.,  p.  368. 

254  J.  H.   Innes,   New   Ajnsterdam   and   Its   People,   p.    271. 

255  Ibid.,    p.    276. 

256  Calendar    of    Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    26. 

112  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

After  1644  we  hear  nothing  more  of  Tymen  Jansen.  He 
died  before  1646.  For  in  that  year  (September  9)  his  widow 
married  Dirck  Cornelisen,  of  Wensveen.^^'^ 

Marritje  had  by  Tymen  a  daughter,  Elsie,  who  was  born  about 
1633 — 1634.  Marritje  was  member  of  the  Dutch  Reformed 

Marritje's  second  husband  was  a  carpenter,  probably  the  son 
of  Cornelis  Leendertsen.  His  house  appears  to  have  stood  on  the 
western  end  of  the  present  Coffee  Exchange.  He  died  about  two 
years  after  the  marriage.  By  him  Marritje  had  a  son,  Cornelis, 
who  was  baptized  February  17,  1647,2^  ^  the  sponsors  being  Hans 
Kierstede,  Willem  Kay,  Anneke  Bogardus.     This  son  died  in  1678. 

Marritje  now  married,  July  20,  1649,  her  third  husband, 
Covert  Loockermans,  a  widower.  Loockermans  brought  her  his 
two  little  daughters,  from  a  former  marriage,  Marritje  and  Jan- 
netje,  respectively  eight  and  six  years  old.  His  original  home  was 
Turnhout,  a  town  about  twenty-five  miles  from  Antwerp.  He  had 
come  to  New  Amsterdam  in  1633  as  assistant  cook  on  a  yacht.  He 
had  served  as  clerk  in  the  office  of  the  West  India  Company,  had 
become  a  fur  trader,  had  made  a  visit  to  Netherlands  in  1640,  re- 
turning in  1641  with  a  wife.  He  was,  as  Mr.  Innes  says,  a  bold 
and  enterprising  trader  "careless  of  whose  corns  he  trod  upon  .  ,  , 
in  his  pursuit  of  gain :  ready,  apparently,  at  any  time  to  furnish 
the  Indians  with  firearms,  powder,  and  balls,  in  exchange  for  their 
furs ;  and  declining  to  permit  any  interference  in  his  business 
by  persons  of  adverse  interest."  ^^s 

Govert  Loockermans  became  one  of  the  richest  men  in  the 
province  of  New  York.  He  died  intestate  1671.  In  1674  widow 
Loockermans  (Marritje)  lived  in  a  house  valued  at  $4000.  situated 
on  the  present  west  side  side  of  Pearl  Street,  between  Wall  and 

257  Collections  of  the  Nerr  York  Genealogical  and  Biographical  Society,  I., 
p.   14. 

258  Ibid.,  II.,  p.  22. 

259  J.  H.  Innes,  New  Amsterdam  and  Its  People,  p.  241.  E.  B.  O'Callaghan 
says:  "Loockerman  had  by  Marritje"  Elsje,  Cornelis,  .Jacob,  .Johanna,  and  Marritje. 
Elsje  married,  1st,  Cornelis  P.  Van  der  Veen,  by  whom  she  had  Cornelis,  Timothy, 
and  Margaret.  She  next  married  Jacob  Leysler  ....  Marritje  Loockermans  mar- 
ried Barthazar  Bayard,  step-son  to  Governor  Stuyvesant,  and  a  respectable  brewer 
in  New  York.  Joanna,  or  Jannitje  Loockermans,  was  the  second  wife  of  Surgeon 
Hans  Kierstede,  and  her  children  were  Areantje,  Cornelis,  Jacobus,  and  Maria. 
Govert  Loockermans,  after  filling  some  of  the  highest  offices  in  the  Colony,  died, 
worth  520,000  gl.  or  $208,000;  an  immense  sum,  when  the  period  in  which  he  lived 
is  considered.  His  widow  was  buried  20th  November,  1677."  (History  of  New 
Netherland,    II.,    38  note.) 

JANSE.  113 

William  Street,  near  a  part  of  the  street  called  the  Waer  Side 
(Year-Book  of  the  Holland  Society,  1896,  p.  167  f.) 

By  Loockermans,  Marritje  had  one  child,  Jacob,  born  in  1652. 
After  his  father's  death  Jacob  continued  to  reside  for  some  years 
with  his  mother.  After  his  mother  died,  he  went  to  Maryland, 
where  he  pursued  the  study  of  medicine.  He  appears  later  as  a 
magistrate  of  Dorchester  County.  Jacob  seems  to  have  been  much 
more  under  the  influence  of  Elsie,  his  half-sister  upon  his  mother's 
side,  than  under  that  of  his  half-sisters  upon  the  father's  side. 
In  1679,  two  years  after  his  mother's  death,  he  conveyed  to  Elsie's 
husband  Jacob  Leisler  all  his  right  to  the  estate,  in  the  Province  of 
New  York,  of  his  father  as  well  as  his  right  to  all  which  had  come 
to  him  through  his  mother  and  his  half-brother  Cornelius.  "Nearly 
the  whole  estate  of  Covert  Loockermans  and  of  his  wife  had  thus 
come  into  the  hands  of  his  step-daughter  Elsie."  ^so 

c^^^1^vA|    Cu-c.rj:-P^ 

Signature   of   Govert   Loockermans,    1659,   husband  of   Marritje   Jans. 

Elsie  —  the  granddaughter  of  the  midwife  Tryn  Jonas ;  the 
niece  of  the  pastor's  wife  Anneke;  the  daughter  of  one  of  the 
wealthiest  woman  in  the  province :  was  destined  to  be  the  most 
unfortunate  of  the  Norwegians  in  early  New  York. 

January  7,  1652,  she  married  an  eminent  trader,  Cornelius 
Pietersen  Van  der  Veen.  In  1658,  being  then  described  as  "an  old 
and  suitable  person,"  he  was  made  a  great  burgher  of  New  Am- 
sterdam. He  was  Schepen  of  the  city  and  held  other  offices  of 
trust  in  the  church  and  in  the  community.  He  died  in  the  sum- 
mer of   1661.261 

After  his  death  Elsie  married,  on  April  11,  1663,  Jacob  Leis- 
ler, a  German,  from  Frankfurt.2®2  In  1674  he  had  property  in 
New  Amsterdam  on  the  west  side  of  the  present  Whitehall  St., 
there  also  a  part  of  the  Water  Side.     It  was  valued  at  $30,000. 

260  Ibid.,   p.   245. 

261  D.  T.  Valentine,  History  of  the  City  of  New  York,   p.   150. 

262  Whether   from   the    Oder   or   the    Main,    is   not   stated. 

114  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS   IN   NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

He  was  executed  for  treason  May  16,  1691.  When  England  ex- 
perienced her  last  revolution,  in  1689,  the  question  was  raised  in 
the  colonies :  Should  they  remain  as  simple  dependencies  on  the 
crown  of  England,  or  should  they  by  the  people  manage  their  own 
affairs.  Leisler  became  a  leader  in  the  democratic  movement. 
But  he  lacked  discretion  and  treated  his  opponents  as  rebels,  mak- 
ing a  technically  illegal  seizure  of  power.  For  this  he  was  ex- 
ecuted, but  with  such  undue  regard  for  fair  trial  that  his  execu- 
tion amounted  to  judicial  murder.  His  son-in-law  Jacob  Milborne 
shared  the  same  fate.  Their  property  was  confiscated.  But  fou' 
years  later  the  English  parliament  reversed  the  attainder  for 
treason  of  Leisler  and  Milborne,  and  restored  the  confiscated  prop- 
erty to  the  heirs. 

Unhappy  indeed  was  she  on  that  rainy  morning  of  May,  16, 
1691,  when  her  husband  and  her  son-in-law  were  led  to  the 
scaffold,  from  which  the  words  of  her  husband  could  be  heard, 
"I  hope  my  eyes  shall  see  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  in  Heaven ;  I  am 
ready!  I  am  ready!"  or  the  words  of  her  son-in-law:  "We  are 
thoroughly  wet  with  rain,  but  in  a  little  time  we  shall  be  washed 
with  Holy  Spirit.^^s 

It  was  a  crushing  blow  to  Elsie  Leisler.  Her  troubles  en- 
deared her  to  her  children  and  many  sympathetic  neighbors.  But 
she  was  a  brave  woman  "of  reserved  and  humble  deportment,  mix- 
ing but  little  with  the  world  and  confining  herself  to  her  own 
domestic  sphere." 

Marritje  Janse  did  not  live  to  see  the  misfortunes  of  her 
daughter.  She  died  in  1677.  In  her  will,  executed  the  same 
year,  she  mentions  her  own  children  and  grandchildren,  not,  how- 
ever, her  two  step-daughters. 

To  use  the  words  of  Collections  of  the  New  York  Historical 
Society,  XXV.,  pp.  60ff.,  Marritje  "leaves  to  Cornelius,  Timothy 
and  Margaretta  Van  der  Veen,  children  of  her  daughter,  Elsie 
Leisler,  by  Peter  Cornelis  Van  der  Veen,  each  100  guilders,  in 
Beavers,  at  8  guilders  a  piece.  To  Anna  Bogardus,  daughter  ot 
Wm.   Bogardus,  50  guilders.     Leaves  the  rest  of  the  property  to 

263  For  interesting  accounts  of  the  acts  and  the  trial  of  Jacob  Leisler,  see 
John  Fiske's,  The  Dutch  and  Quaker  Colonies  in  America,  II.;  Mrs.  Van  Rensse- 
laer's History  of  the  City  of  New  York,  II.  Leisler' s  Speech  at  the  Gallows  is 
recorded  in   Ecclesiastical  Records  of   the   State   of  New   York,    II..   p.   1016f. 

Also    see    Appendix    D:    Jacob    Leisler. 


her  children,  Elsie  Tymans,  married  to  Jacob  Leisler.  Cornells 
Dirchsen,  married  with  Gelise  Hendricks,  and  Jacob  Lockernians, 
not  married  yet.  Makes  her  cousin  (?),  Mr.  Johanes  Van  Brugh, 
and  Mr.  Francis  Rumbout,  alderman  of  this  city,  her  executors. 

"Dated  May  7,  1677.  Witnesses,  John  Dervall,  Cornells 

"Codicil,  November  1,  1677.  Leaves  to  son,  Cornells  Dirck- 
sen,  a  negro  boy.  To  daughter,  Elsie  Leisler,  a  golden  ear  ring, 
made  of  gold,  which  was  partly  given  to  her  by  her  grandmother. 
To  son,  Jacob  Lockermans,  her  diamond  rose  ring.  To  son  Cor- 
nells, the  Great  Bible,  and  to  his  wife  3  silver  spoons.  To  Mary, 
daughter  of  Johanes  Van  Brugh,  a  silver  bodkin.  To  her  grand- 
daughter, Margaret  Van  der  Veen,  a  silver  chain  with  keys.  To 
grand-daughter,  Susanah  Leisler,  a  silver  chain  with  a  case  and  a 

"Witnesses,  her  neighbors,  Mr.  Carsten  Learsen  and  Mr. 
John  Cavilleer." 


Bartel  Larsen,  from  Norway,  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as 
early  as  the  beginning  of  1647.  Under  date  of  January  10,  1647. 
a  document,  making  him  a  party  in  a  transaction  to  the  amount  of 
forty-four  guilders — the  other  party  was  one  Hendrick  Jansen — 
states  that  he  was  from  Norway.^^^     It  calls  him  "privateer. "^^^ 


Andries  Laurensen,  or  Andries  Noorman,  Adriaen  Laurens 
de  Noorman,  was  in  New  Netherland  as  early  as  1639.  Under 
date  of  September  8,  1639,  it  is  stated  in  the  Council  Records,  that 
the  Fiscal  of  New  Amsterdam  confiscated  wine  from  Andries 
Noorman,  "as  it  was  not  properly  entered. ^^^ 

264  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    43. 

265  Was  he   the   commander  of  a  privateer? 

266  Calendar    of    Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    69. 

116  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

On  July  15,  1646,  Andries  acted  as  sponsor  at  the  baptism  of 
Engel,  a  child  belonging  to  Laurents  Pietersen,  a  Norwegian.  The 
records  of  the  Reformed  Dutch  Church  in  New  Amsterdam  enter 
his  name  as  Adriaen  Laurens  de  Noorman.^^^     On    October    5, 

1656,  he  was  examined  in  regard  to  a  soldier's  selling  a  gun. 
Whether  Laurensen  was  the  soldier  that  was  guilty  of  this  offense, 
is  not  clear.  E.  B.  O'Callaghan  makes  this  statement :  "Examina- 
tion of  Andries  Laurensen,  a  soldier,  sent  prisoner  from  Ft.  Casi- 
mir  on  charge  of  having  sold  a  gun.''^^^  Possibly  the  words  "in 
regard  to"  should  immediately  follow  "Laurensen."  As  the  state- 
ment reads  now,  Laurensen  must  have  been  the  prisoner.  If  this 
was  the  fact,  his  offense  must  have  been  regarded  as  a  light  matter, 
or  the  accusation  against  him  was  unfounded.  For  he  afterwards 
was  holding  positions  of  trust  in  the  army.  On  August  5,  1658, 
he  sent  a  communication  to  Director  Stuyvesant  in  regard  to  the 
continued  insolence  of  the  Indians,  and  requested  a  supply  of  am- 
munition.^^^  On  October  31,  1659,  he  wrote  to  the  Director  that 
he  was  a  prisoner  among  the  Esopus  Indians  ( Albany ).2'o  On 
March  1,  1660,  instructions  were  given  him  as  sergeant  to  go  to 
"South  River  to  engage  some  Swedes  and  Finns  to  enlist  in  the 
Company's  (West  India)   service."^''^ 

He  seems  to  have  owned  a  house  in    New    Amsterdam,  in 

1657,  and  it  would  appear  that  the  name  of  his  wife  was  Anna 
Claas.  We  infer  this  from  two  entries  in  the  Minutes  of  the 
orphan  Masters  of  New  Amsterdam,  1655-1658,  pp.  38-39,  41-42. 

Under  date  of  November  28,  1657,  the  first  entry  reads: 
"Whereas,  Roelof  Jansen,  mason,  has  died  at  the  house  of  Arent 
Lauwerensen,  on  the  16th  of  this  month  of  November,  1657;  and 
whereas  said  Arent  Lauwerensen  by  a  petition  to  the  Burgomasters 
and  Schepens  of  this  City  has  requested  that  they  would  please  to 
direct  and  authorize  one  or  two  persons  to  sell  at  public  auction  to 
the  highest  bidder,  according  to  inventory,  the  property  left  by 
said  Roelof  Jansen,  that  thus  might  be  paid  the  expenses  of  his 
funeral,  his  house  rent  and  other  known  and  unknown  debts. 
Therefore  their  said  Worships  order  the    Orphanmasters  to  enter 

267  Collections   of   the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    II., 
p.   21. 

268  Calendar    of    Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    175. 

269  Ibid.,   p.    285. 

270  Ibid.,    p.    288. 

271  Ibid.,   p.    208.     Swedes   and  Finns  had  settled  there  ca.   1639-1640. 


upon  said  estate  and  to  do  therewith  what  ought  to  be  done,  and 
they  herewith  authorize  and  direct  Siur  Mattheus  de  Vos,  Notary 
Pubhc,  and  Arent  Lauwerensen  to  have  the  estate  sold  at  auction 
by  the  Secretary  of  the  Burgomasters  and  Schepens,  as  well  as  of 
the  Orphanmasters,  whereby  the  debts,  as  above  stated,  shall  be 
paid,  and  the  surplus  handed  to  them  to  dispose  of  as  they  shall 
find  best." 

The  second  entry  ,  dated  December  12,  of  the  same  year, 
reads : 

"Anna  Claas,  with  Sieur  Mattheus  de  Vos,  Notary  Public,  and 
with  Arent  Lauwerensen,  administrator  of  the  estate  of  Roelof 
Jansen,  mason,  dec'd,  appeared  and  proved  by  the  affidavits  of 
two  credible  persons  that  said  Roelof  Jansen,  dec'd,  had  given  her 
in  his  lifetime  his  everyday  clothing,  his  gun,  powderhorn,  and 
what  belonged  to  it ;  she  also  produces  an  account  for  house  rent, 
for  caretaking  and  money  advanced,  amounting  to  99fl.  18st., 
wherein  are  included  7  beavers,  the  balance  being  in  wampum. 
She  requests  that  the  affidavits  and  the  account  may  be  approved. 
The  orphanmasters  approve  the  affidavits  and  account,  ordering 
their  Secretary  to  pay  the  account,  after  deducting  what  the  hus- 
band of  said  Anna  Claas  has  bought  from  the  estate."^^^ 

On  December  12,  1657,  a  Jan  Gillesen  Kock  was  authorized 
"to  collect  bills  of  .  .  .  Arent  Lauwerenzen,  Tielman  Van  Vleeck, 
Gerrit  Pietersen,"^'^^ 

On  May  10,  1662,  "Arent  Louwersen"  secured  a  new  lot  in 
New  Amsterdam. ^^•i 

In  1664  he  took  the  oath  of  allegiance,  when  the  English  con- 
quered New  Netherland. 


Jan  Laurensen  (Jan  Laurensen  Noorman)  and  wife  arrived 
at  New  Amsterdam,  in  1659,  by  the  ship  "De  Trouw,"  which 
sailed  from  Holland  on  February  12,  1659,  and  was  commanded 
by  Jan  Jansen  Bestevaer.^^^ 

272  Year  Book   of   the   Holland   Society   of  New  York,    1900,    pp.   114,    115. 

273  Ibid.,    p.    119. 

274  E.   B.   O'Callaghan,    History   of   New   Netherland,    II..    p.    592. 

275  Year  Book   of   the  Holland   Society  of   New  York,    1902. 

118  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 


Laurens  Laurensen,  or  Laurens  Laurensen  Noorman,  some- 
times called  Laurens  Laurensz  van  Copenhagen  or  Laurens  Lau- 
rensen van  Vleckersen  (Flekkero,  Norway)  came  to  New  Nether- 
land  in  1631.  He  was  a  Norwegian,  as  is  evident  from  his  being 
frequently  called  Noorman  and,  at  least  twice,  in  1646  and  1663, 
"van  Vleckeren"  or  "van  Vleckersen."  In  an  agreement  he  made 
with  Van  Rensselaer,  July  2,  1631,  he  is  called  Laurens  Laurensz 
van  Copenhagen.  We  cannot  give  the  reason  for  this.  It  has 
been  supposed  that  "Noorman,"  in  the  records  of  New  Netherland 
is  a  general  term  for  Scandinavian.  But  this  supposition  has  no 
warrant  whatever  in  the  documents  in  question,  where  "Noorman" 
always  means  Norwegian. 

In  the  agreement  which  is  given  in  extenso  at  the  close  of  this 
sketch,  as  well  as  in  a  notarial  copy  from  minutes  of  the  Chambers 
of  Amsterdam  of  the  West  India  Company,  July  7,  1631,  it  will 
be  seen  that  besides  Laurensz  there  were  two  other  Norwegians, 
Andries  Christensen  from  Flekkero  and  Barent  Thonissen  from 
Hellesund,  near  Christiansand,  who  were  to  emigrate  to  the  colony 
of  Rensselaerswyck.  All  three  were  to  work  together  and  run  a 
saw-mill  and  a  grist-mill. 

Laurensen  and  Thonissen  arrived  in  New  Netherland  by  "de 
Eendracht,"  which  sailed  from  the  Texel  shortly  after  July  7, 
1631. ^■'^  They  were  seafaring  men.  But  Christensen,  who  was 
not  a  seafaring  man,  failed  to  go ;  he  "ran  away,"  as  Van  Rensse- 
laer puts  it.  Laurensen  was  thirty-six  years  of  age,  and  seems  to 
have  been  married  when  he  came  to  New  Netherland,  for  in  a 
letter  of  April  23,  1634,  the  patroon  says  to  Director  van  Twiller: 
"I  have  paid  f.  50  to  the  wife  of  Laurens  Laurensz,  but  I  do  not 
know  how  much  is  still  owing  him.  He  bargained  for  no  wages. 
All  I  have  to  do  is  to  provide  his  board,  or  in  place  of  board  pay 
him  f.  100  yearly — while  I  have  half  of  all  that  he  earns.  He  is 
also  responsible  for  the  other  two  for  the  advance  money  that  I 
gave  to  Andries  Christensen."^'?'^  The  name  of  his  wife  was  Tytie 
Lippes.  .  .  ^^* 

276  Van    Rensselaer    Bowier    Manuscripts,    pp.    186ff.,    p.    807. 

277  Ibid.,    p.    285. 

278  The   New  York   Genealogical   and   Biographical   Record,   VI.,   p.    147. 



The  agreement,  of  July  7,  1631,  between  Van  Rensselaer,  Lau- 
rensen,  et  al,  reads : 


J^  nn'OZ^-x  '>e^«.,'>»4-^':jii(ts<  ^5LEtT7  /%^-v-^  Vp  ii* ;  ^iv/«*t^  J^"a-°arvi  ,^,nrf--^ 

lytt^, '3ii/*€'«»v/-/<«-^--^^^^^«'>rK%i  €'ovv&i    -yK^yC-n  /V^Xw^m.,  (^^^  «>Ciff-^^c«>*-. 

Notarial    Copy    of    Extract    from    Minutes    of    Amsterdam    of    the    West    India 
Company,     July     7,     1631. 

120  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS   IN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

The  translation  by  Mr.  J.  F.  van  Laer  reads  as  follows: 

Extract  from  the  resolution  book  of  the  honorable  directors 
of  the  Chartered  West  India  Company.     Chamber  of  Amsterdam. 

Monday,  the  7th  of  July  1631,  in  Amsterdam. 

Appeared  before  the  meeting  Mr.  Kilian  van  Rensselaer,  who 
requested  that  he  be  permitted  to  send  over  by  the  ship  d'eentracht 
some  colonists  and  eight  or  ten  calves,  namely: 

Cornells  Gerritssz  van  flecker  [Flekkerjzi  in  Norway] 

Lourens  Lourenssz  van   Coppenhagen 

Barent  thoniss  van  Heiligesondt  [Hellesund  in  Norway] 

Claes  Brunsteyn  van  Straelsondt 

Andries  Christensss  van  flecker   [Flekker^]. 

In  regard  to  which  it  was  decided  first  to  hear  the  skipper, 
who  declares  that  he  will  do  all  he  can,  whereupon  his  honor's 
request  is  granted,  on  condition  that  the  skipper  in  case  he 
should  be  inconvenienced  thereby,  may  throw  them  [the  calves] 
overboard  or  allow  them  to  be  eaten,  without  thereby  obliging 
the  Company  to  give  any  compensation.  Underneath  was  written: 
Agrees  with  the  aforesaid  resolution    book.      And    was    signed: 

Jacob  Hamel. 

Agrees  with  its  original 

quod  attestor  infrascriptus 

[signed]       /:  vande  Ven 

Nots  Pubcus;  sstt. 
Ao  :      21. 



In  1632  Laurensen  was  appointed  schepen  on  de  Laets  Kil, 
which  is  the  present  Mill  Creek  in  the  city  of  Rensselaer.  On 
June  3,  1638,  he  was  appointed  "servant"  of  the  West  India  Com- 

On  September  29,  1639,  Tymen  Jansen  gave  him  power  of 
attorney  to  collect  money  due  him  in  Holland. 

On  October  8,  1646,  a  declaration  was  made  by  Isaac  Aller- 
ton  and  Edward  Ager,  showing  that  Isaac  Abrahams  and  Laurens 
Laurensen  had  made  a  contract,  and  that  "Isaac  Abraham  had  ful- 
filled his  contract  with  Laurens  Laurensen."  In  Calendar  of 
Historical  Manuscripts,  I.,  p.  34,  from  which  this  notice  is  taken, 
nothing  is  said  as  to  the  nature  of  the  contract. 

Laurensen  obtained  grant  of  a  lot  in  Beverwyck  on  October 
25,  1653,  where  he  owned  a  house  in  1657. "^'^  He  also  owned 
property  in  New  Amsterdam ;  for  in  1655  he  paid  a  voluntary  con- 
tribution and  taxation  of  twelve  florins  to  this  city ;  and  in  1665 
his  widow  was  assessed  as  one  of  its  inhabitants — in  the  Smith's 
Valley. 2^^  He  may  have  had  a  parcel  of  land  there  for  storing 
lumber;  for  he  was  running  a  saw  mill  as  late  as  1663.  He  seems 
to  have  freighted  his  own  lumber,  as  he  had  several  yachts.  But 
he  also  built  ships  and  sold  them.  For  some  time  his  partner  was 
Reyner  Pietersen,  shipmaster.2^2  Hq  ^j-^,^  Pietersen  were  sued, 
December  2,  1659,  by  Walewyn  van  der  Veen  for  a  "statement  of 
the  account  conveyed"  to  Walewyn  by  one  Jan  Ariaansen.  Lau- 
rensen contended  that  he  did  not  owe  Ariaansen  anything,  and  that 
Ariaansen  had  been  overpaid. ^^^ 

Later  Laurensen  had  a  new  partner :  Dirck  Jansen,  a  wood- 
sawyer  from  Oldenburg.  On  January  13,  1660,  Laurensen  and 
Jansen  sued  Ritzer  Raymont,  demanding  from  him  the  payment 
of  the  sum  of  fl.  1400,  "for  purchase  of  a  yacht  named  Swarten 
Arent  (the  Black  Eagle),  sold  to  him,  or  security  of  payment." 
Raymont  admitted  that  he  v/as  indebted  to  the  plaintiffs.  There 
were  found  some  errors  in  the  contract  of  sale  and  date,  but  the 
Court  condemned  the  defendant  to  pay  and  satisfy  the  plaintiffs.^^* 

279  Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manuscripts,  p.  203.  Calendar  of  Historical 
Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    62. 

280  Munsell,    Collections   on   the   History   of   Albany,    III.,   p.    13. 

281  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam.    1653-1674,    I.,    p.    375;    TV.,    p.    225. 

282  Year   Book    of   the    Holland    Society    of   New   York,    1900,    p.    282. 

283  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam.    1653-1674,    III.,    p.    84. 

284  Ibid.,   III.,   p.   101.     Dirck  Jansen   sold,    October   26,    1662,    a   sloop   named 
'The  Hope",    for   2000   guilders. 

122  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN   NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

Laurensen  lost  one  of  his  yachts,  as  is  seen  from  evidence  of- 
fered in  a  suit  which  Jacob  Jansen  Moesman  brought  against  Lau- 
rensen, September  25,  1663.  The  plaintiff  claimed  that  the  de- 
fendant owed  him  money.  Laurensen  replied  that  he  had  paid 
some  of  it,  but  "his  books  and  proofs  are  lost  with  his  yacht." 
The  Court  postponed  the  case  until  the  next  Court  day  or  "till  the 
arrival  of  Abraham,  the  carpenter-''^^^ 

We  have  referred  to  documents  of  1646  and  1663,  which 
speak  of  Laurensen  as  being  from  Flekkero.  Under  date  of  Sep- 
tember 21,  1646,  an  order  was  issued,  at  New  Amsterdam,  direct- 
ing Everardus  Bogardus,  the  minister,  to  deliver  to  the  Council  a 
bill  of  exchange,  2,500  guilders,  given  by  the  Swedish  governor  to 
Jacob  Sandelyn  for  goods  sold  to  the  governor.  The  goods  had 
been  sold  contrary  to  law.  The  bill  of  exchange  had  been  de- 
livered by  "Laurens  Vleckeren"  to  Bogardus.  Laurensen  was  ex- 
amined "respecting  the  sending  of  above  [mentioned]  bill  by  Jacob 
Sandelyn  to  Reverend  Mr.  Bogardus."  He  admitted  that  he  had 
delivered  a  package  of  letters  to  Bogardus  to  be  sent  to  Holland, 
amongst  which  were  some  from  the  Swedish  government. "^^^ 

It  would  seem  that  Laurensen  had  received  the  package  of 
letters  when  visiting  the  Swedish  colony  in  Delaware,  with  his 

Seventeen  years  later  the  name  Laurensen  van  Vleckeren,  or 
Vleckersen,  appears  in  the  court  minutes  of  New  Amsterdam : 
"August  21,  1663,  Lambert  Huyberzen  Mol,  pltf.,  v|s  Lauwerens 
Lauwerensen  van  Vleckersen,  deft.  Pltf.  demands  from  deft, 
ninety-five  @  six  Fort  Orange  inch  plank,  sixteen  feet  long.  Deft, 
admits  debt,  but  says  he  cannot  deliver  them,  as  they  are  not  sawed 
and  durst  not  saw  through  fear  of  the  Indians.  The  W.  Court 
order  the  deft,  to  satisfy  and  pay  the  pltf.  within  three  weeks' 

Laurensen  died  before  1665 ;  for  on  August  23,  1665,  his 
widow,  Tytie  Lippes,  was  married  to  John  Roelofsen,  also  from 
Flekkero,  and  a  resident  in  New  Netherland  since  1663. ^''s     Her 

285  Ibid.,    rV.,    p.    307. 

286  New  York   Colonial    Documents,    XII.,    p.    27,    Calendar   of   Historical    Man- 
uscripts,   I.,   p.    105. 

287  The    Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    IV.,   p.    288. 

288  The    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Record,    VI.,    p.    147. 


name  appears  in  April,  1665,  in  a  list  of  burghers  and  inhabitants 
assessed  in  New  Amsterdam. 

For  the  agreement  between  the   Patroon  Kiliaen  Von   Rens- 
selaer and  Laurens  Laurensen  and  others,  see  the  following:-*^ 

"July  2,  1631. 
"At  the  request  of  Andries  Christ enssen  van  Vlecken,  40 
years  of  age,  Laurens  Laurensz  van  Coppenhagen,  36  years  of  age, 
and  Barent  Thonissen  van  Heijligesont,  22  years  of  age,  Kiliaen 
van  Rensselaer,  in  his  capacity  as  patroon  of  his  colony  situated 
above  and  below  Fort  Orange  on  the  North  River  of  New  Nether- 
land,  has  agreed  and  contracted  with  the  aforesaid  persons  for  the 
term  of  three  years,  commencing  on  their  arrival  in  that  country, 
with  the  condition  that  the  contract  is  binding  on  them  for  the 
said  term  of  three  years,  but  that  the  said  Rensselaer  may  terminate 
it  whenever  it  pleases  him.  First  regarding  the  transportation  of 
the  said  persons,  Rensselaer,  having  obtained  from  the  Chartered 
West  India  Company,  Chamber  of  Amsterdam,  the  privilege  of 
transporting  seafaring  men  for  their  board  without  wages  on  the 
condition  that  they  do  proper  ship  duty,  Laurensz  Laurensz,  Barent 
Theunisz  and  all  seafaring  men  accept  the  same,  but  Andries  Chris- 
tensz,  not  being  a  seafaring  man,  must  pay  out  of  his  wages  six 
stivers  a  day  for  board.  As  to  the  return  voyage,  the  said  Rens- 
selaer promises  to  exert  himself  likewise,  without  being  further 
responsible  in  the  matter,  to  have  them  come  hither  at  the  least 
expense,  whether  their  term  of  service  has  expired  or  whether  he 
chooses  to  order  them  to  come  home.  Arriving  there  with  God's 
help,  they  shall  betake  themselves  at  the  first  opportunity  and  at 
their  own  expense  to  Fort  Orange,  to  settle  either  on  the  mill 
creek  or  opposite  the  fort  on  the  east  side  of  the  North  River, 
where  there  is  also  a  good  waterfall,  and  build  their  houses  in  the 
lightest  fashion  on  the  one  or  the  other  of  said  places,  and  on  no 
other  without  consent ;  further  to  erect  a  suitable  sawmill,  which 
can  saw  wood  40  feet,  or  at  least  33  feet  long,  towards  which 
he,  Rensselaer,  shall  pay  one-half  of  the  hardware,  and  the  tools 
which  they  need  therefor,  and  must  take  with  them  from  here, 
and  they  the  other  half,  for  which  he,    Rensselaer,    shall    furnish 

289  This  interesting  document  is  taken  from  the  "Van  Rensselaer  Bowier 
Manuscripts,"  being  the  letters  of  Kiliaen  Van  Rensselaer,  16301643,  and  other 
documents  relating  to  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck,  translated  and  edited  by 
A.   J.   F.   van   Laer,    Archivist.     Albany,    1908. 

124  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

them  the  money  in  advance.  They  promise,  all  four  of  them,  to 
erect  the  said  mill  within  the  space, of  three  months  and  when  it 
is  finished,  they  may  hew  the  largest,  finest  and  best  oak  trees 
standing  in  the  entire  colony  of  the  said  Rensselaer,  and  for  seven 
leagues  next  adjoining,  and  bring  the  same  to  the  place  where  the 
saw-mill  stands  in  order  to  saw  therefrom  suitable  ship  planking, 
gunwale  timber  or  such  other  timber  as  he,  Rensselaer,  shall  direct 
or  they  in  the  absence  of  directions  shall  deem  fit.  The  mill  being 
made,  the  logs  cut,  brought  to  the  mill  and  sawed,  one-half  there- 
of shall  belong  to  the  said  Rensselaer  and  the  other  half  to  the 
four  of  them,  the  same  to  be  shipped  hither  with  the  most  con- 
venient speed  at  the  joint  expense  of  both  parties,  provided  that 
Rensselaer  shall  not  charge  the  men  more  for  freight  and  the  other 
expenses  than  he  will  have  to  pay  himself;  and  of  the  proceeds  of 
the  said  timber  here  in  this  country  over  and  above  expenses,  one- 
half  shall  go  to  him,  Rensselaer,  and  the  other  half  shall  be  paid 
to  the  aforesaid  persons  or  those  having  their  right  and  title,  but 
first  and  above  all,  deduction  must  be  made  of  the  sums  advanced 
by  him,  promised  or  paid  for  them  personally,  in  return  for  which 
he,  Rensselaer,  promises  to  provide  such  board  for  the  said  four 
persons  as  is  customary  in  that  country  or  else,  in  lieu  thereof,  to 
pay  100  guilders  a  year  for  each  of  the  four  persons,  amounting 
together  to  400  guilders  a  year,  so  that  Rensselaer  shall  provide 
their  board  as  above  and  they  shall  faithfully  and  diligently  do 
their  work  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  said  Rensselaer  or  his  agents 
and  each  side  receive  one-half  of  the  profits  after  deduction  of  all 
expenses  as  above. 

"Rensselaer  also  agrees  to  pay  in  hand  to  each  of  them  the 
sum  of  20  guilders  to  be  deducted  from  the  board,  or  100  guilders 
a  year,  which  he  must  pay  to  each  of  them  and  to  Andries  Kristen- 
sen  the  sum  of  40  guilders,  besides  the  advance  for  hardware,  mill- 
stone and  what  is  further  required  for  the  building  of  the  said 
saw  and  grist-mill,  on  condition  that  the  amount  be  hereafter 
again  deducted  and  retained  as  above. 

"And  inasmuch  as  they  are  also  to  make  a  grist-mill  in  con- 
nection with  the  said  sawmill,  they  shall  also  be  entitled  to  one-half 
of  what  is  earned  therewith   (deducting  the  expense  of  grinding). 

"In  case  the  said  Rensselaer,  as  patroon,  or  his  agents,  need 
the  aforesaid  four  persons  or  any  of  them  in  his  private  service, 
they  must  let  themselves  be  employed  for  all  sorts  of  work,  whether 


farming,  house  carpentering,  felling  of  logs,  burning  of  pitch  and 
tar,  or  whatever  it  may  be,  nothing  excepted,  at  15  stivers  a  day 
besides  board,  which  they  have  in  addition  as  above,  provided  that 
Rensselaer  shall  enjoy  one-half  of  the  aforesaid  wages  of  15 

"If  Rensselaer  or  his  agents,  after  the  mill  is  built,  should 
have  any  wood  brought  to  be  sawed,  they  must  do  this  at  20 
stivers  for  100  feet  in  length  by  one  foot  in  breadth,  and  for  wider, 
shorter  or  longer  boards  accordingly,  on  condition  that  Rensselaer 
shall  receive  one-half  thereof  as  above. 

"Regarding  the  boards,  beams  or  planks  which  they  may  have 
in  stock  and  which  Rensselaer  may  need  for  his  other  work,  he 
shall  be  allowed  to  take  these  by  paying  them  one-half  of  the  price 
ordinarily  paid  by  the  skippers  in  Norway. 

"If  these  people  sow,  mow  or  plant  any  land,  or  catch  any 
game  or  fish,  one-half  (of  the  product)  shall  go  to  them  and  the 
other  half  go  to  Rensselaer,  or  be  deducted  from  the  100  guilders 
for  board. 

"During  the  period  of  this  agreement,  each  one  shall  be  re- 
sponsible for  the  other,  as  Rensselaer  is  dealing  with  them  jointly, 
but  not  willing  to  deal  or  to  keep  accounts  with  each  in  particular. 

"In  case  any  one  of  them  should  happen  to  find  or  to  discover 
any  mines,  minerals,  pearl  fisheries  or  anything  of  the  kind,  he 
shall  disclose  the  same  to  no  one  but  the  patroon  or  his  agent,  who 
shall  make  them  a  handsome  present  for  the  same  according  to  the 
importance  of  the  matter.  They  shall  further  under  the  sover- 
eignty of  the  High  Mighty  Lords  the  States  General,  all  submit 
themselves  to  the  authority  of  the  directors  of  the  Chartered  West 
India  Company  in  general  and  of  the  aforesaid  Rensselaer  as  their 
patroon  in  particular,  and  observe  all  the  ordinances  and  regulations 
to  be  passed  there  by  them  respectively  in  matters  of  police  and 
justice,  and  be  obliged  to  take  oath  of  obedience  and  fidelity,  espe- 
cially to  refrain  from  trading,  negotiating  or  carrying  on  business 
there  against  the  order  and  intention  of  the  Company  and  their 
aforesaid  patroon,  whether  in  skins,  seawan  or  other  goods  found 
there,  and  not  to  accept  the  same  by  way  of  present  or  otherwise, 
nor  to  take  merchandise  from  here  with  them  for  themselves  or  for 
others  directly  or  indirectly,  in  any  manner  whatsoever,  on  pain  of 
confiscation  and  penalties  fixed  by  the  Company  or  still  to  be  fixed, 
and  furthermore  of  banishment  from  the  colony  as  perjurers  and 

126  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

refractory  characters,  for  which  they  all  together  in  common  and 
each  one  in  particular  for  himself  and  the  others  bind  themselves 
to  answer  and  stand  responsible. 

"They  shall  further  not  be  allowed  to  contract  with  any  one 
else  or  to  enter  any  one  else's  service,  on  forfeiture  of  this  entire 
agreement  to  the  benefit  of  the  said  patroon,  each  one's  share  in 
the  mill,  in  the  hewn  and  sawed  timber  and  what  may  in  any  way 
belong  to  them,  to  be  forfeited  and  left  to  be  disposed  of  as  above, 
and  in  case  one  or  more  of  the  aforewritten  persons  should  leave 
or  drop  out,  the  remaining  ones  must  fill  the  places  as  quickly  as 
possible  with  other  suitable  persons  and  by  every  ship  and  yacht 
sailing  hither  send  proper  reports  and  accurate  accounts  of  every 
thing,  in  all  sincerity  without  concealment.  In  testimony  of  the 
truth  of  the  above  agreement,  this  is  signed  by  the  patroon  and 
the  persons  aforesaid  with  their  own  hands,  in  Amsterdam,  this 
second  of  July  of  the  year  sixteen  hundred  and  thirty-one,  and 
signed  with  the  several  hands  and  X  marks  of  Andries  kristcnscn, 
the  X  mark  of  Laurens  Laurens:;,  X  Berent  Thoniss,  kiliaen  van 
Rensselaer.  Underneath  was  written :  Kiliaen  van  Rensselaer 
charged  with  board  of  Andries  kristenssen,  due  to  him  for  trans- 
portation nine  guilders." 


Andries  Pietersen,  or  Andries  Pietersen  Noorman,  came  to 
New  Netherland  in  1660  by  the  ship  "de  Moesman,"  which  sailed 
on  March  9,  1660.-®'^  In  the  ship's  passenger  list  his  name  is  given 
as  "Andries  Noorman  from  Sleewyck"  (Sleviken  (?)  in  Norway), 
and  he  is  called  a  soldier.^^i  In  1661  he  was  a  member  of  the 
garrison  at  Esopus.^''^  July  2,  1666.  it  is  stated  in  the  Church 
Records  of  Albany,  that  he  "used  the    large    pall" — perhaps    for 

290  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,  1902,  p.  13.  He  was 
not  from  Schleswig,  Denmark,  as  some  would  maintain.  He  was  a  "Noorman". 
He  may  have  been  from  •'Sletvik, "  a  name  we  have  seen  in  Rygb's  "Norske 
Gaardnavne' '. 

291.  He  was  not  from  Schleswig,  Denmark,  as  some  would  maintain.  It  is 
plainly  stated  that  he  was  a  "Noorman"  (Norwegian).  He  may  have  been  from 
Sleviken,    or   Sletvik,    Norway. 

292   New    York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    202. 


some  relative  of  his.^^^  j^-  jg  not  unlikely  that  Marcus  Pietersen 
(also  from  Sleviken  [?]),  who  sailed  with  Andries,  was  his 
brother.  Shortly  afterward,  Andries  came  near  using  the  pall 
himself,  as  we  immediately  shall  see. 

In  proceedings  and  sentences  of  the  court  held  at  Rsopus, 
April  25-27,  1667,  "resulting  from  complaints  of  the  inhabitants 
of  Esopus  against  violences  committed  by  the  soldiers  and  illtreat- 
ment  from  Capt.  Brodhead,  it  was  shown  that  Andries  Pietersen, 
being  at  the  said  time  in  the  house  of  (Cornelis  Barentsen)  Sleght, 
was  beaten  by  Christoffer  Berresfort  with  his  halberd,  that  the 
said  Andries  fell  down  in  a  sounding  and  was  in  great  danger  of 
his  life."2«4 

A  document  of  April  28,  1667,  signed  by  Andries  Pietersen 
and  other  burghers  of  Wiltwyck,  shows  that  they  were  in  arms 
during  the  Brodhead  mutiny,^^^  as  Brodhead  had  threatened  to 
burn  their  village. 

Other  traces  of  Pietersen  are  found  in  the  "Marriage  and 
Baptismal  Registers  of  the  old  Dutch  church  of  Kingston"  (Wilt- 
wyck, Esopus).  He  and  Heyltjen  Jacobs  were  witnesses  on  De- 
cember 12,  1666,  at  the  baptism  of  Marretjen,  a  child  belonging 
to  Hendrick  Aertsen.^^^ 

According  to  the  same  Record,  "Andries"  and  Maertie  David- 
son had  their  children,  Christoffel,  Andries,  Johannes,  Cornelia 
baptized  on  October  6,  1678,  April  24,  1681,  January  27,  1684, 
October  18,  1685,  respectively. ^''^  It  is  probably  Andries  Pieter- 
sen from  Sleviken  that  is  meant  here. 


Andries  Pietersen,  from  Bergen,  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam 
by  the  ship  "de  Rooseboom,"  which  sailed  in  March,  1663.  In 
the  list  of  passengers  the  words  "from  Bergen"  are  appended  to 

293  Munsell,    Collections   on   the   History   of   Albany,    I.,   p.   26. 

294  New    York    Colonial    Docujnents,    XIII.,    p.    407. 

295  Ibid.,   p.    414. 

296  R.    R.    Hoes,    Baptismal    and    Marriage    Registers    of    the    Old    Dutch    Church 
of   Kingston,    N.    Y. 

297  Ibid.,   pp.   10,   14,   21,   24. 

128  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

his  name.2"^  It  is  presumably  Bergen  in  Norway,  that  is  meant, 
not  Bergen  op  Zoom  or  Bergen  in  Germany;  for  Andries  Pieter- 
sen  is  a  Scandinavian  name.  A  Norwegian,  Frederick  Claesen, 
sailed  with  Pietersen  on  the  same  ship. 


Hans  Pietersen  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  1655. 
That  he  was  from  Norway,  is  stated  in  the  court  minutes  which 
relate  about  a  suit  between  "Hans  Pietersen  of  Norway"  and 
"Paulus  van  der  Beecq/'  whose  servant  he  was. 2**^  He  had  left 
his  master,  who  consequently  brought  suit  against  him  for  breach 
of  contract.  The  first  notice  of  this  is  found  in  an  entry  under 
date  of  January  28,  1655,  showing  that  the  case  had  been  tried  in 
Breuckelen  and  that  the  verdict  rendered  was  not  in  accord  with 
the  desires  of  Van  Beecq. 

The  minutes  record  under  date  of  January  28 :  "Writ  of  in- 
hibition. In  the  case  of  Paulus  van  der  Beecq,  appellant  vs.  Hans 
Petersen,  from  a  judgment  of  the  court  of  Breuckelen,  and  sum- 
mons to  the  respondent  to  appear  before  the  Council. "3*^*'  On 
February  9,  1655,  the  minutes  read:  "Judgment  in  case  of  appeal 
Paulus  van  der  Beecq  vs.  Hans  Petersen ;  decision  of  the  court  of 
Breuckelen  reversed  and  respondent  ordered  to  serve  out  his  term 
according  to  contract,  to  pay  costs  and  to  be  committed  until  he 
pay  the  fine  fixed  by  law."^**^ 

It  seems  that  Hans  preferred  to  go  to  prison,  or  that  he  took 
quarter  at  the  prison  later  and  for  some  other  unknown  cause. 
For  on  December  23,  1655,  he  was  discharged  from  prison,  "on 
his  own  personal  security."302  Perhaps  he  took  advantage  of  the 
liberty  given  him  and  fled.  On  November  7,  1658,  an  order  was 
issued  to  the  magistrates  of  Flushing  and  Eastdorp  to  arrest  him. •'"•'' 

In  June,  1662,  he  was  at  Esopus  (Albany).  He  petitioned 
the  magistrates  that  he  might  keep  a  tavern  there.      The    petition 

298  Year  Book   of   the   Holland   Society   of   New   York,    1902,    p.    13. 

299  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    pp.    58,    127. 

300  Ibid.,  I.,  p.   145. 

301  rbid.,   I.,    pp.   293,    58. 

302  Ibid.,    p.    157. 

303  Ibid.,    p.    202. 


was  not  granted.  For  the  keeping  of  a  tavern  there  "would  tend 
to  debauch  soldiers  and  other  inhabitants,  and  it  was  feared  that 
strong  liquor  might  be  sold  to  savages."^^'^ 

In  1674  he  asked  for  permission  to  purchase  land  in  Katskil, 

On  April  13,  1676,  he  obtained  a  patent  of  land  in  Dela- 
ware.^*^"  In  the  same  year  he  had  a  lawsuit  with  the  Swedish 
pastor  in  Delaware,  Laurentius  Carolus  (Lars  Lock),  regarding 
the  "recovery  of  a  mare."  The  pastor  was  the  injured  party.^*^" 
It  would  seem  that  Hans  Pietersen  must  have  been,  by  this  time, 
quite  an  expert  in  defending  himself  before  a  court.  We  take 
leave  of  him  where  we  found  him :  in  court. 


Laurens  Pietersen.  or  Laurens  Pietersen  Noorman.  from 
Tonsberg,  in  Norway,  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  16o9. 
On  June  16,  of  that  year,  he  was  declared  sole  heir  to  the  real  and 
personal  property  of  a  Roellof  Roeloffsen,  the  witnesses  being 
Pieter  Jansen,  likely  the  Norwegian  by  that  name,  and  Hans 
Stein.^^^  In  the  Calendar  of  Wills,  where  this  declaration  is  con- 
tained, Laurens  is  called  "Laurens  Pietersen  van  Tonsback"  (Tons- 
berg). In  the  Church  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,  containing 
the  entry  of  his  marriage  with  Anetie  Pieters  from  "Brutsteen," 
Germany — August  18,  1641 — ,  it  is  stated  that  he  is  from  Tons- 

His  name  appears  quite  often  in  the  church  records  as  sponsor 
— August  8,  1641,  for  Rachel,  daughter  of  Dirk  Holgersen,  the 
Norwegian ;  December  8,  in  the  same  year,  for  Rommetje,  the 
child  of  Hans  Hansen  van  Nordstrand  in  Holstein ;  May  21,  1646, 
for  Nicholas,  a  son  of  Barent  Janszen ;  April  14,  1647,  for  Aert, 
a  child  of  Caesar  Albertsz^^o ;  March  20,  1650,  for  Nicholas,  a  son 

304  New   York   Colonial   Documents,   XIII.,   p.   389. 

305  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.   481. 

306  Ibid.,    p.    543. 

307  Calendar    of    Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    353f. ;    New     York     Colonial 
Documents,   XII.,  p.   622. 

308  Calendar   of   Wills.      Compiled   by   B.    Fernow,    1896,    p.    334. 

309  The  New  York   Genealogical    and  Biographical   Record,   VI.,    p.   33. 

310  Ibid.,   v.,  pp.  30,   87,   89. 

130  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

of  Barent  Jansen ;  January  28,  1663,  for  Joost,  the  son  of  Barent 
Joosten  and  his  own  daughter  Sytie.^^i 

Laurens  had  his  own  child  Sytie  baptized  June  1,  1642,  one 
of  the  sponsors  being  Hans  Hansen  from  Bergen.  His  child  En- 
gel  was  baptized  July  15,  1646,  three  Norwegians  being  sponsors: 
Pieter  Jansen  Noorman,  Andries  Laurensen  Noorman,  and  Mary- 
ken  Tymens  (sister  of  Anneke  Jans  and  wife  of  Tymen  Jansen. ^^2 

On  March  12,  1647,  Laurens  obtained  a  lot  on  Manhattan, 
between  the  lots  of  Peter  Hilyaender  and  Evert  Duyckingh's.^^^ 
Mr.  J.  H.  Innes  says :  "He  owned  a  house  and  lot  on  the  south  side 
of  Prinse  Straet,  about  fifty  feet  from  Broad  Street.  The  house 
is  mentioned  as  standing  there  as  early  as  1647.  It  was  the  first 
house  built  on  Prinse  Straet,  the  second  being  built  about  the  year 
1652 — on  the  south  side  of  the  street — by  Albert  Pietersen  from 
Hamburg,"  whose  wife  was  Danish. ^^^ 

Under  date  of  March  22,  1651,  we  have  a  declaration  of 
Laurens  Pietersen  to  the  effect  that  Dirck  Holgersen  (Norwe- 
gian) had  purchased  of  Cornelis  Willemsen  a  plantation  on  the 
west  side  of  Mespath  Kill,  Long  Island,  opposite  to  Richard 

On  March  10,  1660,  Laurens  petitioned  "for  the  appointment 
of  guardians  and  curators  over  his  minor  child,"  which  petition 
was  granted.316  It  is  probable  that  his  request  included  also  his 
other  child.  For  under  date  of  January  20,  1661,  we  have  a  pe- 
tition from  "the  guardians  of  Laurens  Petersen's  children  for  in- 
structions in  regard  to  the  division  of  the  estate. "^^' 

6  P 

Signatures   of   Laurens   Pietersen. 

On  March  10,  1661,  he  gave  his  consent  "to  the  payment  of 
her  portion  of  the  estate  to  his  daughter  Engeltje,  shortly  after  her 

311  Year  Book   of   the   Holland    Society   of   New   York,    1897,    p.    147. 

312  The   New   York   Genealogical   and   Biographical   Record,    V.,    pp.    31.    88. 

313  Year   Book   of   the   Holland    Society   of   New   York,    1901,    p.    129. 

314  J.   H.    Innes,    New   Amsterdam    and    Its    People,    p.    150f. 

315  Calendar    of    Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    52. 

316  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    208. 

317  Ibid.,   I.,   p.  220. 

PIETERSEN.  •  131 

marriage  to  Jan  van  Cleef."^^'^     Engeltje  was  at  the  time  only  fif- 
teen years  old,  her  husband  was  thirty-three. 

Laurens'  other  daughter,  Sytie  (Fytie,  Eytie?),  was  married 
on  December  12,  1658,  to  Barent  Joosten  from  "Witmont  in  Emb- 
derlandt."  They  had  a  child  baptized  in  1659.  Their  other 
child,  Joost,  was  baptized  on  January  28,  1663,  in  the  Dutch  Re- 
formed church  of  Brooklyn.  Laurens  Pietersen  himself  was  one 
of  the  sponsors.  The  other  sponsors  were  Symon  Hansen  and 
Magdalentje  Walingx.^^^ 

Pietersen  is  mentioned  as  selling  land  between  the  years  1654 
and  1658. 

On  February  18,  1656,  he  sold  to  Harck  Syboutsen  his  "lot  on 
the  east  side  of  the  Graft,  between  the  lots  of  Evert  Dyckingh  and 
Abraham  Rycken,  as  broad  and  long,  large  and  small  as  it  belongs 
to  said  Lauren  Pietersen  Noorman  by  patent  to  him  of  12  March, 
1647."  D.  T.  Valentine  describes  it  as  being  on  the  east  side 
of  Broad  Street,  south  of  Beaver  Street.^^o 

In  1664.  Laurens  signed  the  resolution  adopted  by  the  com- 
monalty of  the  Manhattans. ^21 


Marcus  Pietersen  is  enrolled  among  the  soldiers  who  were 
to  sail  in  the  ship  "de  Moesman"  for  New  Netherland  on  March 
9,  1660.  He  was  from  Sleewyk  (Sleviken,  or  Sletvik,  in  Nor- 
way), and  is  presumably  the  brother  of  Andries  Pietersen  Noor- 
man, who  was  from  the  same  place  and  sailed  in  the  same  ship.^22 

He  seems  to  have  received  employment  from  Jochim  Beeck- 
man,  a  shoemaker,  immediately  upon  his  arrival  in  New  Nether- 
land. For  on  November  8,  1661,  Beeckman  brought  suit  against 
Pieter  Pietersen  Smitt,  complaining  that  he  had  been  slandered 
about  a  year  before  by  the  defendant,  "according  to  declaration  of 

318  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    222. 

319  See    note    311. 

320  Year   Book    of    the    Holland    Society    of    New    York,    1902,    p.    129.      D.    T. 
Valentine,    Manual  of   the   Corporation   of   the   City   of   New  York,    1861,    p.    583. 

321  New   York    Colonial   Documents,   I.,    p.    193. 

322  Year   Book    of    the   Holland   Society   of   New   York,    1902,    p.    13. 

132  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

Marcus  Pietersen  and  'Gerrit  Lebes,'  who  were  working  at  the 
time  with  the  plaintiff."  Smitt  denied  the  slander  and  requested 
that  Marcus  Pietersen  and  the  other  witness  be  heard  before  the 
court.  On  November  8,  they  were  examined  by  the  court.  Mar- 
cus declared  that  he  had  not  seen,  but  heard  that  Pieter  Smitt  had 
pushed  open  the  door  of  Beeckman's  chamber,  and  saw  it  was 
open.  Gerrit  declared,  however,  that  Pieter  Smitt  pushed  open  the 
door  and  that  he  abused  Beeckman  "as  a  thief  and  worse  than 
a  thief." 

The  relation  between  the  plaintiff  and  the  defendant  must 
have  been  verging  on  the  comical,  for  Beeckman  appeared  again 
in  court  and  complained  "that  he  cannot  walk  the  streets  in  peace 
in  consequence  of  the  deft,  calling  him  black-pudding  and  msult- 
ing  him."  The  defendant,  however,  denied  it  and  said,  "he  does 
not  speak  a  word."^23 


Oule  Pouwelsen  was  in  New  Amsterdam  about  1643.  All 
we  know  of  him  is  contained  in  an  entry  in  the  Calendar  of  His- 
torical Manuscripts,  I.,  p.  85,  under  date  of  June  11,  1643:  The 
fiscal  brought  a  charge  against  him  "for  insolence  in  his  master's 
house.  The  defendant  was  committed  to  prison  at  his  master's 
expense,  until  evidence  be  heard."  Oule  Pouwelsen,  judging  from 
the  name,  was  probably  a  Norwegian.  There  was  an  Olaf  Palsson 
in  New  Sweden  in  1641.  (See  Pennsylvania  Magazine  of  History 
and  Biography,  III.,  p.  462f.) 


Jan  Roeloffsen,  from  Norway,  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam 
by  the  ship  "de  Statyn,"  which  sailed  September  27,  1663.  Among 
the  forty-six  passengers  aboard  were  also  other  Norwegians: 
Cornelius  Teunissen,    Jan    Jansen    and    wife.324     j^n   Roeloffsen 

323  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    pp.    401,    407f. 

324  Year  Book   of  the  Holland   Society  of  New  York,    1902. 


married  on  August  23,  1665,  in  New  Amsterdam,  Tytie  Lippes, 
the  widow  of  Laurens  Laurensen,  who  was  from  Flekkero,  Nor- 
way. In  the  register  of  marriages  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  church 
in  New  Amsterdam,  it  is  stated  that  Roeloffsen  was  from  Flek- 
kero.^^^  This  Jan  Roelloffsen  must  not  be  taken  for  Jan  Roeloff- 
sen, son  of  Roelof  Jansen  and  Anneke  Jans. 


Roeloff  Roeloffsen  was  in  New  Amsterdam  about  or  prior  to 
1639.  Under  date  of  July  16,  1639,  his  will  makes  Laurens  Pie- 
tersen  in  New  Amsterdam,  a  Norwegian  from  Tonsberg,  the  sole 
heir  of  his  real  and  personal  property.  The  witnesses  were  Pieter 
Jansen  and  Hans  Stein.  Laurens  Pietersen  was  probably  a  rela- 
tive of  Roelloffsen,  who,  in  that  case,  it  would  seem,  was  a  Nor- 
wegian— an  inference  which  receives  support  in  his  Norwegian 
sounding  name.^^e 


Cornelius  Teunissen,  from  Norway,  arrived  at  New  Amster- 
dam by  the  ship  "de  Statyn,"  which  sailed  September  27,  1663. 
Among  the  forty-six  passengers  aboard  were  three  other  Norwe- 
gians :  Jan  Roeloffsen  from  Flekkero,  Jan  Jansen  and  wife.^^' 


Dirck  Teunissen,  or  Dirck  Teunissen  Noorman,  was  in  New 
Amsterdam  as  early  as  1650,  or  before.  The  first  notice  we  have 
of  him  is  contained  in  the  church  record  of  the  Dutch  Reformed 

325  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 

326  Calendar    of   Wills.      Compiled   by    B.    Fernow,    1896,    p.    334. 

327  Year   Book    of    the    Holland    Society    of    New   York,    1902,    p.    26. 

134  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGEANTS   IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

church  in  New  Amsterdam,  which  states  that  he  married,  on  Octo- 
ber 22,  1650,  Adriantje  Walich,  a  widow,  from  North  Holland.328 

Our  knowledge  of  him  is  derived,  in  the  main,  from  court 

It  appears  that  he  had  leased  land  of  Abraham  Verplanck. 
But  he  began  to  burn  lime  upon  it.  Verplanck  therefore  brought 
suit  against  him,  on  April  15,  1652,  claiming  that  Teunissen  bj'' 
burning  lime  upon  his  land  "spoiled  it,  impoverished  the  soil." 
The  court,  after  hearing  the  parties,  decided  that  Verplanck  should 
in  compensation  receive  one-fourth  of  all  the  lime  burnt. ^^s 


Signature   of  Dirck   Teunissen. 

Teunissen  did  not  abide  by  the  decision  of  the  court.  The 
wife  of  Verplanck,  therefore,  appeared  in  court  on  February  10, 
1653,  and  complained  of  Teunissen's  negligence.  But  the  court 
would  do  nothing  before  Verplanck  appeared  in  own  person. ^^"^ 

A  week  later  Verplanck  made  his  appearance  in  court  and 
claimed  that  he  had  received  only  one-seventh  part  of  the  products 
of  the  land  he  had  leased  to  Teunissen,  and  that  he  had  not  re- 
ceived "one-fourth  part  of  the  lime  under  sentence  of  the  court." 
Teunissen  admitted  that  he  had  leased  the  land,  but  claimed  that 
he  had  given  Verplanck  exactly  one-fourth  of  the  crops.  He  de- 
manded proof  to  the  contrary.  He  also  claimed  that  he  had 
measured  off  a  fourth  of  the  lime.  The  Court  refused  to  decide 
the  case  before  the  litigants  proved  their  statements. ^^^ 

On  February  4,  1653,  the  court  authorized  two  men,  Thomas 
Hall  and  Egbert  Woutersen  to  decide,  as  arbitrators,  the  difference 
between  Abraham  Verplanck  and  Dirck  Teunissen  concerning  "the 
product  of  the  land  and  the  lime."332 

On  March  81,  the  court  was  informed  that  Teunissen  would 
not  submit  to  arbitrators.  As  no  settlement  was  reached,  the  court 
again  referred  the  litigants  to  arbitrators.     It  also  stated    that   if 

328  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 
p.   16. 

329  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    XIV.,    p.    177.      Calendar     of     Historical 
Manuscripts,   I.,   p.    126. 

330  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    I.,    p.    50. 

331  Ibid.,    I.,    p.   52. 

332  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    54. 


the   arbitrators   could   affect   no   settlement,   court    action    was   to 
follow. ^^^ 

It  would  seem  that  the  matter  was  settled  out  of  court,  as 
the  minutes  record  nothing  further  about  it. 

Teunissen  had  a  second  law  suit  on  December  1,  1653,  when 
Jan  Hendricksen  demanded  to  get  his  boat,  which  was  in  the  hands 
of  Teunissen.  The  boat  had  been  lost  by  Hendricksen.  Teunis- 
sen had  found  it.  He  had  not  used  it,  but  would  not  give  it  to  the 
owner  before  he  had  paid  one  rix  dollar  in  salvage.  The  court 
decided  that  Hendricksen  should  pay  the  rix  dollar.^^'* 

Teunissen's  third  suit  was  begun  September  6,  1655.  It  was 
against  Jacob  Clomp.     We  shall  quote  from  the  court  minutes. 

"Pltf.  says,  the  deft,  removed  3  of  his  canoes  from  the  wharf, 
and  used  the  same  on  board  (his  vessel)  and  has  allowed  them  to 
drift  away ;  requesting  restitution  of  the  canoes,  one  of  which  was 
laden  with  lime  belonging  to  Willem  Dentin.  Deft,  denies  having 
removed  any  canoes  from  the  wharf,  but  that  one  canoe,  with 
lime,  and  two,  without  lime,  drifted  by  his  vessel,  which  he  saw 
and  brought  to  his  ship;  they  had  drifted  away  from  him  by  night, 
in  bad  weather,  breaking  the  ropes.  Claims  damages  because 
pltf.  has  arrested  him  with  his  laden  bark  here,  offers  to  declare 
on  oath  and  to  prove,  that  the  canoes  drifted,  that  he  saw  them 
coming  right  athwart  his  vessel  and  that  they  were  carried  away 
at  night  from  his  ship.  Asks,  that  pltf.  shall  prove  his  assertion. 
Parties  were  referred  by  the  Court,  inasmuch  as  there  is  no  proof 
of  their  statements,  to  Thomas  Hall  and  Laurens  Cor(neliu)s  van 
Wei,  who  is  hereby  authorized  to  reconcile  the  parties  touching 
their  case ;  otherwise  to  communicate  their  opinions  in  writing  to 
the  Board."335 

The  fourth  suit  of  Teunissen  was  against  Gabriel  de  Haes. 
Teunissen  demanded  a  payment  of  fl.  6.  But  de  Haes  claimed 
that  the  plaintiff  owed  him  stable  rent.  He  had  had  his  cattle 
for  about  one  month  in  his  stable.  Teunissen  denied  that  he  had 
hired  the  stable,  though  his  cattle  had  stood  in  it  five  days.     The 

333  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    77. 

334  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   133. 

335  Ibid.,   I.,   p.  352. 

136  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

Court  referred  the  matter  to  Egbert  Woutersen  and  Geurt  Coer- 
ton  for  arbitration. 33^ 

We  now  come  to  the  last  suit,  the  most  serious  of  them  all 
When  Teunissen  married  Adriantje  Walich  (Walings),  he  became 
a  step-father,  Adriantje  having  a  daughter,  Tryntie  Cornelis  by 
name.  In  the  beginning  of  1657  there  was  a  report  current  that 
the  relations  between  the  step-father  and  the  step-daughter  were 
criminal.  The  mother,  therefore,  presented  a  petition  to  the  court, 
requesting  that  the  matter  be  investigated  by  competent  persons, 
"as  her  daughter  was  falsely  accused  of  having  committed  adultery 
with  her  step-father."  The  petition  was  granted,  providing  "Teu- 
nissen and  the  girl  appear  personally  before  the  Council. "^^^ 

On  April  17,  1657,  it  was  petitioned  that  Tryntie  Cornelis, 
the  accused  girl,  be  confronted  with  her  accusers.  The  petition 
was  granted.     On  April  24,  she  and  her  mother  were  examined.^^** 

The  sources  at  our  disposal  give  no  detail  about  the  trial,  bur 
a  petition  of  June  12,  1657,  shows  that  Teunissen  and  Tryntie  had 
fared  ill.  For  they  requested  that  they  be  admitted  to  bail.  An- 
other petition,  of  May  16,  confirms  this:  Jan  Evert  Bout  requested 
that  he  be  permitted  to  rent  his  farm  at  Midwout  to  another  per- 
son "in  case  Dirck  Teunissen,  the  Noorman's  wife,  is  not  able  to 
hire  it."  The  petition  was  granted. ^3**  Midwout  was  the  place 
where  Teunissen  was  farming,  when  he  was  arrested :  he  was 
called  Dirck  Teunissen  of  Midwout.^^*' 

Under  date  of  March  19,  1658,  we  find  an  order  of  the  court 
directing  Dirck  Teunissen  to  pay  jailer's  fees.^^^  This  may  have 
reference  to  the  lawsuit  of  1657,  though  it  would  not,  even  if  this 
be  the  case,  necessarily  imply  that  Teunissen  had  been  found  guilty. 
In  fact,  there  is  some  evidence  that  the  charge  against  him  was 
unfounded.  First,  the  mother's  implicit  belief  in  the  daughter's 
innocence.  Secondly,  that  Teunissen  was  not  severely  punished, 
if  at  all ;  for  on  December  22,  he  acted  as  sponsor  at  the  baptism 
of  Christian  Pieterszen  and  Tryntie  Pieters.^^a  Thirdly,  that  this 
Tryntie  Pieters  was  no  other  than  his  own  accused  step-daughter. 

336  Ibid.,    II.,    p.   20. 

337  Calendar    of    Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    181. 

338  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   183f. 

339  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   186. 

340  Ibid.,   I.,   p.    181. 

341  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    192. 

342  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and   Biographical    Society,    H., 


Tryntie  Cornelis.^^^  She  had  been  married,  October  28,  1657, 
to  Christian  Pieters  (see  the  article  "Christian  Pieters,"  Part  II  ot 
this  volume). 

Teunissen  had  stood  sponsor  before  this :  On  June  22,  165IJ, 
and  on  October  8,  1656,  at  the  baptism  of  Jan  and  Frans,  children 
af  Joost  Goderus.^^*  On  April  25,  both  Teunissen  and  his  wife 
were  sponsors  at  the  baptism  of  Gerrit,  son  of  Lubbert  Gerritsen. 

The  will  of  Teunissen,  1662,  mentions  one  of  these  children, 
and  incidentally  reveals  the  name  of  Adriantje  Waling's  former 
husband.     It  reads  as  follows : 

*Tn  the  name  of  God,  Amen.  On  the  9th  day  of  October, 
1662,  appeared  Dirck  Theunissen  and  his  lawful  wife  Ariantie 
Walens,  of  the  Town  of  Bergen,  on  the  west  side  of  the  North 
river,  being  in  good  health,  going  and  standing.  If  the  testator 
dies  first,  the  widow  is  to  have  all  for  life.  If  necessary  she  may 
spend  one-half,  and  the  other  half  is  to  go  to  the  children  of  the 
widow  lawfully  begotten  by  her  deceased  husband,  Frans  Pieters 
Sloo  and  Cornelis  Janse  Shubber.  Legacies  to  Jan,  son  of  Joost 
Goderus,  and  50  guilders  to  the  poor   (not  recorded )."3'^^ 

Mrs.  Goderus  was  the  sister  of  Adriantje  Walings. 

Adriantje  died  before  March,  1669,  when  Teunissen  married 
Catalyntie  Frans,  a  widow.  In  1686  both  he  and  Catalyntie  were 
members  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church  in  New  Amsterdam. 
They  lived  on  Pearl  Street  (Valentine's  History  of  the  City  of  New 
York,  p.  333).  Even  as  early  as  1662,  Dirck  Teunissen's  name 
appeared  on  a  list,  which  was  to  show  that  he  and  several  others 
were  willing  to  contribute  money — no  specified  sum  is  given — to  a 
clergyman,  for  whom  the  magistrates  of  Bergen  (New  Jersey) 
had  petitioned  the  government. 

On  January  16,  1691,  inventory  of  the  estate  of  Teunissen 
and  Catalyntie,  deceased,  was  taken.  The  house  and  ground  was 
on  Broadway,  and  valued  at  4000  guilders,  and  other  property  at 
2,125  guilders  (Collections  of  the  New  York  Historical  Society, 
XXV.,  pp.  165,  467). 

343  The   New  York   Genealogical   and  Biographical   Report,    VI.,    p.   86. 

344  Collections   of   the    New   York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society.    II., 
pp.   34,   43. 

345  New   York   Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    232. 

138  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 


Barent  Thonissen  was  from  Hellesund,  Norway.  With  Lau- 
rens Laurensen  and  Andries  Christensen  he  was  engaged  by  Ki- 
liaen  van  Rensselaer  to  erect  and  run  a  saw  mill  in  the  colony  of 
Rensselaerswyck.  He  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  in  1631  by  the 
ship  "de  Eendracht,"  which  sailed  from  the  Texel  shortly  after 
July  7,  in  the  same  year.  His  name  does  not  appear  in  the  ac- 
count books  of  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck.^'*^  It  is  probable 
that  he  had  relatives  in  New  Netherland,  for  on  July  27,  1666,  a 
young  man,  Theunis  Willemse,  declared  "that  Barent  Theunisse 
was  his  deceased  uncle."^^'^ 


Bernt  Oswal  Noorman  was  a  seaman  in  the  service  of  New 
Netherland.  All  that  is  known  about  him,  is  limited  to  an  entry 
in  1662:  that  he  received  his  wages,  the  sum  of  fl.  2.13.3^» 


Govert  Noorman,  a  private,  is  mentioned  by  Riker  as  having 
taken  part  in  the  raid  on  the  Indians,  1663.  He  was  enrolled  in 
the  company  of  soldiers  at  Esopus.^^® 


Jacob  de  Noorman  was  in  Esopus  in  1663.  He  was  a  private 
soldier  who  took  part  in  the  raid  on  the  Indians.^^o  In  1674  lie 
petitioned   for  a  building  lot  in   Esopus.^^i 

346  Van   Rensselaer   Bowier    Monuscripts,    p.    807.      See    also    article    "Laurens 
Laurensen.' ' 

347  J.  Pearson,   Early  Records  ...  of  Albany,   p.   402. 

348  New  York  Colonial  Documents,   II.,  p.   181. 

349  J.   Riker,   Harlem,    Its   Origin   and   Early   Annals,    1904. 

350  Ibid.,    p.    201. 

351  Year    Book   of    the    Holland    Society    of    New    York,    1897,    p.    122. 



Roeloff  Noorman  was  enrolled  as  a  private  in  the  company  of 
soldiers  at  Esopus,  where  he,  in  1663,  took  part  in  the  raid  on 
the  Indians.^^2 


John  Wiskhousen  was  enrolled  as  a  soldier  who  was  to  sail 
to  New  Amsterdam,  April  15,  1660,  by  the  ship  "de  Bonte  Koe." 
In  the  passenger  list  it  is  stated  that  he  was  from  Bergen  in 

352  J.   Riker,    Harlem,   Its   Origin   and   Early   Annals,    p.   203. 

353  Year  Book   of   the   Holland    Society   of   New   York,    1902. 




Jochem  Kalder  and  his  wife  Magdalene  Waele,  both  of  whom 
belonged  to  the  earlier  settlers  in  New  Amsterdam,  were  probably 
Scandinavians, — either  Norwegian  or  Danish. 

Mr.  J.  H.  Innes  says,  very  little  information  can  be  gathered 
from  the  records  respecting  Kalder.  He  relates  that  one  of  the 
houses  occupying,  in  the  year  1655,  the  site  of  the  present  large 
building  known  as  Nos.  31  to  35  Stone  Street,  was  the  cottage  of 
Jochem  Kalder,  who  had  obtained  a  groundbrief  for  the  land  in 
1645,  and  who  seems  to  have  built  within  a  short  time  thereafter 
upon  the  westerly  side  of  his  plot  about  thirty-seven  English  feet 
in  frontage. 

On  June  2.  1649,  Dirk  Holgersen  leased  to  "Jochem  Calder" 
for  twenty  years,  1651-1671,  a  tract  of  land  on  Long  Island  "to- 
gether with  the  land  heretofore  leased  by  him,  Dirck,  to  Jochem 
Calder."  Kalder  was  to  have  the  land  "rent  free"  for  the  first  six 
years;  during  the  other  following  years  he  was  to  pay  150  guilders 
in  annual  rent.  For  the  wording  of  the  instrument,  see  article 
"Dirck  Holgersen."     Part  L 

One  of  the  earliest  notices  of  Kalder  dates  from  1643,  in 
which  year  he  signed  a  note  (August  8).  He  had  children:  Jacob 
was  baptized  in  New  Amsterdam  March  9.  1642  (the  father's 
name  is  given  as  Kayker)*;  Jeurgie,  March  13,  1644;  Annetje, 
March  11,  1646,  (father's  name:  Jochem  Carels)  ;  Michel  and 
Dorothe.  twins,  June  5,  1650,  (father's  name,  Jochem  Kier.     This 

*   At   this   baptism,    Teuntje   Bronck,    the    wife    of   Jonas    Bronck,    was    sponsor. 
Bronck   and  his  wife   were   Danes. 


cannot  refer  to  one  Jochem  Kiersted,  who  died  in  1647)  ;  Jacobus, 
February  9,  1653  (father's  name  Callaer). 

As  is  seen  above,  there  is  no  uniformity  in  the  spelHng  of 
Raider's  name.  The  same  lack  of  uniformity  appears  in  the 
records,  when  they  mention  Kalder  as  a  sponsor.  On  May  17, 
and  July  8,  1654,  his  name  is  entered  in  the  column  of  sponsors 
as  Calder;  July  4,  1655,  as  Calser;  September  26,  1655,  April  9, 
1656,  July  16,  1656,  as  Caljer.  The  church  records  under  date  of 
August  18,  1658,  give  the  spelling  Caljer;  of  March  1,  1659,  when 
Raider's  widow  married  again,  as  Calker. 

Why  this  variety?  It  is  likely  due  to  a  pronunciation  of 
Raider's  name,  which  sounded  strange  to  the  Dutch.  And  whence 
this  difficult  pronunciation? 

We  would  not  seek  it  in  France  or  in  Germany,  e.  g.  in  Cleves, 
where  there  is  a  "Calcar."  We  may  conjecture:  Kolkjar  in  Den- 
mark; this  would  perhaps  explain  the  spelling  Rier,  Calker,  Ray- 
ker.  The  Norwegian  "tykke  1"  (thick  "1")  is  likely  the  cause  of 
the  confusion.     Hence  we  look  to  Norway  for    an    explanation. 

O.  Rygh,  in  "Norske  Gaardnavne,"  IV.,  Rristians  Amt  [l\, 
p.  163,  finds  the  island  of  Raldhol  pronounced  as  Raldor  (1520)  ; 
Raider  (1578;  1604);  Raldor  (1594);  Rallul,  Raldor  (1668). 
He  says,  the  form  of  Raldor  is  due  to  misunderstanding  the  thick 
"1"  sound.     This  "1"  sounds  somewhat  like  "r"  and  'T'  combined. 


Signature  of  Jochem  Kalder. 

In  "Norske  Gaardnavne,"  XIV.,  Sondre  Trondhjems  Amt. 
p.  384  f.  (Selbu),  the  name  Rallar  is  spelled  Rallir  (1590),  Raller 
(1626,  1668),  Raider  (1723).  Raider  is  a  name  quite  familiar, 
also  among  the  present  Norwegians. 

It  is  thus  probable,  though  not  certain,  that  Jochem  Raider 
was  from  Norway. 

It  is  significant  that  the  lease  he  received  in  1649  was  signed 
by  Dirck  Holgersen  and  Pieter  Jansen,  both  of  whom  were  Nor- 
wegians; and  that  Pieter  Jansen  and  Jochem  Raider    were    arbi- 

142  NORWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

trators  in  1653;  moreover,  that  Pieter  Jansen  was  appointed  guar- 
dian of  Jochem's  children  at  the  demise  of  the  latter  (Year  Book 
of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,  1900,  p.  116). 

This  appointment  was  made  at  the  request  of  Magdalene 
Waele,  widow,  February  12,  1659,  when  she  announced  her  inten- 
tion of  marrying  Gysbert  Teunissen,  who  had  four  children  by  a 
former  marriage.  Magdalene  had  then  five  children  living.  Per- 
haps she  was  related  by  the  ties  of  blood  or  nationality  to  Pieier 
Jansen  Noorman. 

In  the  church  records  her  name  is  entered  as  Margaret  or 
Magdalene  Wale  (July  8,  1654),  Waels  (April  9,  1656),  or  as 
"Magdalene,  the  wife  of  Caljer."  If  she  was  a  relative  of  Pieter 
Jansen,  we  would  seek  her  original  home  in  Norway :  in  Vaage 
(Walde,  Walle.  See  O.  Rygh,  Norske  Gaardnavne,  IV.,  Kris- 
tiansamt  (I),  p.  77);  or  in  Ringebue  (Vaalen,  Vale,  Voile,  Waa- 
len  (1668)  ;  Ibid.,  p.  142)  ;  or  in  Tune  (Valle,  Volde,  Walle,  1667. 
Ibid.  I.,  p.  300)  ;  or  in  Onso  (Valde,  Walle,  1635,  1.  c.  311). 


Signature    of    Gysbert    Teunissen,    1659,    second    husband    of    Magdalene    Waele. 

She  was,  what  in  those  times  could  be  expected  of  a  Scandi- 
navian,— a  Lutheran.  The  Dutch  pastors  Megapolensis  and 
Drisius,  addressed,  August  23,  1658,  a  letter  to  the  Director  and 
Council  of  New  Netherland,  in  which  letter  they  state  the  fol- 

"Indeed,  it  happened  only  last  Sabbath,  Aug.  18th,  while  we 
were  yet  ignorant  of  the  complaint  of  the  Lutherans  against  us, 
that  a  child  was  baptized,  neither  of  whose  parents  was  present; 
but  only  two  Lutherans,  who  presented  the  child,  and  stood  god 
parents,  viz.,  Laurence  Noorman,  who,  they  say,  was  the  host  who 
concealed  John  Gutwasser,  the  Lutheran  minister,  last  winter, 
and  Magdalen  Kallier,  a  Lutheran  woman  (Ecclesiastical  Records 
of  the  State  of  New  York,  I.,  p.  430). 

The  Church  Records  mention  only  "the  wife  of  Jochem  Cal- 
jer" as  sponsor  at  the  baptism  (August  8,  1658)  of  Hendrick,  a 
child  of  Jan  Hendrickszen  and  Gritie  Barents,  who,  in  January, 
1663,  were  living  in  Bushwick. 


Magdalene  married,  March  1,  1659,  Gysbert  Toemszen  (Teu- 
nissen)  from  Barnevelt,  the  widower  of  Aeltje  Wouters.  Her 
daughter  Dorothea  was  married  to  Wouter  Gysbertsen.  In  1678 
she  became  a  member  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  church. 

On  April  15,  1660,  Magdalene  sold  the  lot  of  her  first  hus- 
band's on  South  William  Street  to  Ariaen  Van  Lear,  "a  lot  north 
of  the  Hoogh  Straat;  bounded  on  the  west  by  the  house  and  lot  of 
him  the  appearer  [Gysbert  Teunissen,  Magdalena's  second  hus- 
band] ;  north  by  the  Slyck  Steegh;  east  by  the  house  and  lot  of 
Mr.  Oloff  Stevensen;  west,  by  the  lot  of  Abraham  De  la  Noy ; 
north,  by  the  house  and  lot  of  Gerrit  Jansen  Roos ;  east,  by  the 
Graght  aforesaid.  On  the  east  side,  23  feet  3  inches ;  west  side, 
23  feet  6  inches ;  north  side,  52  feet  6  inches ;  south  side,  4  rods. 
(Valentine,  Manual  of  the  City  of  New  York,  1865,  p.  668.) 

On  July  9,  1663,  "Gysbert  Teunissen  deeded  to  Jochim  Ba- 
ker, of  Fort  Orange  "a  lot  north  of  the  Hoogh  Straat ;  bounded 
west  by  the  house  and  lot  of  Albert  Coninck ;  north,  the  Slyck 
Steegh ;  east,  the  house  and  lot  of  said  Jochim,  baker ;  and  south, 
the  Hoogh  Straat.  Broad,  front  and  rear,  21  feet  3  inches;  long, 
on  the  east  side,  6  rods  2  feet  7  inches ;  on  the  west  side,  6  rods  7 
inches."     (Ibid.,  1865,  p.  702.) 



We  wish  to  state  that  there  are  several  persons  with  Scandi- 
navian names  in  the  early  history  of  New  York,  who  are  not 
treated  in  the  present  volume.  As  conclusive  evidence  is  lacking 
to  establish  their  nationality,  we  do  not  count  them  among  our 
Scandinavian  immigrants. 

*  In  our  "Preface"  we  stated  that  there  were  no  Norwegians  and  Danes 
who  immigrated  to  New  Sweden.  The  "Pennsylvania  Magazine  of  History  and 
Biography,"  VIII.,  mentions  two  persons  who  may  be  exceptions.  Both  have 
Swedish  names.  The  one,  Ole  Hakeson  Buur,  came  to  "New  Sweden"  in  1649. 
He  was  born  in  Mandal.  (There  is  a  Mandal  in  Norway,  and  in  Denmark.)  The 
other,  a  boy,  Hendrick  Benckson  Buller,  arriving  in  the  same  year,  was  bom  in 
Danish    "Hysing"    (island   of  Hisingen,    near   Goteborg). 

144  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

To  illushdte,  we  may  here    briefly    consider    the    following 
names : 


Martin  Bierkaker  should  be  classified  as  a  Norwegian,  if 
Bierkaker  means  Birkaaker  (Bjerkaker),  near  Trondhjem  in 
Norway.  I  have  not  counted  him  among  the  fifty-seven  Norwe- 
gian immigrants,  because  Bierkaker  may  denote  something  else 
than  a  geographical  name.  In  Van  Rensselaers  Bowier  Manu- 
scripts, a  Marten  Hendricksz  from  Hamelworden,  near  Freiburg 
on  the  Elbe,  Hanover,  is  referred  to  (in  1657)  as  Marten  de  bier 
Craaker  and  Marten  de  bierkracker.  This  Marten  came  on  den 
Harinck  in  1639,  and  was  engaged  for  almost  seven  years  in  the 
colony  of  Rensselaerswyck.  In  1651  he  appears  to  have  had  an 
interest  in  a  brewery,  with  Evert  Pels. 

We  meet  Martin  Bierkaker  in  the  courts  of  New  Amsterdam 
in  1657,  where  he  is  called  Bierkaker.  Our  knowledge  of  him  is, 
however,  quite  limited. 

On  May  1,  1657,  he  appeared  as  a  witness  in  a  law  suit 
against  Steven  Jansen,  who  was  charged  with  drawing  his  knife 
and  wounding  Seger  Cornelissen. 

On  August  15,  1657,  an  affidavit  was  presented  in  New  Am- 
sterdam, signed  by  Johannes  La  Montague,  Philip  Pietersen 
Schuyler,  Jan  Thomassen,  who  were  magistrates,  and  Hendrick 
Jochemsen,  a  lieutenant  of  the  burgher  company,  stating  that 
Bierkaker,  on  the  south  side  of  the  town  limits,  had  sold  brandy 
to  a  Mohawk  Indian. 

On  the  same  day  Bierkaker  and  his  wife  Susanna  Jansen 
were  interrogated  respecting  these  charges. 

Under  date  of  August  20,  Susanna  pleaded  "in  her  extenua- 
tion her  extreme  poverty  and  that  her  husband  is  incapable  of 
working,  due  to  a  hernia  on  both  sides."  The  proceedings  were 
accordingly  dropped. 

(See  "Calendar  of  Historical  Manuscripts."  Ed.  by  E.  B. 
O'Callaghan,  I.,  pp.    314,    316.     Rygh's    "Norske    Gaardnavne," 


XIV.,  p.  170,  gives  these  forms  as  variations  of  Birkaaker:  Bierk- 
ager,  Birckagir  (1559,  1590),  Berckager  (1624)  .  .  .  Bierckagger 
(1631),  Birchagger  (1664),  Bierchager  (1723). 


Oloff  (or  Olav)  Stevensen,  an  early  settler  in  New  York,  who 
added  Van  Cortlandt  to  his  name,  was  probably  a  Scandinavian, 
perhaps  a  Norwegian.  Olav  is  a  Norwegian  name.  It  is  neither 
Dutch  nor  German,  nor  English  (a  school  in  England,  called  St. 
Clave,  shows  Norwegian  influence).  Stevensen  came  out  in  1637 
as  a  private  soldier  in  the  employ  of  the  West  India  Company. 
He  became  one  of  the  most  influential  men  in  the  colony.  It  is 
supposed  that  he  was  born  in  Wijk,  near  Utrecht,  Holland,  in 
1600 ;  that  he  had  his  name  Van  Cortlandt  from  having  resided  in 
the  Duchy  of  Courland,  opposite  the  Swedish  island  of  Gothland. 
If  he  was  born  in  Wijk  (there  are  many  places  in  Norway  called 
"Vik"),  this  would  not  necessarily  argue  against  his  Scandinavian 
ancestry  (Mrs.  Van  Rensselaer  in  History  of  the  City  of  New 
York  says  that  he  "possibly  was  a  Scandinavian,  as  Oloff  is  not 
a  Dutch  name").  "Cortlandt"  may  have  a  local  meaning,  too. 
Translated  into  Scandinavian  it  means  "short  land." 

Olav's  descendants  were  extensive  landholders,  and,  as  J.  H. 
Innes,  says,  "either  directly  or  by  marriage  .  .  .  controlled  at  one 
time  all  the  land  along  the  east  side  of  the  Hudson  River,  from 
the  highlands  above  the  modern  Peekskill  to  the  Spuynten  Duyvil 
Creek,  a  distance  of  about  thirty  miles,  and  extending  several 
miles  back  into  the  country.  Their  name  is  perpetuated  in  that  of 
the  town  of  Cortlandt  in  Westchester  County,  and  in  Courtlandt 
Street  and  the  Van  Courtlandt  Park  of  the  City  of  New  York" 
(about  800  acres).  See  article  "Van  Cortlandt",  in  Appleton's 
"Cyclopedia  of  American  Biography,"  VI. 


Skipper  Syvert  van  Bergen  was  likely  a  Norwegian.     In  1665 
he  is  mentioned  in  the  Records  of  New  Amsterdam  as  being  in- 

146  NOEWEGIAN    IMMIGRANTS    IN    NEW    YORK,    1G30-1674. 

volved  in  litigation  with  Schepen  Jacques  Cousseau  and  Abraham 
van  Tright.  Syvert  was  to  freight  some  tobacco  to  Holland  on  the 
ship  "Broken  Heart,"  at  first  owned  by  Tright,  later  by  Cousseau. 
Syvert  refused  to  freight  the  tobacco,  amounting  to  several  dozen 
"tubs,"  as  his  ship  was  loaded.  The  verdict  of  the  court  was, 
that  Syvert  should  take  aboard  a  quantity  of  thirty  hogsheads, 
"and  that  each  shall  have  to  bear  his  own  costs." 


Casper  Hugla,  mentioned  in  the  Records  of  New  Amsterdam, 
as  involved,  in  1671,  in  a  suit  with  Albert  Bosch,  plaintiff,  was 
probably  from  the  island  of  Hugla,  Helgeland,  Norway.  Nothing 
is  stated  as  to  the  nature  of  the  suit,  which  was  amicably  settled 
by  the  litigants. 


Andries  Hoppen  (or  Hoppe),  often  mentioned  in  the  Records 
of  New  Amsterdam,  may  have  been  from  Norway.  Rygh's  "Nor- 
ske  Gaardnavne"  (XIV,  44,  66),  mentions  a  bowery  in  Agdenes 
Herred,  Sondre  Trondhjems  Amt,  called  Hopen  (spelled  Hoppen, 
1618)  ;  also  Hopen  in  Hitteren  Herred,  in  the  same  "amt" 
(spelled  Hoppen,  1630).  Hopen,  from  'Hopr',  means,  in  Norwe- 
gian, a  closed  in  bay  or  gulf  of  small  dimension.  The  name 
Hoppe  may  also  be  German.  Cfr.  David  Heinrich  Hoppe,  born 
1760  in  Vilsen,  Germany,  who  was  a  noted  physician.  The  name 
may  also  be  Dutch. 

Andries  Hoppen  came  with  his  wife,  Geertje  Hendricks,  and 

daughter  Catrina  to  New  Amsterdam  about  1653.     He    died    in 

1658,  leaving  her  with  five  children.     The  widow  Hoppe  married, 

1660,  Dirck  Gerritesen  van  Tright  and  acquired  Broncks    Land, 

now  Morrisania.     See  article  "Jonas  Bronck."     Part  II. 

*  *  * 

Names  like  Aris  Otten,  Edward  Randall,  and  many  others  in 
the  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,  may  be  Norwegian,  but  may  also 


represent  persons  of   other  nationalities.     Without  more   or  less 

definite   information   pointing   to    Norwegian   antecedents,   we  can 
not  register  them  here,  though  it  would  be  tempting  to  do  so. 

The  Norwegians,  we  may  say  Scandinavians,  formed  a  re- 
spectable percentage  of  the  population  of  New  Netherland.  but  it 
would  be  gross  exaggeration  to  say  that  they  formed  "one-half  or 
a  fourth  of  it,"  though  the  percentage  was  larger  in  the  earlier 
days  than  in  1674. 






Willem  Adriaensz,  mentioned  in  the  "Van  Rensselaer  Bowier 
Manuscripts"  (p.  418)  as  being  "van  els  seneur,"  was  from  Hel- 
singor,  in  Denmark.  Our  knowledge  of  him  is  confined  to  a 
letter  of  Kiliaen  van  Rensselaer  to  Jacob  Planck,  officer  and  com- 
mis  in  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck.  The  letter  is  written  May 
12,  1639,  and  shows  that  Adriaensz  was  a  cooper,  and  had  an 
"account  against  the  lords  directors  of  Groningen  signed  by  Tyaert 
Brongers,  supercargo."  Planck  was  instructed  to  find  out  whether 
Adriaensz  had  received  any  payment  on  the  account,  as  the  patroon 
had  received  nothing   from   the  directors  on  this  account. 

(Deutfchc    k}rcb 

From    Braunius:      Theatrum    urbium. 

152  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

Some  time  prior  to  1638  Adriaensz  must  have  been  in  Hol- 
land. According  to  the  letter  to  Planck  he  was  somewhere  near 
Albany  in  1638.  In  what  year  he  left  Holland  or  Denmark  for 
the  new  world,  is  not  stated. 


Claes  Andriessen,  from  Holstein,  came  over  to  New  Nether- 
land  by  the  ship  "de  Eendracht,"  which  sailed  April  17,  1664.35* 
Perhaps  he  was  a  fisherman.  For  on  August  7,  1665,  a  Claes 
Andriessen  in  New  Amsterdam  was  granted  license  for  fishing.^^s 
On  August  22  he  was  accused  by  the  sheriff  of  having  been  out 
racing  with  a  boat  on  Sunday,  August  13,  which  was  contrary  to 
"the  Placard  of  June  20."  The  sheriff  demanded  of  him  a  fine 
of  twenty-five  guilders  and  the  costs.  Andriessen  claimed  in  self- 
defense,  however,  that  he  went  with  his  boat  to  "Waele  Bogt," 
and  thence  to  the  church  at  "Vlacke  Bos"  (Flatbush).  The  court 
demanded  that  he  should  prove  these  statements.  As  we  hear 
nothing  further  about  this  matter,  the  case  was  likely  settled  out 
of  court.356 


Laurens  Andriessen,  or  Laurens  Andriessen  van  Boskerk 
(Buskirk),  was  from  Holstein. ^^'^  Tradition  says  he  was  Dutch 
and  had  emigrated  from  Holland,  by  way  of  Denmark,  to  New 
Netherland  in  1655.  But  he  was  a  Dane,  and  had  gone  from  Den- 
mark to  Holland,  and  thence  to  New  Amsterdam.  It  seems  that 
he  was  in  Amsterdam  in  1654.  On  July  15,  1656.  he  brought  suit 
in  New  Amsterdam  against  Frerick  Adryaensen,  "his  man"  who 
"ran  away   from  him  last   Sunday  morning  without  either  words 

354  The    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Record,    XIV.,    p.    182. 

355  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    185. 

356  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    V.,    p.    290. 

357  See    under    date    December    12,    1658,    in    Collections    of    the     New     York 
Genealogical    and   Biographical    Society,    I. 


or  reason,  and  he  hired  him  in  Amsterdam  for  three  years  and  he 
is  bound  yet  for  more  than  one  year." 

Andriessen  was  a  turner  by  trade.  In  the  records  he  is  often 
called  Laurens  Turner  or  de  Drayer.  In  the  suit  of  1656  he  is 
called  van  Boskerk.  He  got  this  name  from  living  on  premises 
by  a  church  near  the  woods.  He  seems  to  have  obtained  these 
premises  in  1656,  and  to  have  added  to  them  in  1659,  when  he 
was  granted  land  by  certain  church  wardens;  and  in  1660,  when 
he  again  purchased  land  from  the  church  wardens,  on  the  west 
side  of  Broadway,  north  of  what  was  then  the  church  yard,  be- 
tween Morris  and  Rector  Streets. ^^^  It  was  west  to  the  river, 
43  feet  wide,  195  feet  long.  He  built  on  this  lot,  for  which  he 
paid  200  guilders.^ss 

In  June,  1656,  he  bought  and  sold  lots  on  the  present  east 
side  of  Broad  Street  and  south  of  Beaver  Street.  The  persons 
with  whom  he  was  dealing  in  these  transactions,  were  Lucas 
Dirksen   Van   Berg,   Jochem   Beeckman,    and   Jacobus   Backer.''^'' 

On  December  12,  1658,  Andriessen  married  Jannetje  Jans, 
widow  of  Christian  Barentsen.  Barentsen  was  probably  a  Dane, 
from  Holstein  (See  Excursus,  Part  II),  and  Jannetje,  it  would 
appear,  was  Norwegian.  For  in  "The  Records  of  New  Amster- 
dam," April  11,  1658,  a  Christian  [Barentsen]  is  spoken  of  as  the 
husband  of  the  "Noorman's  daughter". 

By  her  first  husband  she  had  three,  if  not  four,  children : 
Barent,  Cornelis,  Johannes.  In  her  second  marriage  she  had  four 
children :  Andries,  Lourens,  Pieter,  and  Thomas. 

Andries  was  baptized,  according  to  the  records,  on  March  3, 
1659.  Some  genealogies  have  changed  this  into  March  3,  1660. 
The  change  may  have  been  done  in  the  interest  of  a  perfected 
chronology,  but  the  original  date  is  according  to  the  New  Style, 
thus  needing  no  change.  If  Andries  was  born  on  March  3,  1659, 
he  was  likely  the  son  of  Christian  Barentsen.  Andries  died  in 
Bergen,  New  Jersey,  1683. 

Laurens  married  Hendrickje  Van  der  Linden.  His  will  is 
proved  in  Bergen  County,  June  4,  1724. 

358  D.  T.  Valentine,  Manual  of  the  Corporation  of  the  City  of  New  York, 
1861  and  1865.  Cfr.  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,  1901,  p.  158. 
The    Danish    word    for   turner    is    "dreier",    pronounced    as    Drayer. 

359  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdajn,    1653-1674,   III.,   p.   290. 

360  D.   T.   Valentine,   Manual   ...    of   the   City  of  New  York,    1861,    586f. 

154  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

Peter  was  born  January  1,  1666,  died  1738.  He  married 
Trintje  Harmense,  by  whom  he  had  three  children. 

Thomas  married  Margaret  Hendrickje  Van  der  Linden,  died 
1745.     They  had  ten  children. 

Laurens  Andriessen  acquired  much  land  in  Bergen  County, 
New  Jersey,  and  became  influential  in  political  life.  He  held 
several  ofifices  of  trust.  He  had  a  good  handwriting,  his  signature 
is  given  in  the  New  Jersey  Archives,  First  Series  L,  p.  97.  He 
often  served  on  juries.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Bergen  Court, 
1677  to  1680,  president  of  it,  1681,  president  of  the  County  Court, 
1682.  He  was  also  for  several  years  member  of  the  Governor's 

Signature    of   LaureoB  Andriessen. 

On  April  10,  1682,  he  obtained  a  patent  of  1076  acres  of 
land  at  Hackensack,  New  Jersey.^^^  On  May  23,  in  the  same 
year,  he  obtained  a  deed  for  "half  a  parcel"  of  land,  adjoining 
Cornelis  Christians,  likewise  at  New  Hackensack,  and  "a  half  a 
meadow  lot."  ^^^ 

On  March  24,  1683,  he  was  appointed  Justice  of  Peace  of 
the  Quorum,  for  the  counties  of  Essex,  Middelsex,  Monmouth, 
and  Bergen. 2^3 

The  will  of  Laurens  Andriessen  and  his  wife  is  dated  August 
29,  1679.     It  was  proved  March  19,  1693.36^ 

Of  Laurens  Andriessen's  children,  Laurens  (born  1663),  re- 
presented Bergen  in  the  Fifth  Provincial  Assembly,  1709.  He  died 
1724.     He  had  seven  children. 

Laurens  Andriessen  is  the  common  ancestor  of  the  Van 
Buskirks,  well  known  in  the  annals  of  New  Jersey  and  New  York. 

361  New   Jersey   Archives,    First    Series,    XXI.,    p.   48. 

362  Ibid.,    XXI.,    p.    135. 

363  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    89. 

364  Ibid.,    XXI.,    p.    193.     Jannetje    died   July    13,    1694. 



His  great-grandson  Jacob  Van  Buskirk  *  born  at  Hackensack,  in 
1739,  probably  was  the  first  American-born  Lutheran  minister  in 
the  United  States.  A  descendant  of  his  is  Dr.  J.  Singmaster, 
President  of  the  Theological  Seminary  at  Gettysburg,  Penn. 

The  Buskirks  have  intermarried  with  many  of  the  leading 
families  in  the  Eastern  Section  of  the  United  States.  A  brief 
Genealogy  of  this  family  is  given  in  Wm.  E.  Chute's  "A  Genealogy 
and  History  of  the  Chute  Family"  (1895).  See  also  C.  S.  William's 
"Christian  Barentsen  Van  Horn  and  his  Descendants"    (1911). 

*  The  Library  of  the  "Phrena"  Society.  Pennsylvania  College,  Gettysburg, 
Pa.,  possesses  an  interesting  copy  of  Luther's  Small  Catechism  in  Dutch.  The  title 

"Die  kleine  ICateehismusI  van  Do  Martinus  Lutherus  |mit  getuigenissen  des 
Geestes  Gods  uit  de  Heilige  Schriftuur  Kort,  —  delyk  en  grondelyk  tot  behoef  van 
de  Eenvoudige,  De  onveranderde  Augsburgze  Confessie  toegedaan  zynde.  |  Verklaard 
en  bewezen  |  Tit.  1.  9.  Houd  vast  over  het  Woord  dat  gewis  is,  en  leeren  kan  Te 
Amsterdam.     By    Hendrik    Bosch,    Boekverkooper,    over't    Meisjes    Wees-huis,    1727." 

This  work  has  once  been  the  property  of  Rev.  Johan  Christian  Leps,  whose 
note-book  from  the  University  of  Halle,  where  he  studied  in  1764,  is  in  the  same 
library.  Leps  was  ordained  in  Philadelphia  in  1774.  He  was  not  a  Dane  as  is 
claimed  by  Rev.  Rasmus  Andersen  in  "Danske  i  Amerika"  (pp.  396flf),  but  a  Ger- 
man, as  Prof.  Fr.  Loofs,  of  the  University  of  Halle,  informs  me.  According  to 
Loofs,  Leps  was  from  Freuenbritzen  in  the  Province  of  Brandenburg.  He  registered 
as  studiosus   juris   at    the    University   of   Halle   in    1763. 

This  catechism — in  two  small  volumes,  in  hog's  leather, — of  79  pages  and 
410  questions,  also  contains  sixty  closely  written  leaves,  though  not  in  the  hand- 
writing of  Leps,  but  in  that  which  we  find  in  several  other  books,  which  he  had  in 
his  library.  The  writer  seems  to  have  been  a  conscientious  catechist.  probably 
pastor  of  the  Dutch  church  at  Loonenburg,  now  Athens,  Green  County,  N.  Y.  The 
book  gives  us  an  idea  of  the  size  of  the  confirmation  class  to  which  Jacob  von  Bus- 
kirk belonged,  as  it,  like  many  other  old  books,  contains  more  than  what  its  printed 
characters  convey  to  us.  The  catechist  has  supplied  the  last  pages  with  a  hand- 
written list  of  the  names  of  twenty-nine  boys  and  twenty-one  (twenty-three?)  girls, 
under  the  rubric  "Naamen  der  Catechisanten."  Among  the  names  are  Jacob  van 
Boschkerk;  Gertrud  van  Bjoskerk ;  Mathys  Bronk,  a  descendant  of  Jonas  Bronk  (see 
article,   Jonas   Bronck,    Part   11). 

The  names  are: 


Henrich     Evertson. 

Martin    Haalenbeck. 

Nicolai    von    Loon. 

Joachim    Halenbek. 

Ysaak    Halenbek. 

Valentin    Schram. 

Jacob    Van    Boschkirk. 

Johannes    Schram. 

Johannes    Landman. 

Jan    V.    Hoesen    Jas    0.    .    . 

Petrus    Ganson. 

Nicolaus    van    Hoesen. 

Wilhelm    van    Hoesen. 

Justus    van    Hoesen. 

Nicolaus    Landmand. 

Joh    Landmand    sen 

Rulof   Ganson, 

Cornelius    Halenbeck. 

Lisabeth    Landman. 

Jan   Janson   van   Hoesen. 

Dirk   van   Hoesen. 

Evert   van    Loon. 

Math   V   Long, 

Jurry   Gertsen   Klaus. 

Franz    Klan. 

Mathys    Bronk. 

Jurgen    Schram. 

Jan   Jacobsen    van   Hoesen. 

Jan    van    Hoesen. 


Aynetje    Halenbek 
Marya   Halenbek. 
Marya    van    Loon. 
Catharina    Ehman. 
Gertrud    von    Bjoschkerk. 
Ebgeltje    Schram. 
Maria   Hardeck. 
Janeke    van    Hoesen. 
Marya    van    Loon. 
Catharina    van    Horen. 
Gertye    van    Hoeren. 
Jannetje    van    Hoes. 
Rebecca    van    Loon. 
Lisabeth    van    Hoesen. 
Maria    van    Hoesen. 
Elsje   van    Hoesen. 
Paley    Hardeck. 
Marytye    van    Hoesen. 
Annet   van   Hoesen. 
Jantje    van    Hoesen. 
Marytye    van    Hoesen. 
(Maria    de    Grot.) 
(Hell    v.    Dyk.) 

156  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 


Pieter  Andriessen,  a  Dane,  from  Bordesholm  in  Holstein, 
came  over  to  New  Amsterdam  in  1639,  in  the  ship  "de  Brant  van 
Trogen."  Among  his  fellow  passengers  were  other  Danes:  Cap- 
tain Jochim  Pietersen  Kuyter,  Jonas  Bronck  (?)  and  Laurens 
Duyts.^^^  Duyts  and  Andriessen  were  to  work  for  Jonas  Bronck 
in  Morrisania,  the  present  Borough  of  the  Bronx.  Bronck  had 
advanced  the  two  men  about  121  florins  to  pay  their  board  on  the 

On  October  19,  1645,  Pieter  Andriessen  got  the  patent  of  a 
lot  behind  the  public  tavern  on  Manhattan,  that  is  on  Hoogh 
Straet.  On  the  same  date  he  obtained  a  patent  of  "74  morgens, 
327  rods  of  land  on  the  East  River,  opposite  Hog  Island,  east  of 
Domine's  Hook."^^^  The  house  which  was  erected  upon  this 
farm  was  nearly  opposite  the  foot  of  the  present  Fifty-fifth  Street 
on  Manhattan  Island. ^^^ 

Andriessen  owned,  it  would  appear,  some  cattle  before  he  be- 
came an  independent  landowner.  When  working  in  Morrisania, 
he  bought  live  stock.  Under  date  of  October  15,  1641,  we  find  a 
receipt  of  his  "for  a  milk  cow  from  Philip  de  Truy  on  shores.''^^" 
His  farm  must  have  frequently  been  visited  by  men  who  passed 
his  house  on  the  river,  for  he  had  a  tavern  there  as  early  as 
1648.^"'^  Besides  being  a  farmer  and  a  tavernkeeper,  he  also  was 
a  chimney-sweep.  He  was  called  Pieter  de  Schoorstenveger  (the 
chimney-sweep).  We  do  not  know  much  about  his  movements. 
When  he  was  in  the  city,  he  likely  left  his  farm  in  care  of  his 
negro  slaves. 

He  had  not  been  long  in  this  country  before  he  had,  like 
many  other  early  settlers,  his  hands  in  a  lawsuit,  and  that  against 
a  woman.  We  have  a  notice  of  this  under  date  of  August  9,  1642, 
when  he  sued  Aeltje  Douwes  for  slander.  The  result  of  the  pro- 
ceedings was,  that  Aeltje  "begs  pardon   of   the   plaintiff  in  court 

365  See    articles   on    these    men.     Part   II. 

366  Calendar    of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    9. 

367  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    370. 

368  J.    H.    Innes,    New   Amsterdam   and    Its   People,    p.    164. 

369  Calendar    of    Historical    Manuscripts.    I.,    p.    17. 

370  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    I.,    p.    8. 

^  w 



w  °'  ^ 


V  s^ 


and  acknowledges  that  he   [Andriessen]    is  an  honest  and  upright 


man.  ^'^ 

On  August  5,  1653,  he  was  sued  by  GuHaem  Wys,  who  de- 
manded "payment  of  fl.  499  :4  according  to  note  dated  5  August, 
1652."  Andriessen  "confessed  the  debt"  and  requested  delay. 
But  the  court  condemned  him  "to  pay  according  to  obligation 
within  one  month  from  date."^'''^ 

A  notice  dated  September  11,  1655,  gives  us  the  key  to  the 
nationality  of  Pieter  Andriessen.  It  states  that  "Pieter  Andrisz 
Van  Bordolholm  [Bordesholm]"  is  indebted  to  Cornelis  Steen- 
wyck,  as  attorney  for  Jacobus  Schelle,  the  sum  of  415  guilders  for 
merchandise  received  in  1652.  It  also  states  that  he  resided  on 
Long  Island. ^'^^ 

It  is  erroneous  to  identify  ^'^^  Pieter  Andriessen  with  a  Pieter 
Andriessen  from  "Thresoni,  in  Brabant,"  who  married,  in  1661, 
Geertruyd  Samson,  widow  of  Jan  Theunissen  van  Wesp,  and  died 
in  1664.375 

On  June  5,  1650,  Pieter  Andriessen,  the  subject  of  our  sketch, 
was  sponsor  at  the  baptism  of  Michel  and  Dorothe,  twins  belonging 
to  a  Norwegian,  Jochem  Kier  (Kalder). 

There  was  a  Pieter  Andriessen  who  bought  a  lot  in  New 
Amsterdam  on  March  14,  1661.  Whether  this  person  be  Pieter 
from  Brabant  or  Pieter  from  Bordesholm  can  not  be  decided  with 
the  aid  of  the  material  at  our  disposal. 

Pieter  Andriessen,  the  chimney  sweeper,  received  his  small 
burgher  right  on  April  13,  1657. 

Before  we  take  leave  of  him  we  shall  relate  these  two  inci- 
dents connected  with  him  and  his  house  on  the  farm. 

In  1655  the  Indians  made  one  of  their  raids.  Andriessen 
was  one  of  those  who  suffered  by  it :  he  lost  his  cattle.  In  order 
to  recover  some  of  his  live  stock,  he  and  a  few  others  sailed  up 

371  Calendar    of    Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    72. 

372  The   Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    I.,    p.    118. 

373  Year  Book  of  the  Holland   Society   of  New   York,    1900,    p.    159. 

374  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 
P-   27.     J.    H.   Innes,    New   Amsterdam    and    Its    People,    p.    165. 

375  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    V.,    p.    66. 

158  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

the  East  River,  to  his  farm,  which  he  had  left  when  the  raid 
took  place.  But  the  Indians  caught  them  and  kept  four  of  them, 
including  Andriessen,  prisoners.  First  after  the  city  authorities 
had  paid  a  ransom  for  their  release,  were  they  liberated. 

In  regard  to  the  capture  of  Andriessen  and  the  ransom  which 
the  Indians  demanded  before  they  would  liberate  the  captives,  the 
following  documents  are  of  value.  The  Indians  received  a  ran- 
som; not,  however,  the  extravagant  one  they  had  demanded 
according  to  the  documents. 

Director  Stuyvesant  wrote  to  Captain  Brian  Nuton  [Newton], 
October  12,  1655 : 

"This  is  to  inform  you,  that  three  or  four  canoes  with  savages  I 
have  been  seen  near  the  Hellegat  on  Long  Island,  who  have  taken 

Pieter,  the  chimney-sweep,  prisoner ;  therefore  you  w^ill  have  to  be  | 

on  your  guard  and  keep  your  men  close  together;  and  whereas  I  I 

have  been  informed,  that  the  free  people,  contrary  to  my  order,  j 
do  not  remain  together,  but  that  every  one  runs  here  and  there  to 

his  own  plantation,  you  must  once  more,  and  this  the  last  time,  , 

warn  them,  that  they  take  care  and  keep  together  according  to  my  j 

order,  or  that  I  shall  be  obliged  to  take  other  measures  herein,  j 

You  are  hereby  especially  directed  to  keep  your  soldiers  together  ■ 
and  keep  a  good  watch.     Farewell  .  .  ." 

From   the  minutes  in   regard  to  the  appearance,    before    the 
Council,  of  Stephen  Necker,  one  of  the  prisoners,  who  had  been    j 
sent  by  the  Indians  to  demand  the  ransom,  we  quote  the  following:    ! 

[October  13]      "Stephen  Necker  appeared  before  the  Council    j 
and  reported  that  Peter,  the  chimney-sweep,  with  five  others,  of    j 
whom  he  was  one,  had  sailed  to  the    aforesaid    chimney-sweep's 
plantation  to  fetch  some  animals  from  there;  after  they  had  been'   j 
there  about  half  an  hour,  they  were  attacked  by  about  thirty  sav- 
ages, he  does  not  know  of  what  nation,  who  took  them  all  pris- 
oners; four  of  them  had  been  wounded,    and    he    with  Cornelis 
Mourissen  (afterwards  shot  in  the  back  with  an  arrow,  "which  has 
been  cut  out  by  the  barber")  has  been  sent  here  by  the  savages,  to 


ask  for  their  ransom  the  following  articles,  which  the  savages  had 
marked  with  notches  on  a  stick : 

20  coats  of  cloth.  40  knives. 

20  handfuls  of  powder.  10  pairs  of  shoes. 

10  bars  of  lead.  10  pairs  of  socks. 

10  kettles.  10  addices. 

2  muskets.  10  hatchets. 

3  swords.  20  tobacco-pipes. 
20  strings  of  wampum. ■^''^ 

Almost  at  the  same  time  and  during  Andriessen's  absence 
from  his  house,  a  white  settler  and  two  negroes,  one  of  whom  was 
,a  servant  of  Andriessen,  took  possession  of  his  house,  in  order 
to  enjoy  a  repast  of  stolen  chickens.  They  had  been  in  the 
neighborhood  for  their  prey,  and  had  frightened  the  few  people 
there  by  feigning  Indians.  They  had  shouted  and  yelled,  battered 
the  doors  and  on  the  whole  played  their  role  of  savages  so  well, 
that  those  who  were  not  initiated,  were  scared  away.  Finally  one 
of  the  latter,  Harmen  the  cooper,  made  his  way  to  Andriessen's 
house,  where  he  saw  a  light.  He  heard,  to  his  surprise,  Dutch 
spoken,  entered  the  house  boldly  and  caught  the  miscreants  red- 
handed.  The  new  visitor  found  a  large  fire  in  Pieter's  house, 
and  "Claes  de  Ruyter  preparing  to  spit  the  (stolen)  fowls."  The 
visitor  censured  them,  but  the  miscreants  answered  "that  they 
were  forced  to  do  it  by  hunger" — a  fabricated  defense,  as  the  city 
was  not  far  distant.  The  city  authorities  got  knowledge  of  the 
matter,  and  the  visitor  related  before  the  court  what  had  trans- 
pired in  the  "chimney-sweep's  house."  He  even  told  that  De  Ruy- 
ter requested  him  to  remain  silent  about  the  matter,  and  that  he, 
on  arriving  at  the  Manhattans,  would  pay  for  the  fowls. "^"'^ 

The  city  government,  now  knowing  that  others  besides  the 
Indians  were  playing  the  role  of  plunderers,  issued  an  "Order 
against  isolated  plantations."  It  commanded  the  subjects  to  settle 
close  to  one  another  in  villages  and  hamlets.  It  imposed  a  penalty 
on  those  who  refused  to  comply  with  the  command  and  gave  notice 
that  they  must  not  expect  any  aid  from  the  government  in  case  of 
trouble  with  the  Indians. 

376  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    43f. 

377  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    IV.,    p.    394f. 

160  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 


Claes  Claesen  Bording  was  from  Denmark  (possibly  from 
Hording).  He  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  1648  or  before. 
There  is  no  Danish  name  in  the  Records  of  New  Amsterdam  that 
appears  so  often  as  that  of  Claes  Claesen  Bording.  He  was  a  re- 
spectable mariner  and  a  politician  of  some  influence.  He  was 
several  times  nominated  for  offices,  e.  g.,  the  office  of  schepen,  but 
he  "is  not  found  to  have  been  appointed  to  any  crown  station. "^^s 
He  received  the  small  burgher's  right  in  1657,  and  his  nomination 
for  the  office  of  schepen  would  indicate  that  he  also  had  the  great 
burgher's  right.  He  was  often  in  court  as  curator  or  as  arbitrator 
in  disputes. 

He  had  a  good  house  on  Pearl  Street,  between  Whitehall 
Street  and  the  Battery. 

His  wife  was  Susanna  Lues  (Lees,  Lies,  Marsuryn).  Su- 
sanna and  Claes  had  many  children,  who  were  baptized  between 
1650  and  1673. 

The  dates  of  the  baptism  of  their  children  are  as  follows: 
Marritje,  September  11,  1650;  Tryntje,  November  5,  1651;  Mar- 
ritje,  May  3,  1654;  Lysbeth,  October  25,  1656;  Claes,  May  11, 
1658;  Simon,  February  5,  1662;  Jannetje,  November  2,  1663; 
Hester,  December  7,  1667;  Lysbeth,  September  10,  1670;  Claes, 
October  26,  1673.3^9 

Bording  and  his  wife  were  often  present  as  sponsors  at  bap- 

He  was  sponsor  at  the  baptism  of  Grietie,  a  child  of  Cors 
Pietersen,  May  25,  1648 ;  at  the  baptism  of  Daniel  and  Anneken, 
children  of  Pieter  Laurentszen,  February  4,  1654 ;  at  the  baptism 
of  Sytie,  child  of  Pieter  Pieterszen,  January  23,  1656 ;  at  the  bap- 
tism of  Jacobus,  child  of  Jacob  Theunissen  de  Key  and  Hillegond 
Theunis,  November  27,  1672;  at  the  baptism  of  Lysbeth,  child  of 
Cornelis  Kregier  and  Annetje  Bordings,  August  2,  1676 ;  at  the 
baptism  of  Samuel,  child  of  Thomas  Lourenszen,  July  9,  1679.^^'' 

378  D.  T.  Valentine,  History  of  the  Corporation  of  the  City  of  New  York, 
1853,  p.  91.  Tradition  says,  he  was  from  Danzig.  Jens  Worm's  Lexicon  mentions 
several   persons  having  the  name  of  Bording,  born   in   Ribe   or  Aarhus   or   Antwerp. 

379  Collections  of  the  New  York  Genealogical  and  Biographical  Society,  II., 
pp.   27,   30,    37,    43,    53,    64,    75,    89,    99,    112. 

380  Ibid.,    II.,    pp.    24,    36,    41,    107,    124,    140. 

BOEDING.  161 

Susanna,  his  wife,  was  sponsor  at  the  baptism  of  Gritie,  child 
of  Hendrick  Hendrickszen  Obee,  August  17,  1659;  at  the  baptism 
of  Thomas,  son  of  Thomas  Laurenszen  and  Marritje  Jans,  March 
13,  1678 ;  at  the  baptism  of  another  child  of  Thomas  Laurenszen 
and  Marretje  Jans,  July  15,  1674.^^1 

Bording  and  his  wife  joined  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church  be- 
tween 1649  and  1660. 

On  November  6,  1648,  Bording  dissolved  partnership  with 
Aryn  Jansen,  which  fact  would  seem  to  indicate  that  he  must  have 
been  in  New  Amsterdam  for  some  time,  perhaps  many  years,  prior 
to  the  fall  of  1648.382 

On  March  24,  1651,  Claes  Bording  and  Pieter  Jacobsen  Ma- 
rius  gave  power  of  attorney  to  Pieter  Cornelissen  to  collect  money 
due  them  at  the  South  River.^^s 

On  August  18,  1653,  Bording  sued  Willem  Albertsen  for  a 
balance  of  seven  beavers  "by  virtue  of  a  note  for  sixteen  and  one- 
third  beavers."  The  result  of  the  suit  was  that  Albertsen  was 
condemned  to  pay  what  he  owed  the  plaintiff.^^^ 

On  December  8,  1653,  Cornells  van  Tienhoven  appeared  in 
court  and  declared  that  Bording  had  been  examined  before  the 
Director  and  Council  on  a  charge  of  smuggling  gunpowder  and 
lead,  and  that  they  had  provisionally  confined  him  in  the  council 
chamber.  He  requested  the  Burgomaster  and  the  Schepen  to  ex- 
amine into  the  matter.385  Nothing  is  recorded  as  to  how  the 
matter  was  concluded. 

On  March  16,  1654,  Bording  was  authorized  and  appointed 
by  the  court  as  curator  of  the  property  left  by  a  Gillis  Jansen  de- 

On  April  13,  he  appeared  before  the  court  prosecuting  a 
certain  attachment  levied  on  a  sum  of  100  gl.  in  the  hands  of 
Jacob  Strycker  on  account  of  Jan  Snediger,  whom  he  (Bording) 
had  cited  and  who  refused  to  appear.  The  court  declared  the 
attachment  valid.     In  the  following  month  the  case  was  tried,  and 

381  Ibid.,   II.,   pp.    53,   109,    115. 

382  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.   45. 

383  Ibid.,    p.    52. 

384  The    Records   of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    I.,    p.    99. 

385  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    138. 

386  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    174. 

162  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 

Snediger  was  ordered  by  the  court  to  pay  what  he  owed  Bord- 

]j^g  387 

In  May,  1655,  Bording  and  six  other  inhabitants  of  New 
Amsterdam  signed  a  petition :  that  the  court  order  Jacob  Steven- 
sen  and  Mary  Joosten,  his  wife,  to  leave  the  city  or  be  punished 
on  account  of  their  "wicked,  enormous,  beastly,  dreadful  and  im- 
moral  lives." 

It  appears  that  Bording  and  Pieter  Jacobsen  Marius  were 
partners  in  business.  We  have  noted  that  they  had  transactions 
in  common  in  1651.  They  had  such  transactions  also  in  1656, 
1658,  and  1670. 

On  October  2,  1656,  they  appeared  in  court  complaining  that 
they  could  not  obtain  payment  from  Jacob  van  Couwenhoven,  a 
brewer,  according  to  the  judgment  passed  some  time  before  by  the 
court.  They  requested  that  execution  might  be  proceeded  with. 
The  court  declared  the  request  just  and  ordered  Couwenhoven  to 
give  immediate  satisfactory  security. ^^^  Couwenhoven  was  at  this 
time  greatly  hampered  by  his  debts. 

A  week  later,  Couwenhoven  got  extension  of  time  from  the 
court.  But  Bording  again  appeared  and  renewed  his  former  re- 
quest. At  the  same  time  he  prosecuted  the  arrest  of  "the  horse 
and  all  that  Wolfert  Gerritssen  has  on  his  bouwerie,  which  is 
mortgaged  to  him."  The  court  declared  the  mortgage  valid,  but 
would  not  alter  the  recent  ruling  with  respect  to  Couwenhoven.^^" 
On  November  1,  Bording  made  his  third  appearance  in  court, 
again  requesting  that  execution  might  be  legally  issued  against  van 
Couwenhoven.  But  the  court  persisted  in  the  previously  issued 
order.^^^  At  the  end  of  the  year  the  case  was  again  considered. 
The  court  found  that  the  request  of  Bording  and  Marius  was  just, 
but  it  also  desired  to  be  accommodating  to  van  Couwenhoven.^^^ 

On  September  23,  1658,  Bording  and  Marius  appeared  in 
court  against  Lauwerens  Jansz,  widower  of  Anna  Cornelis,  de- 
ceased.    Jansz  was  about  to  depart  for  Holland,  and  the  plaintiffs 

387  Ibid.,  I.,    pp.  183,    190. 

388  Ibid.,  II.,    p.  177. 

389  Ibid.,  II.,   p.  183. 

390  Ibid.,  II.,    p.  214. 

391  Ibid.,  II.,   p.  242. 

BOEDING.  163 

requested  that  he  should  render  account  for  the  estate  of  Jacob 
Jacobs,  son  of  Anna  Cornelis.^^^ 

In  the  early  part  of  1670  Bording  and  Marius  brought  suit 
against  Andrew  Messenger,  who  was  indebted  to  them  for  goods 
and  merchandise  to  the  sum  of  fl.  331,12  in  seawan.  They  won 
their  case.  Andrew  had  also  to  pay  the  costs  of  the  suit.  But 
as  late  as  November,  Andrew  had  not  paid  them,  and  they  again 
complained.  The  court  ordered  the  sheriff  to  collect  the  money 
or  pay  it  himself.  The  sheriff  was  Allard  Anthony.  As  he  took 
no  steps  to  collect  the  sum,  even  after  getting  the  orders  of  the 
court,  the  court  ordered,  on  December  16,  that  the  marshall  should 
serve  the  execution  upon  the  estate  of  Allard  Anthony  without 
any  further  delay.  In  March,  1672,  the  court  renewed  this 

Bording  seems  to  have  been  persistent  in  his  suits,  and  he 
generally  won.  We  shall  mention  two :  one  in  1655,  which  he 
lost,  and  one  in   1662,  which  makes  it  evident  that  he   frequently 

I      had  his  own  way  in  court  matters. 

j  On  October  18,   1655,  he  sued  Pieter  Wolfertsen   for  some 

!  spoiled  tobacco  which  he  had  received  from  him.  He  said  he  had 
received  in  all  six  hogsheads  of  tobacco,  but  418  pounds  were 
spoiled.      The   court,   upon   hearing   the   evidence,    which    showed 

I      that  "the  tobacco  had  been   shipped   in  good    condition    in    tubs 

j     properly  inspected,"  dismissed  the  case.^^^ 

On  January  10,  1662,  Paulus  van  de  Beeck,  collector  of  ex- 
cises demanded  in  court  twenty-six  gl.  of  Bording  for  "excise  of 

j  a  beast  and  two  hogs,  entered  by  him,  with  costs."  Bording  faced 
the  officer  and  court  with  the  question  "if  men  must  give  twice 
as  much  heavy  money."  The  court  answered  him  that  he  could 
satisfy  the  excise  by  "paying  with  such  pay  as  the  beast  is  bought 
in."  The  question  seems  to  have  been  one  about  the  medium  of 
exchange,  whether  seawan  was  on  par  with  metal. ^^^ 

We  have  stated  that  Bording  was  a  mariner.  Mention  is 
often  made  of  his  yacht,  in  the  New  York  Colonial  Documents. ^^^ 

392  Year  Book   of   the   Holland   Society   of   New   York,    1900,    p.    114. 

393  The   Records    of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    VI.,    280,    344,    347. 

394  Ibid.,    I.,   p.   379. 

395  Ibid.,    IV.,   pp.    6,    8. 

396  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    pp.    250,    264,    365. 

164  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 

We  do  not  know  when  Bording  died.  In  1686  Susanna 
Marsuryn  is  mentioned  as  the  widow  of  Bording.  She  was  then 
living  at  Pearl  Street.  (In  1674  his  property  on  this  street  was 
valued  at  $3000.)  But  as  late  as  1691  we  have  a  will  signed  by  him. 
The  records  state: 

"In  den  namen  des  Herren  (In  the  name  of  the  Lord,)  Amen. 
On  October  31,  1691,  appeared  before  me,  William  Bogardus, 
Public  Notary,  Claas  Burden  (or  Bordinge)  and  his  wife  Susanah. 
The  survivor  of  the  two  is  to  have  all  the  estate  for  life,  and  then 
to  their  children,  Tryntie,  Catharine,  wife  of  Lucas  Van  Thien- 
hoven,  Maria,  Annettie,  wife  of  Cornelis  Gregoe,  Symon  and 

"Signed  'Claas  Bordinge.' 

"Witnesses,  Peter  Jacobs  Marius,  John  Vandeventer. 

"Proved,  Tuesday,  May  5,  1691."  397 


Jan  Broersen  was  from  Husum,  in  Denmark.  As  early  as 
1644,  he,  as  a  young  man,  served  Jacob  Hay  (Huys)  in  the  West 
Indies.  He  later  came  to  New  Netherland.  We  find  him  at 
Esopus  in  May,  1658,  when  he  and  other  settlers  of  this  place  made 
an  agreement  to  remove  their  dwellings  and  form  a  village. ^^s 

About  the  same  time  he  and  six  others  sent  a  letter  to  the 
Council  of  New  Netherland,  complaining  of  the  Indians,  and  ask- 
ing for  assistance.  The  letter  states  that  there  were  990  schepels  of 
seed-grain  in  the  ground,  that  the  country  was  fine,  that  between 
sixty  and  seventy  Christian  people  were  living  there  and  were  in 
the  habit  of  attending  divine  services  "on  all  proper  days,"  and 
that  they  maintained  their  [church-]  reader  at  their  own  expense. 
To  protect  them  against  the  ravages  of  the  Indians,  the  subscribers 
ask  "for  help  and  succor  of  about  forty  to  fifty  men."  ^99 

397  Collections   of   the   New   York   Historical   Society   for   1893,   p.   403. 

398  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    81. 

399  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    79. 


On  August  17,  1659,  he,  with  a  number  of  others,  signed  a 
petition  requesting  that  the  Rev.  Bloem  be  appointed  their  min- 
ister.'**''' In  1661  he  subscribed,  at  one  occasion,  fifteen  florins  for 
the  support  of  the  Rev.  Bloem,  who  in  response  to  the  petition 
had  been  appointed  preacher  at  Esopus.**'^ 

In  March,  1660,  Broersen  served  as  a  soldier  at  Esopus.^^- 
On  account  of  the  Indian  raids  it  was  necessary  that  all  who 
could  carry  arms  should  belong  to  the  local  militia.  In  September, 
1659,  a  letter  signed  by  the  settlers  at  Esopus,  including  Broersen, 
was  sent  to  Stuyvesant  relating  that  they  were  besieged  in  the 
fort  by  Indians. "^^^ 


Signature   of    Jan    Broersen. 

Broersen  visited  New  Amsterdam  as  occasion  required.     He 

j     was  there  in  1659.     Not  long  afterward  Aeltje  Bickers,  wife  of 

Nicholas  Velthuysen,  sued  him  for  a  debt  of  fl.  44.     She  claimed 

that  "Reinert  Jansen  Hoorn  had  promised  to  pay  her  in  four  days 

j      for  Jan  Broersen,  and  that  she  thereupon  allowed  Jan  Broerson 

to   depart   and   that   Hoorn   will   not   pay   the   sum,   but   gave   her 

ill    words."      Hoorn    admitted    that    he    had    promised    to    pay 

for   Broersen,   but   as   Aeltje     Bickers     and    her    husband    were 

quarreling,  he  claimed  that  he  had  reasons  for  not  paying  her.'*<'^ 

Broersen  was  again  in  New  Amsterdam  in  November,   1661, 

when  he  sued  a  Norwegian  woman,  the  daughter  of  Dirck  Holger- 

sen   and   widow   of   Jacob   Huys   for   labor   he   had   done   for   her 

husband  in  the  West  Indies.     We  shall  let  the  court  minutes  relate 

the  details  of  the  case. 

[November  15,   1661.] 

"Jan  Broerzen,  pltf.  v|s  Christyntie  Capoens,  deft.     Pltf.  de- 
I     mand  from  deft,  sixty  guilders  Holland  currency  for  wages  earned 

400  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    103. 

401  Ibid..    XIII.,   p.    214. 

402  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    154. 

403  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    119. 

404  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    III.,    p.    63. 

166  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

in  the  West  Indies  from  deft's.  late  husband.  Deft,  says  she  does 
not  know  the  pltf.,  and  full  fifteen  years  is  passed,  and  if  pltf. 
can  bring  proof  that  she  owes  it,  she  will  pay,  Pltf.  was  asked, 
if  he  had  never  spoken  to  deft's.  late  husband  about  the  matter? 
Answers,  Yes  and  was  to  him  at  Breukelen  with  Albert  Cornelis- 
sen's  wife,  when  he  gave  for  answer,  that  he  did  not  owe  him 
and  must  bring  proof.  The  W:  Court  order  pltf.  to  bring  proof, 
that  something  is  due  him  by  the  deft."  ^^^ 

[November  20,  1661.]  "J^-"  Broerzen,  pltf.  v|s  Christyntje 
Capoen,  deft.  Deft  in  default.  In  pursuance  to  the  order  of  the 
last  court  day,  pltf.  produces  a  declaration  of  Adrian  Huybersen 
Sterrevelt,  who  states,  it  is  within  his  knowledge  that  Jan  Broer- 
sen  served  Jacob  Hay  as  a  boy  about  seventeen  years  ago  in  the 
West  Indies,  both  at  Santa  Cruz  and  Curacao,  without  having 
received,  to  his  knowledge,  any  pay  therfor:  Also  a  declaration  of 
Tryn  Herders  declaring  that  she  had  been  with  him  to  Jacob  Hay, 
and  speaking  about  money  was  refused  any  by  him.  Burgomasters 
and  Schepens  order  the  pltf.  to  summon  Christyntje  Capoens  and 
Tryn  Herders  by  the  next  Court  day."  ^^^ 

[November  29.]  "Jan  Broerzen,  pltf.  v|s  Christyntje 
Capoens  and  Tryn  Herders  as  witnesses,  defts.  Whereas  Tryn 
Herders  is  not  present,  the  matter  is  postponed  to  the  next  Court 
day  and  she  is  ordered  to  be  summoned  again."  ^^'^ 

Evidently  the  case  was  dropped  or  adjusted  out  of  court. 

Jan  Broersen  married  Heltje  Jacobs.  They  had  children: 
Gaerleff,  baptized  at  Kingston  (Esopus),  February  26,  1662; 
Grietje,  August  31,  1664;  Maddelen,  June  27,  1666;  Fitie,  June 
18,  1671. 

His  wife  was  deceased  December  24,  1679,  when  Broersen 
married  Willemtje  Jacobs,  who  had  been  married  to  Albert  Gerit- 
sen  and  to  Jan  Cornelissen,  a  Swede  from  Goteborg.*"^ 

In  1673,  Jan  Broersen  was  nominated  magistrate  by  the  in- 
habitants of  Horly  and  Marble.  The  Governor  accordingly  ap- 
pointed  him   a   magistrate   and   notified   the   inhabitants   of    it   in 

405  Ibid.,    III.,   p.   407. 

406  Ibid.,  III.,   p.  411. 

407  Ibid.,    III.,    p.    415. 

408  R.    R.   Hoes,    Baptismal    and   Marriage   Registers   ...   of   Kingston,    pp.   2, 
4,    5,    8.     Gnstave    Angou,    Ulster    County   Wills,    I.,   p.    30. 

BEONCK.  167 

a  letter  of  October  6,  1673.    Besides  being  magistrate  Broersen  was 
also  lieutenant  of  the  militia.^*^^ 


Jonas  Bronck,  who  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  in  1639,  and 
whose  name  is  perpetuated  in  Bronx  Borough,  Bronx  Park,  Bronx- 
ville  —  in  New  York  —  was  a  Scandinavian,  in  all  probability  a 
Dane,  and  originally,  as  it  seems,  from  Thorshavn,  Faroe  Islands, 
where  his  father  was  a  pastor  in  the  Lutheran  Church.  Faroe  then 
belonged  to  Denmark-Norway  and  had  been  settled  by  Norwegians. 
The  official  language  of  the  island  in  Bronck's  days  was  Danish. 

For  a  long  time,  writers  were  diligently  searching  for  the 
antecedents  of  Jonas  Bronck. 

Bronck  may  have  been  a  Swede  if  we  judge  by  the  name 
alone,  for  the  name  of  Brunke  is  well  known  in  Sweden.  This 
possibility  receives  some  support  in  the  fact  that  a  relative  of 
Bronck,  likely  his  son,  Pieter  Jonassen  Bronck,  made  mention  of 
a  Swedish  woman  in  his  will,  Engeltje  Mans.  He  gave  her 
husband,  Burger  Joris,  power  of  attorney  to  collect  some  debts. 
There  thus  appears  to  have  been  ties  of  relationship  or  friendship 
between  Engeltje  Mans  and  the  Bronck  family.  (See  articles  Pieter 
Bronck,  Part  II.,  and  Engeltje  Mans,  Part  III.)  Of  course,  the 
fact  that  Engeltje  Mans  resided  in  Sweden  does  not  necessarily 
make  her  Swedish,  though  we  have  classified  her  as  such.  As  to 
the  first  Brunke  in  Sweden  —  he  died  in  1319  —  Swedish  annals 
regard  him  as  a  foreigner.  Brunkeberg,  north  of  Stockholm,  has 
been  named  after  him. 

Jonas  Bronck,  again  judging  by  the  name,  may  have  been  a 
Norwegian.  According  to  O.  Rygh,  "Norske  Gaardnavne."  I., 
p.  43,  documents  of  1612  and  1616  mention  Brunckeslett,  a  place 
in  Smaalenenes  Amt  in  Norway.  Norway  has  also  a  river  called 
Bronka,  entering  Elverum  (98  miles  from  Christiania).  A  docu- 
ment of  1557  mentions  Brunckefos,  a  fall  in  the  Bronka  river. 
This  fall  was  the  property  of  the  Norwegian  Crown.     There  is 

409  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    II.,    p.    626. 

168  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

also  in  Norway  a  Bunckestadt  which  is  mentioned  in  1578,  a  cor- 
rupt form,  Rygh    conjectures,  of  Brunckestadt     (Rygh.    "Norske 
Gaardnavne,"  III.,  Hedemarkens  Amt,  p.  305).     From  "Bronka" 
Rygh  explains  the  name  of  Brunkeberg  in  Telemarken,   Norway. 
It  refers  to  a  parish  and  several  boweries.     A  creek  called  Bronka 
may  have  given  rise  to  the  name  in  Telemarken.   Rygh  also  registers    j 
Norwegian  names  like  Bronkebakken,  Bronketorpet,   Bronken  sea    ] 
(pronounced  Bronka).     "Bronke"  may  be  derived  from  "bruun",    { 
in  earlier  times  meaning  "bright,"  "glossy" ;  or  from  "brun"  mean- 
ing "edge."  I 

Meanwhile,  the  Norwegian  records  do  not,  to  our  knowledge,  i 

speak  of  persons  having  the  name  of  Bronk,  Bronken,  or  Brunck.  j 

But  the  Danish  records  do.  i 

Rev.  R.  Anderson,  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  who  has  contributed  ! 

to  "Danske  i  Amerika,"  and  who  more  than  any  other  has  taken  j 

an  interest  in  the  Danish  genealogy  of  early   New  York  speaks  i 

of  a  number  of  Brunkes  in  Danish  history.     He  makes  the  conjee-  ' 

ture  that  Rev.  Morten  Brunck  who  was  in  Aaker,  on  Bornholm.  , 
1604 — 1624,  may  be  a  relative  of  Jonas  Bronck. 

Confining  myself  to  my  own  investigation  of  original  sources,  ; 

I  find  a  Jens  Brunck,  who  in  1503  was  in  Yding.^^^  j^i  Denmark;  | 

likewise  a  Rev.  Torchillus  Brwnck  (Torkil  Brunck),  who  in  1532  | 
was  stationed  in  Lund  ^^^ ;  and,  again,  a  Lavrits  Michelsen  Brunch, 
pastor  in  Stubbekjobing,  in  1564.  *'^~ 

Just  recently,  however,  a  claim  has  been  put  forth  which  seems  i 
to  offer  a  satisfactory  solution  as  to  the  antecedents  of  Jonas  j 
Bronck.  Baron  Joost  Dahlerup,  of  New  Rochelle,  N.  Y.,  in  writ-  . 
ing  on  the  influence  of  the  Danish  element  in  early  New  York  i| 
(Politikens  Kronik,  Jan.  4,  1914),  became  instrumental  in  calling 
forth  an  article  on  Bronck  by  the  historian  N.  Andersen,  of  Den- 
mark, who  for  many  years  was  an  official  in  Faroe  Islands,  and,  I 
perhaps  second  to  none,   is  acquainted  with   Faroese  history.  | 

Mr.   N.  Andersen,  in  reading  Mr.  Dahlerup's  article    (which  I 

the  author  has  kindly  loaned  me)  recollected  having  seen  the  name  i 
of   Brunck   in    Faroese   history.      He   set   to   work,   and   published 
the  result  in  "Personalhistorisk  Tidsskrift,"  VI  R.,  5.  B.,  pp.  73 — 
75.   (Copenhagen). 

410  J.    p.    Trap,    Kongeriget   Danmark,    V.,    p.    243. 

411  Holger  Rordam,   Historiske  Kildeskrifter,   2   R.   II.,   p.   392. 

412  H.   F.   Rordam,   Ny  Kirkehistoriske  Samlinger,   V.,  p.   425. 

BRONCK.  169 

According  to  Mr.  N.  Andersen,  Morten  Jespersen  Brunck 
was  Lutheran  parish  minister  in  South  Stromo,  residing  in  Thors- 
havn,  the  capital  of  Faroe  Islands.  In  1583  he  received  an  as- 
sistant pastor  in  Christian  Pedersen  Morsing,  thus  appearing  to 
have  been  feeble  in  health.  In  1590  he  died.  His  wife's  name 
was  Bille,  and  his  son  was,  no  doubt,  the  person  who  had  attended 
the  Latin  School  in  Roskilde,  Denmark,  and  in  1619,  registered 
in  the  University  of  Copenhagen  as  Johannes  Martini  Farinsulanus 
(John  Mortenson  Faroese  Islander). 

The  possible  objection  that  Jonas,  because  his  father  died  in 
1590,  must  have  been  at  least  thirty  years  of  age  when  he  entered 
the  university,  Mr.  Andersen  meets  by  giving  instances  where 
students  registered  in  the  university  at  the  age  of  thirty-five  or 

The  education  which  Jonas  could  have  got  in  Thorshavn,  was 
more  or  less  elementary :  reading,  writing,  and  some  branches  com- 
mon to  a  Latin  school  for  such  pupils  as  desired  to  continue  their 
studies  in  a  classical  gymnasium,  which  Faroe  Islands  did  not 
possess.  If  Jonas  attended  the  school  at  Thorshavn,  say  between 
1625  and  1631,  he  was  one  of  six  or  seven  pupils,  and  probably 
the  only  one  preparing   for  the   Latin   school. 

Several  students  from  Faroe  had,  in  the  course  of  time,  at- 
tended the  University.  They  added  to  their  names  designations, 
showing  whence  they  came :   Ferronensis,   Feroensis,   Faro. 

These  Faroese  students,  as  a  rule,  returned  to  their  native 
land,  becoming  assistants  of  their  fathers,  who  were  pastors. 
Jonas  Bronck,  however,  did  not  return  to  get  a  charge,  for  his 
father  was  dead. 

Mr.  N.  Andersen  leaves  it  an  open  question  as  to  what  regions 
Jonas  Bronck  visited  between  the  time  he  left  the  university  and 
the  time  he  came  to  New  Netherland.  He  says,  he  may  have  lived 
during  this  period  in  Holland,  he  may  have  served  either  the 
Danish  or  the  Dutch  East  India  Company. 

Mr.  Andersen  also  makes  the  conjecture  that  Bronck's  sister 
was  the  wife  of  Jochem  Pietersen  Kuyter  (See  article  "Kuyter." 
Part  II.)  Her  name  was  Martens  ^  daughter  of  Marten  or 
Morten;  that  is,  daughter  of  Rev.  Morten  Jespersen  Brunck,  of 

This   new   explanation,    of    Mr.    Andersen,    is   plausible.      All 

170  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

the  evidence  we  have,  tends  to  show  that  Bronck  was  a  man  of 
university  training.  His  hbrary  was  mainly  Danish,  those  with 
whom  he  mostly  associated  were  Danish,  his  first  workmen  in  the 
new  world  were  Danes. 

It  would  appear  that  Jonas  Bronck  had  spent  considerable 
of  his  time  on  the  seas.  Harry  T.  Cook  in  "The  Borough  of  the 
Bronx  1639 — 1913"  makes  the  following  statement,  which,  with 
the  aid  of  my  present  material,  I  am  not  able  to  verify,  but  which 
appears  to  be  based  on  quite  legendary  data. 

"  'The  Magazine  of  American  History,'  January,  1908,  tells 
us  that  Jonas  Bronck  was  one  of  the  worthy  but  unfortunate 
Mennonites  who  were  driven  from  the  homes  in  Holland  to  Den- 
mark by  religious  persecution.  He  gained  rapid  promotion  in  the 
army  of  the  King  of  Denmark,  who  was  very  tolerant  toward  the 
sect  known  as  Mennonites.  He  served  as  commander  in  the  East 
Indies  until  1638,  when  with  others  of  the  prosecuted  he  set  sail 
for  America." 

In  discussing  the  antecedents  of  Bronck.  attention  must  be 
called  to  the  fact  that  a  Jan  Peeck  prosecuted,  in  1653,  Jan  Ger- 
ritsen  in  New  Amsterdam  for  the  payment  of  victuals  consumed 
at  the  funeral  of  one  Jems  Bronck,  a  soldier,  who  had  been  shot 
dead,  "for  which  Gerritsen  had  given  security."  Peeck  demanded 
48  fi.  18  stivers.    The  court  records  state  in  regard  to  the  defense: 

"Deft,  says,  it  is  true,  he  has  been  at  the  party  consuming 
the  victuals,  but  as  he  is  no  heir  nor  has  received  any  benefits  from 
deceased,  he  is  not  bound  to  pay.  Having  heard  both,  Burgo- 
masters and  Schepens  decide  that  deft,  is  not  bound  to  pay,  but 
that  pltf.  must  look  for  the  payment  of  his  claim  or  his  pay  from 
the  Company."  (West  India). 

Under  date  of  July  21,  1653,  the  Records  again  refer  to  the 
case:  "As  he  (Peeck)  can  not  obtain  payment  out  of  his  (Bronck's) 
estate  or  pay  from  the  Company,  except  12  fl.  through  the  Officer, 
pltf.  demands  that  deft,  as  surety  shall  pay  the  balance  as  per  note. 
Deft,  refers  to  his  former  answer  and  the  decision  of  the  Court, 
dated  the  17th  of  February,  requesting  that  pltf's.  demand  be  dis- 
missed. The  Court  refers  pltf.  to  the  Company  to  receive  his  due 
out  of  the  pay  of  deceased  agreeably  to  the  promise  of  the  Fiscal." 

Who  was  this  Jems  Bronck?  Our  sources  fail  to  tell  us 
anything  more  about  him. 

BEONCK.  171 

Returning  to  the  subject  of  our  article,  the  wife  of  Jonas 
Bronck,  Teuntje  Jeurians,  seems  to  have  been  a  relative  of  Mar- 
ritje  Pieters  of  Copenhagen,  who  appointed,  on  August  15,  1639, 
"Teuntje  Jeurians  of  [New]  Amsterdam  or  Jacob  Bronck,  her 
present  husband,  as  heirs  ..."  (See  article  "Marritje  Pieters." 
Part  II.) 

Writers  generally  agree  that  the  year  of  Jonas  Bronck's  ar- 
rival at  New  Amsterdam  was  1639,  though  E.  B.  O'Callaghan 
in  "History  of  New  Netherland,"  II,  531,  states  that  Bronck 
leased  land  in  New  Netherland  as  early  as  1637.  This  may  be 
purely  conjectural  on  the  part  of  O'Callaghan.  Evidently  the  year 
he  gives  should  have  been  1639. 

Some  writers  also  state  that  Bronck  and  James  Pietersen 
Kuyter  (See  Article  "Kuyter")  arrived  at  the  same  time  by  the 
ship  De  Brant  van  Trogen,  sailing  from  Horn,  that  Bronck  owned 
the  ship,  and  Kuyter  commanded  it.  I  am  not  in  a  position  to 
verify  this.  But  this  much  can  be  said :  Kuyter  and  Bronck  were 
the  best  of  friends,  and  two  of  Bronck's  workmen,  Laurens 
Duyts  and  Pieter  Andriessen,  came  with  Kuyter  on  De  Brant  von 
Trogen.  The  ship  also  carried  implements  and  cattle  for  com- 
mencing a  plantation  on  a  large  scale. 

Bronck  either  now,  or,  if  O'Callaghan  is  correct,  in  1637  got 
a  list  of  patent  from  the  Dutch  government  —  the  Ranague  tract. 
To-day  it  is  known  as  Morrisania.  It  lay  between  the  Great  Kill 
(Harlem  River)   and  the  Aquahaug  (Bronx  River). 

Bronck  not  only  paid  for  the  property,  but  he  advanced 
money  to  pay  the  passage  of  his  workmen.  And  yet  he  had  money 
to  loan  to  Andries  Hudde,  who  on  July  18,  1639,  gave  him  a 
note  for  200  carolus  guilder  "received  from  him  at  [New]  Am- 

That  Bronck  was  well  pleased  with  the  purchase  of  his 
property,  is  shown  by  a  letter  he  penned  to  Pieter  Van  Alst,  in 
the  old  world. 

Harry  T.  Cook,  in  "The  Borough  of  Bronx,"  says  that  Van 
Alst  was  a  relative  of  Bronck.     In  the  letter  Bronck  wrote : 

"The  invisible  hand  of  the  Almighty  Father  surely  guided  me 
to  this  beautiful  country,  a  land  covered  with  virgin  forest  and 
unlimited  opportunities.     It  is  a  veritable  paradise  and  needs  but 

172  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

the  industrious  hand  of  man  to  make  it  the  finest  and  most  beauti- 
ful region  in  all  the  world." 

Bronck  called  his  home  Emmaus.  It  was  situated  near  the 
present  Harlem  River  station  of  the  N.  Y.  New  Haven  and  Hart- 
ford Railroad,  at   132  Street. 

He  erected  on  his  newly  acquired  land  a  stone  dwelling,  which 
he,  evidently  to  the  surprise  of  other  immigrants,  covered  with 
tiles ;  a  barn ;  several  tobacco  houses ;  and  barracks  for  his  servants. 
The  inventory  of  his  property  taken  at  his  death  is  our  authority 
for  this  statement.  It  also  shows  that  the  luxury  of  extension 
tables  and  table  cloths,  alabaster  plates  and  napkins,  silver  spoons 
and  silver  dishes  was  not  foreign  to  the  new  home  of  Jonas  Bronck. 
Mention  is  also  made  in  the  inventory  of  gloves,  a  satin  suit,  and 
a  gold  signet  ring.  Above  all,  his  library,  a  list  of  whose  contents 
is  given  below,  shows  that  Bronck  was  a  man  of  education  and 

Some  of  the  books  and  pictures  he  owned,  may  still  be  pre- 
served in  libraries  in  this  country  —  or  even  in  Europe.  A  silver 
cup  that  belonged  to  Bronck  is  now  owned  by  Mr.  R.  Bronck  Fish, 
an  attorney  in  Fultonville,  N.  Y.  Mr.  Frank  C.  Bronck  of  Am- 
sterdam, N.  Y.,  has  in  his  possession  a  copy  of  the  inventory  of 
Bronck's  personal  effects. 

On  July  21,  1639,  Bronck  engaged  two  Danish  workmen,  who 
had  come  over  with  him,  to  undertake  the  clearing  of  a  tract  of 
500  acres  of  his  property.  It  was  Indian  property  before  Bronck 
got  it.  To-day  it  covers  what  is  known  as  Morrisania.  The  men 
with  whom  he  contracted  were  Pieter  Andriessen  from  Bordes- 
holm,  and  Laurents  Duyts.     (See  articles  on  these  men.  Part  II.) 

We  shall  give  the  wording  of  this  interesting  lease  in  full. 
It  is  a  document  in  which  three  Danes  are  interested,  and  thus  a 
parallel  to  the  document  given  in  Part  I,  where  three  Norwegians 
are  the  signers.     (See  Article  "Dirck  Holgersen",  Part  I.) 

"[Lease  of  Land  in  Westchester  County.] 

"Before  me,  Cornells  van  Tienhoven,  Secretary  in  New 
Netherland  and  the  undersigned  witnesses,  appeared  Sr.  Jonas 
Bronck,  of  the  one  part  and  Pieter  Andriessen  and  Laurens  Duyts 
of  the  other  part,  who  amicably  agreed  and  contracted  as  follows: 

"P'irst:    Sr.  Bronck  shall  show  to  the  said  parties  a  certain 

BRONCK.  173 

piece  of  land,  belonging  to  him,  situate  on  the  mainland  opposite 
to  the  flats  of  the  Manhates;  on  which  said  piece  of  land  they 
shall  have  permission  to  plant  tobacco  and  maize,  on  the  condition, 
that  they  shall  be  obliged  to  break  new  land  every  two  years  for 
the  planting  of  tobacco  and  maize  and  changing  the  place,  the 
land,  upon  which  they  have  planted  to  remain  at  the  disposal  of 
said  Sr.  Bronck.  They  shall  also  be  bound  to  surrender  the  land, 
every  time  they  change,  made  ready  for  planting  corn  and  plough- 
ing. They  shall  have  the  use  of  the  said  land  for  three  consecutive 
years,  during  which  time  the  said  Sr.  Bronck  shall  make  no  other 
claim  upon  them,  than  for  the  land,  which  Pieter  Andriessen 
and  Laurens  Duyts  by  their  labor  shall  have  cleared,  who  on  their 
side  shall  be  obliged  to  fulfill  the  above  [mentioned]  conditions. 
If  Pieter  Andriessen  and  Laurens  Duyts  demand  within  a  year 
from  said  Sr.  Bronck  2  horses  and  2  cows  on  the  conditions,  on 
which  at  present  the  Company  gives  them  to  freemen,  the  said 
Bronck  shall  deliver  the  animals  to  them,  if  he  can  spare  them. 

"Pieter  Andriessen  and  Laurens  Duyts  further  pledge  their 
persons  and  property,  movable  and  immovable,  present  and  future, 
nothing  excepted,  for  the  payment  of  what  Sr.  Bronck  has  ad- 
vanced to  them  for  board  on  ship  *de  Brant  van  Trogen',  amount- 
ing to  121  fl.  16  St.,  of  which  Pieter  Andriessen  is  to  pay  fl.  81.4 
and  Laurens  Duyts  fl.  40.12.  They  promise  to  pay  the  aforesaid 
sums  by  the  first  ready  means,  either  in  tobacco  or  otherwise  and 
in  acknowledgment  and  token  of  truth  they  have  signed  this  re- 

"Done  at  Fort  Amster  dam  the  21st  July  1639. 

"This  is  the  mark  1      of  Laurens  Duyts 

"Pieter   Andriessen. 
"Maurits  Janse,   witness."  ^^^ 

On  August   15,    1639,   Bronck  leased  also   some   of  his  land, 
for  a  period  of  six  years,  to  the  brothers  Cornelius  Jacobsen  and 

413  New    York    Colonial    Documents,     XIII.,     p.     5.      Calendar     of      Historical 
Manuscripts.    I.,    p.    9. 

174  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

Jan  Jacobsen,  both  surnamed  Stille  or  Stol.     Jan  was  married  to 
Marritje  Pieters  of  Copenhagen. 

Bronck  was  as  we  have  said  a  well-to-do  man.  Exceedingly 
interesting  is  the  list  of  inventory  taken  at  his  house  at  his  death, 
in  1643.  It  shows  that  he  must  have  been  a  man  of  means,  who 
had  read  much  and  traveled  much. 







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COPENHAGEN,    1642. 

But  nothing  perhaps  is  so  interesting  as  his  library.  It  was 
a  little  library,  but  merits  the  words  of  Mrs.  Van  Rensselaer 
(History  of  the  City  of  New  York,  I.,  p.  186)  : 

"This  polyglot  little  library  is  the  earliest  of  which  any  record 
survives  in  the  annals  of  New  York."  It  contained  books  on 
theology,  medicine,  and  law ;  books  in  Danish,  Dutch,  Latin,  and 
German.     It  had  pictures  and  manuscripts.      But   in  language  it 

BEONCK.  175 

was  more  Danish  than  anything  else,  in  theology  it  was  more 
Lutheran  than  Reformed,  what  we  should  expect  of  a  Dane  in 
those  times. 

What  did  this  library  contain? 

1  Bible,  in  folio. 

Calvin's  Institutes,  folio. 

Bullingeri.    (Henry  B.,  reformed  theologian,  Zurich). 

Schultetus   dominicalia    (a   celebrated   surgeon   at   Ulm). 

Moleneri  praxis,  quarto. 

1  German  Bible,  quarto. 

Mirror  of  the  Sea  (Seespiegd),  folio. 

I  Luther's  Psalter. 

Sledani,   folio   (A  Lutheran  theologian). 

Danish  Chronicle,  quarto. 

Danish  Law-book,  idem. 

Luther's  whole  Catechism. 

The  praise  of  Christ,  quarto  ('t  Lof  Christi). 

The  four  ends  of  Death    (de  vier  Uyterste   van  ae   doot)    Two 

Treasuries,  small  folio. 
Petri  Apiani.     (A  geographer  and  astronomer.) 
Danish  Child's  book. 

A  book  called  Forty  Pictures  of  Death,  by  Symon  Golaert. 
Biblical  Stories. 
Danish  Calendar. 

Survey  of  the  Great  Navigation  ('t  Gesichte  der  grooten  Seevaerts). 
A  parcel  of  18  old  printed  pamphlets  by  divers  authors,  both  Dutch 

and  Danish. 
17  manuscript  books,  which  are  old. 

II  pictures,  big  and  little. 

The  contents  of  this  library,  and  the  fact  that  Bronck  called 
his  house  Emmaus,  would  indicate  that  he  was  of  a  religious  turn 
of  mind,  interested  in  the  study  of  theology.  But  we  venture  to 
say  something  more :    Does  it  not  reflect  the  piety,  which   Lucas 




D.  Mart.  Luth. 

fUrt|fai&mmodig^cb/ocom6 im-   ^1?^ 

CumPrivilegio  &c. 



f^^^S,        ^; ■■ -= ■' 

^^^Ij^   !clT«ri>en&«diaon  fcm  cr  tx^dt  iTki^hznl^dU, 

(Luther's   small    (or   lesser)    Catechism    for   children,    1628.) 

The  above  given  facsimile  of  the  Catechism,  somewhat  reduced,  is  taken  from 
a  Norwegian  "Explanation"  of  Luther's  small  catechism.  This  "E.xplanation" 
consists  of  eight  ponderous  volumes,  eaeli  of  about  1000  pages,  the  entire  work, 
without  binding,  weighing  fourteen  pounds  I  The  author  of  this  formidable  work  is 
the  Rev.  Christen  Stephansen  Bang,  f  1678,  from  Aalborg,  Denmark.  About  1614 
he  became  chaplain  in  Solum,  in  1621  pastor  in  Romedal,  Norway.  The  first  five 
volumes  treat  of  the  "Five  Parts"  of  the  catechism;  the  last  three  deal  with  special 
ethics.  The  entire  eight  tomes  are  known  as  "Postilla  catechetica".  They  were 
published    in    Christiania,    1650-1665,    but    ruined    the    author    financially. 

To  get  this  and  other  works  published.   Bang  caused  the   art  of  printing  to  be 

BEONCK.  177 

Debes  describes  in  his  treatise,  1675,  of  the  Faroese  people,  among 
which  Bronck  had  lived?* 

But  —  to  come  back  to  the  inventory,  which  no  doubt  will 
prove  a  surprise  to  those  who  have  not  learnt  to  appreciate  the 
"kultur"  of  the  pioneers  of  New  York : 

3  guns. 

1  musket. 

1  do.  with  silver  mounting. 

1  Japanese  cutlass. 

1  dagger  with  silver  mounting. 

1  black  satin  suit. 

1  old  quilted  satin  doublet. 

2  old  grogram  suits. 

1  blue  damask  woolen  shirt. 

2  hats. 

1  black  cloth  mantle,  and  1  gold  signet  ring. 
1  old  mantle  of  colored  cloth. 
6  old  shirts. 
19  pewter  plates. 

introduced  into  Norway.  He  induced  a  Danish  printer,  Tyge  Nielsen,  to  come  to 
Christiania.  In  1643  Nielsen  issued  the  first  three  books  printed  on  Norwegian  soil. 
He  did  not,  however,  live  up  to  the  contract  with  Bang,  who  in  1644  took  posses- 
sion of  his  printing  establishment,  and  tried  to  dispose  of  it.  New  printing  firms 
were  established  in  Norway,  and,  with  the  help  of  these.  Bang  was  enabled  to  finish 
his  "Postilla  catechetica"  in  1665.  Norway  was  the  last  country  in  Europe  but 
one  (Turkey)  to  introduce  the  art  of  printing,  it  being  up  to  the  middle  of  the 
seventeenth  century  almost  entirely  dependent  on  Denmark  for  typographical  work. 
It  is  interesting  that  an  explanation  of  Luther's  catechism  proved  instrumental  in 
securing  for  Norway,  with  all  its  rich  literature  from  the  time  of  the  sagas  to  the 
present,    its   first   printing   shop. 

Exactly  250  years  have  passed  since  Bang's  Explanation  of  Luther's  cate- 
chism was  completed.  A  competent  Norwegian  authority  on  printing  says:  "Det  .  .  . 
er  et   af   de   st0rste   trykverker,    som   er  udf0rt   i   Norge." 

A  copy  of  the  first  volume  is  found  in  the  Heggtveit  Collection  at  Augsburg 
Seminary,    Minneapolis. 

*  Says  Debes:  "Efter  at  Gud  hafver  antfendt  et  st0rre  Lius  for  disse  Ind- 
byggere  ved  Evrngeliets  rette  Forklaring,  da  hafve  de  saaledis  tiltaget  udi  den  sande 
Guds  oc  deris  Saligheds  Kundskab,  at  det  kand  i  Sandhed  skrifvis.  at  deris  lige 
iblandt  den  Gemene-Mand  udi  Religionens  Kundskab  findis  icke  udi  Danmarck.  Thi 
efter  at  de  faa  sjselden  Guds  Ord  at  h0re  lydeligen  aff  deris  La-rere,  da  0fve  Til- 
h0rerne  sig  selff  udi  Lsesning,  hafve  deris  Danske  Postiller,  hvoraf  de  for  deris 
Folck  udi  Priestens  Fravterelse  Evangelii  Forklaring  gifve,  hafve  derhns  andre  aan- 
delige  Skrifter,  saavelsom  den  hellige  Skriftis  Boger,  hvilcke  de  flitteligen  laese: 
Hvorudofver  de  saaledis  ere  grundede  udi  Guds  Ord,  at  de  vide  med  god  Fynd  at 
conferere  med  deris  Lnerere  udi  deres  Forsamlinger  om  Religionens  adskillige  Ar- 
tickler  saa  oc  andet  merckeligt,  der  kand  falde  udi  Guds  Ord.  Oc  eftersom  alt 
Huus-Folcket  sidde  den  st0rste  Tid  hjemme  udi  deris  Huuse  om  Vinteren,  0fve  de 
sig  idelig  udi  Psalmer  at  sjunge.  .  .  .  Oc  effterat  Tilh0rprne  de  gamle  er  saaledis 
forfremmede,  Isere  de  deris  Ungdom  ocsaa  flitteligen,  hvortil  de  ocsaa  troligen  til- 
holdis  aff  deris  Praester  saa  oc  Prousten  udi  Visitatzen.  Hvorudofver  de  unge 
mange,  som  icke  ere  ofver  deris  ti  eller  tolf  Aar  gamle,  kunne  uden  ad  paa  deris 
Fingre  icke  alleniste  Luthers  Catechismum  med  sin  enfoldige  Forklaring,  men  endoc 
S.  Doctor  .Tesper  Brochmands  Sententser  aff  den  H.  Skrift  sammendragne  ofver  Re- 
ligionens Artickler.  Hvorfor  dette  fattige  Folck  er  rigeligen  opfyldt  med  allehaande 
Viisdom  oc  Forstand   udi   Gud." 

178  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

12  ditto  large  and  small. 
7  silver  spoons. 
1  silver  cup. 
1  silver  saltcellar. 

1  do.  little  bowl. 

4  tankards  with  silver  chains. 

2  mirrors,   1   with   an   ebony,   and   the   other   a  gilt   frame. 
6  little  alabaster  plates. 

3  iron  pots. 

2  carpenter's  axes. 

3  adzes  and  some  other  carpenter's  tools. 

3  beds  and  6  pairs  of  sheets. 

4  pairs  pillows. 
4  table  cloths. 

16  or  17  napkins. 

1  small  brewing  kettle. 

3  half  barrels. 

1  half  vat. 

3  tubs. 

1  hogshead. 

1  churn. 

3  milk  pails   old   and   new. 

4  muds  (vessel  containing  four  bushels). 

5  old  empty  corn  casks. 
1  suit,  of  black  cloth. 

1   pair  of  gloves. 

3  copper  kettles. 

1  ditto  skimmer. 

1  extension  table. 

1   chest  containing  sundry  parcels. 

A  few  panes  of  window  glass. 

A  lot  of  old  iron. 

1  stone  house  covered  with  tiles. 

1  barn. 

1  tobacco  house. 

2  barricks   (Bergen),    [sheds  consisting  of  movable  roof  set  on 

posts  —  to  shelter  hay  and  grain  against  rain  and  snow]. 
2  five  year  old  mares. 
1  six  year  old  stallion. 
1   two  year  old  ditto. 



sown  on  the  bowery 
on  the  cleared  land. 

1  yearling  stallion. 

2  mares  of  one  year. 

5  milch  cows. 

1  two  year  old  cow. 

2  yoke  of  oxen. 
1  bull. 

3  yearling  heifers. 

Hogs,  number  unknown,  running  in  the  woods 

6  schepels  of  wheat. 
66         "  "     rye. 

3  "  "     winter  barley 

7  "  "     peas. 
1  ox  plough. 
1  foot   plough. 
1  iron  harrow. 

1  block  wagon. 

2  sickles. 
2  new  scythes. 

1  old  ditto. 
23  new  axes. 

4  old  ditto. 

2  hoes. 

with  appurtenances. 

There  is  otherwise  very  little  on  record  about  Jonas  Bronck. 
Under  date  of  July  21,  1639,  is  a  notice  that  he  sued  Clara  Mathys 
for  a  breach  of  contract  and  that  he  obtained  judgment  against 
her.  The  nature  of  the  contract  is  not  stated."*^*  The  early  dating 
would  indicate  that  Bronck  had  come  to  New  Netherland  before 
July,  1639. 

He  was  an  advocate  of  peace.  "Ne  cede  malis"  was  engraved 
on  the  family  coat  of  arms,  which  is  the  same  as  on  the  windows 
of  the  Old  Dutch  Church  in  Albany  where  his  son,  Pieter,  wor- 
shipped. This  coat  of  arms  was  found  on  some  of  Bronck's  belong- 
ings.    It  is  engraved  on  a  silver  cup  of  his,  still  preserved. 

The  motto  is  in  harmony  with  the  name  of  his  house  "Em- 
maus."  At  this  house,  on  March  28,  1642,  the  signing  of  a  treaty 
of  peace  with  the  Winquaesgeckers,  an  Indian  tribe,  took  place. 
Present  were  Cornelius  van  Tienhoven,   secretary ;   Hendrick  van 

414  Calendar    of    Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    68. 

180  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

Dyck,  officer;  Everhardus  Bogardus,  pastor;  Jonas   Bronck;  and 
several  Indians,  two  of  whom  had  sold  land  to  Bronck. ^^^ 

Jonas  died  in  1643  —  it  has  been  said  at  the  hands  of  Indians. 
The  latter  is  improbable,  for  his  house  and  property  were  intact 
at  the  inventory  of  his  effects.  At  this  inventory,  which  we  have 
reproduced  in  detail,  his  son,  his  wife,  his  friend  Jochem  Pietersen 
Kuyter  and  Rev.  Bogardus  were  present.  Kuyter  and  Bogardus 
were  appointed  guardians.  Prior  to  the  fire  in  the  Albany  Capitol 
(1911),  the  original  inventory  was  on  file  at  the  Secretary  of 
State's  office. 

Bronck  had  married  in  Europe,  probably  in  Denmark,  Teuntje 
Jeurians  (Teuntje^ Antonia,  or  Sofia).  She  may  have  been  a 
relative  of  Marritje  Pieters,  of  Copenhagen,  who  in  her  marriage 
contract  appointed  Teuntje  one  of  her  heirs.  Some  writers  desig- 
nate her  as  Antonia  Slaghboom. 

After  the  death  of  Bronck  she  married  Arent  \^an  Curler,  one 
of  the  most  prominent  men  in  Rensselaerswyck.  She  survived 
him   also.     She  died  at  Schenectady  Dec.   19,   1676. 

Van  Curler  sold,  July  10,  1651,  Bronck's  estate  to  Jacob  Jans 
Stoll,  evidently  a  relative  of  Jan  Jacobsen,  the  husband  of  Marritje 
Pieters  from  Copenhagen,  to  whom  Bronck  had  leased  some  of 
his  land  in  1639. 

Stoll  transferred  it  to  a  Mr.  Hopper.*  When  he  died,  and  as 
he  had  not  paid  Stoll  in  full,  the  latter  started  suit  against  Hopper's 
widow.  She  had  to  pay  the  remainder  of  the  debt,  and  was  now 
given  a  satisfactory  deed  in  December,  1662.  We  learn  from  this 
law-suit  that  no  less  than  1300  tiles  had  been  taken  away  from 
Bronck's  house  when  the  Hoppers  received  it. 

Mrs.  Hopper  transferred  the  property  to  Harman  Smeeman, 
a  Dane.  But  the  latter  did  not  keep  it  long.  He  conveyed  it  to 
Samuel  Edsall,  who  in  1674  (1670)  deeded  it  to  a  Mr.  Morris, 
whence  the  new  name  of  Bronck's  five  hundred  acres :  Morrisania. 

As  to  the  history  of  the  property  once  owned  by  Bronck, 
see,  besides  the  work  of  Harry  C.  Cook,  Randall  Comfort,  "History 
of  Bronx  Borough"  (1906)  ;  Stephen  Jenkins,  "The  Story  of 
Bronx   1639—1912"     (1912).      Harriett    Van     Buren     Beckham's 

415  New   York    Colonial    Documents,    I.,    pp.    199,    410. 

•    Hopper    or    Hoppen    may    have    been     a  Norwegian.      See    Excursus    II.,    in 
Part    I. 

BRONCK.  181 

"History  of  Cornells  Maessen  Van  Buren"  (1913)  contains  a  brief 
genealogy  of  the  Bronck  family.  See  also  New  York  Genealogical 
and  Biographical  Magazine,  Vol.  39,  p.  274. 


Pieter  Bronck  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  1643  or 
before.  He  was  present  in  1643  at  the  inventory  of  the  goods  and 
effects  in  the  house  of  Jonas  Bronck.  He  must  have  been  a  rela- 
tive of  Jonas,  in  all  probability  his  son.  In  a  document 
of  1646  he  is  called  Pieter  Jonassen  Bronck.  This  would  go  to 
prove  that  he  was  the  son  of  Jonas  Bronck.  The  same  document 
—  Pieter's  will  —  makes  mention  of  "Engeltje  Mans,  father, 
mother  and  other  kindred."  Engeltje  Mans  was  from  Sweden, 
she  was  the  wife  of  Burgher  Joris.^^*^ 

Pieter  Bronck  came  to  Beverwyck  in  1645.  He  became  the 
owner  of  several  house-lots  and  a  brewery  at  this  place,  where  he 
also  built  a  tavern,  then  the  third  tavern  of  Beverwyck.  He  sold 
it  in  1662,  and  bought  126  morgens  of  land  at  Coxsackie,  where 
he  settled.  In  1665  his  farm  consisted  of  176  morgens  (352  acres), 
besides  a  calf  pasture  of  six  morgens. ^^''' 

When  he  removed  to  Beverwyck  he  gave,  on  October  9,  1646, 
Burgher  Joris  of  New  Amsterdam,  the  husband  of  the  above- 
mentioned  Engeltje  Mans  from  Sweden,  power  of  attorney  to 
collect  debts  due  him.^^s 

In  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck  he  is  charged  with  an  an- 
nual rent  of  four  beavers  for  a  lot,  in  the  village,  on  which  he 
received  permission  to  build.  He  paid  this  rent  1650 — 1652  and 
perhaps  longer.^^^ 

On  May  29,  1657,  judgment  was  obtained  against  him  in  a 
court  proceeding  for  his  having  with  a  knife  assaulted  a  person. 
He  was  fined  100  guilders. ^20 

On  January  22,  1658,  Lewis  Cobus,  Secretary  of  Albany,  sued 

416  See    article    "Jonas    Bronck".     B.    Fernow,    Calendar    of    (N.    Y.)     Wills, 
p.  55. 

417  E.  B.   O'Callaghan,   History   of   New  Netherland,    I.,   pp.   441,    591. 

418  Calendar   of    Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    35. 

419  Van    Rensselaer    Bowier    Manuscripts,    p.    840. 

420  Calendar   of  Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,   p.   314. 

182  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

Pieter  Bronck  and  Dirck  Bensingh,  a  Swede,  for  his  fees  in  taking 
an  inventory  of  Hans  Vosche's  property  at  Katskil.  The  Court 
ordered  the  defendants  to  pay  the  fee.^-^ 

Pieter  Bronck  married  Hilletje  Tyssinck.  He  died  16G9,  in 
Coxsackie,  leaving  two  children :  Jan  who  was  born  in  Beverwyck, 
or  Albany,  1650 ;  and  Pieter.422 

Jan  was  a  member  of  the  Reformed  church  at  New  Albany.423 
He  married  Commertje  Leendertse  Conyn.  He  became  the  heir  of 
his  father.  A  part  of  the  inheritance  was  the  old  Bronck  House, 
still  standing,  though  the  brick  parts  were  added  in  the  eighteenth 

Jan  had  nine  children.  Agnietje  married  Jan  Witbeck,  son 
of  Andries  and  Engeltje  Vokertse  (Douw)  Witbeck.  Antje  mar- 
ried, 1733,  Rev.  George  Michael  Weiss.  Pieter  married  Antje 
Bogardus,  daughter  of  Pieter  and  Wyntie  Cornelise  (Bosch) 
Bogardus.  Jonas  married,  in  1689.  Philip,  baptized  in  1691, 
died  young.  Philip,  baptized  1692,  married.  Hilletje  married, 
1712,  Thomas  Wiliams.  Caspar  married,  1739,  Catharine,  daugh- 
ter of  Gerit  van  Bergen  and  Annatje  Meyer.  Leendert  married, 
1717,  Anna,  daughter  of  Johannes  de  Wandelaer  and  Sarah 

The   Bronck   family  has   a  military   record. 

Jan,  the  grandson  of  Jonas  Bronck,  pioneer  at  Bronx,  became 
a  lieutenant  in  1709,  and  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  in  Albany  in  1728. 

Jan  Leendertsen,  the  great-grandson  of  Jonas  Bronck,  married 
Elsie  Van  Buren,  and  "established  the  rights  of  his  descendants 
to  all  societies  with  early  military  claims  by  becoming  Captain  of 
Militia  in  1740,  and  in  1770  was  commissioned  to  that  rank  by 
Lieutenant-Governor  Cadwalder  Colden ;  later  he  was  promoted  to 
the  rank  of  Major  of  the  11th  Regiment." 

The  sole  male  heir  of  Jan  Leendertsen,  Leonard,  born  1751, 
was  First  Lieutenant  in  1778,  Major  in  1793,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
in  1796.  He  was  a  member  of  the  New  York  State  Assembly 
1786—1798,  State  Senator,  1800.  He  was  first  Judge  of  the 
Court  of  Appeals  of  Green  County. 

421  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    317. 

422  Munsell's    Collections    on    the    History    of    Albany,    IV.,    p.    104. 

423  Year  Book    of   the   Holland    Society   of   New   York,    1904,    p.    4. 


Many  of  the  members  of  the  Bronck  family  took  part  in  the 
French  and  Indian  wars. 

The  Bronck  genealogy  of  the  eighteenth  and  nineteenth  cen- 
turies would  cover  several  pages  in  this  work.  The  reader  may  be 
referred  for  further  details  to  Miss  Van  Buren  Peckham's 
"History  of  C.  M.  Van  Buren." 



Peter  Bruyn,  from  Rensborg,  Schleswig,  was  a  member  of 
the  company  of  soldiers  at  Esopus,  in  March,  1660.  He  lived 
in  the  village  of  Wiltwyck  (Esopus)  in  1661,  where  he  was  listed 
as  paying  excise  on  beer  and  wine.^-^ 


Johan  Carstenz,  from  Barlt,  in  Holstein,  came  to  New  Am- 
sterdam by  the  ship  "den  Houttuyn",  August  4,  1642.  He  was 
employed    by    Van    Rensselaer    in    his    colony,    drew    wages    from 

August  4,  1642.     In  July,  1644,  he  appears  as  servant  of  Michael 

In  November,  1655,  Coenraet  Ten  Eyck  sued  "Jan  Carsten- 
sen  from  Husum"  for  fl.  204.8.  He  had  sold  him  goods  to  this 
amount,  and  requested  the  court  to  condemn  him  to  pay  the  amount 
in  beavers.  Carstensen  acknowledged  the  debt  —  he  had  given  a 
note  for  it  —  and  said  he  would  pay  in  seawan,  as  he  had  no 
beavers  for  the  time  being.  The  court,  however,  condemned  Car- 
stensen "to  pay  plaintiff  the  aforesaid  sum  of  fl.  204.8  according  to 
a  signed  note,  in  beavers."  ^^e 

In  1660  a  Jan  Carstensen,  from  Husum,  Denmark,  served  in 
a  regiment  in  Albany.  Johan  Carstensen  from  Barlt  and  Jan 
Carstensen  from  Husum  likely  are  the  same  person.'*-''' 

424  New   York    Colonial    Documents.    XIII.,    pp.    154,    212. 

425  Van    Rensselaer    Bowier    Manuscripts,    pp.    609,    827. 

426  Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    I.,    p.    399f. 

427  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    154. 

184  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 


Pieter  Carstensen,  from  Holstein,  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam 
in  1663.  He  came  over,  accompanied  by  his  son,  who  was  sixteen 
years  of  age,  on  the  ship  "de  Statyn,"  which  sailed  September  27, 


Pietersen  (Carstensen),  son  of  the  abovementioned  Pieter  Car- 
stensen, came  over  from  Holstein  in  1663.  He  was  then  sixteen 
years  old. 


Crietgen  Christians  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  in  1659.  He 
was  from  Tonning  [now  belonging  to  Germany],  Denmark.  He 
came  over  on  the  ship  "de  Bever,"  which  sailed  April  25,  1659. ■*-^ 

He  had  a  house  lot  in  Schenectady  with  a  front  of  100  feet 
on  Union  Street,  one  half  being  now  included  in  the  lot  of  the 
First  Reformed  church.  He  sold  this  lot  in  1694  to  Neetje  Claes. 
We  owe  this  information  to  Jonathan  Pearson's  "Early  Records 
of  .  .  .  Albany,"  p.  485.  In  that  work  is  also  found  the  following 
deed,  which  refers  to  the  property  of  Crietgen  Christians : 

"Appeared  before  me,  Ludovicus  Cobes,  secretary  of  Albany, 
in  the  presence  of  the  honorable  Herren  commisaries,  etc.,  Philip 
Pieterse  Schuyler  and  Jan  Hendricxe  Van  Bael,  Paulus  Janse,  who 
declares  that  in  true  rights,  free  ownership,  he  grants,  conveys  and 
makes  over  by  these  presents  to  and  for  the  behoof  of  Christiaen 
Christiaense,  dwelling  at  Schaenhechtede,  in  his  plantation  lying 
there,  consisting  of  one  and  a  half  morgens  and  bounded  accord- 
ing to  the  patent  thereof  from  the  right  honorable  general  of  New 
York,   Francis   Lovlace.   dated   the   24th   of   Mav,   1669.   to  which 

428  Year  Book   of   the   HoUand   Society   of  New  York,    1902. 

429  Ibid. 


reference  is  herein  made ;  free  and  unincumbered,  with  no  claims 
standing  or  issuing  against  the  same,  excepting  the  lord's  right, 
without  the  grantor's  making  the  least  claim  thereto  any  more, 
acknowledging  that  he  is  fully  paid  and  satisfied  therefor,  the  first 
penny  with  the  last  and  therefore  giving  plenam  actionem  cessam, 
and  full  power  to  the  aforesaid  Christiaen  Christiaense,  his  heirs 
and  successors  or  assigns,  to  do  with  and  dispose  of  said  planta- 
tion, as  he  might  do  with  his  patrimonial  estate  and  effects ;  promis- 
ing to  protect  and  free  the  same  from  all  such  troubles,  claims 
and  liens  of  every  person  as  are  lawful,  and  further,  never  more 
to  do  nor  suffer  anything  to  be  done,  with  or  without  law,  in  any 
manner,  on  pledge  according  to  law   therefor  provided. 

"Done  in  Albany,  the  23d  of  June,   1671. 

"Philip  Pieterse. 

"Jan  Hend:  Van  Bael. 

"Poulys   Jansen. 

"In  my  presence,  Ludovicus  Cobes,   Secretary." 


Hans  Christiaensen,  or  Hans  Kettel,  was  from  Holstein.  He 
was  in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  1658  or  before.  On  August 
10,  1659,  he  married,  in  New  Amsterdam,  Marritje  Cornelis,  from 
Flensborg  in  Holstein.     His  first  wife  was  Engeltje  Jans.^^*^ 

Hans  and  Marritje  had  a  child,  Neeltje.  who  was  baptized  on 
November  12,  1660.431 

Hans  was  dead  when  Marritje,  on  May  31,  1665,  married 
Cornelis  Beckman,  of  "Stift"  Bremen. -^^s 

What  we  otherwise  know  of  Christiaensen  is  found  in  an 
entry  in  the  court  minutes,  the  substance  of  which  is  as  follows : 

[September  10,  1658.]  Hans  Christiaensen  was  sued  by 
Mathys  Boon  who  complained  that  Christiaensen's  dog  has  bit 
his  [Boon's]  hogs,  one  of  which  lies  sick,  several  of  which  are 
missed.      Christiaensen    declared,    he    did    not    know    whether   this 

430  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 
p.    31. 

431  Ibid.,    II.,    p.    59. 

432  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    31. 

186  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

occurred  or  not,  as  he  locks  up  his  dog  by  day,  and  lets  him  loose 
at  night.  Boon's  farm  was  enclosed,  but  the  hogs  could  get  through 
the  enclosure.  After  getting  this  testimony  the  court  appointed 
Pieter  Jansen  Noorman  and  Teunis  Gysbersen  Middag  to  inspect 
the  fence. ^^^ 

The  case  was  to  be  tried  at  the  next  court  session.  But  both 
litigants  were  sick  when  the  session  was  announced.  Perhaps  the 
matter  was  settled  out  of  court. 


Pieter  Hendricksen  Christians  was  in  New  Netherland  as 
early  as  1659.  On  January  17,  of  that  year,  he  married,  in  New 
Amsterdam,  Christina  Bleyers  from  "Stoltenon,"  in  Liineburg. 
The  marriage  record  ^^^  states  that  Christians  was  from  "Voor- 
burg"  (Varberg  in  Sconia),  which  belonged  to  Denmark  until 
1658,  but  since  then  is  part  of  Sweden. 


Hendrick  Cornelissen,  from  Holstein,  was  at  Esopus  as  early 
as  1658  or  before,  witnessing,  in  May,  1658,  the  massacre  com- 
mitted by  the  Indians.^^s 


Signature  of  Hendrick   Cornelissen. 

On  August  17,  1659,  he  signed  a  petition  requesting  the  govern- 
ment to  appoint  the  Rev.  Bloem  as  pastor  at  Esopus.  He  signed 
the    document   with    his   mark :  '^^^      In    the    same    vear   he   signed 

433   The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    III.,    pp.    7,    12. 
484  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I-, 
p.   23. 

435  New    York    Colonial    Manuscripts,    XIII.,    p.    78. 

436  Ibid.,    XIII.,    103f. 


a  declaration  sent  by  the  inhabitants  of  Esopus,  stating  that  no 
blame  could  be  attached  to  Ensign  Smith  in  certain  military 
troubles  which  they  were  involved  in  when  fighting  the  savages. ^^"^ 
In  June,  1661,  Cornelissen  did  military  duty  at  the  local  gar- 

On  April  25,  1663,  he  was  given  a  grant  of  land  at  Esopus, 
"a  piece  of  land,  situate  at  the  Esopus,  in  the  village  of  Wiltwyck, 
bounded  on  the  East  by  the  Kill,  on  the  West  and  South  by  the 
meadow  lying  under  the  village,  containing  in  these  bounds  between 
the  Kill  and  the  meadows  two  morgens  and  five  hundred  sixty 
rods."  On  November  7,  in  the  same  year,  he  received  an  additional 
grant  of  six  morgens  (twelve  acres ).^^^ 

In  1667  there  were  some  riots  in  Esopus  between  the  soldiers 
of  Captain  Brodhead  and  the  inhabitants  which  terminated  in  the 
death  of  Cornelissen.  In  the  proceedings  and  sentences  of  the 
local  court,  April  25 — 27,  1668,  resulting  from  complaints  of  the 
inhabitants  against  the  violence  of  the  soldiers  and  illtreatment 
from  Captain  Brodhead,  it  was  shown  that  Hendrick  Cornelissen 
Lindrayer  was  "by  William  Fisher,  without  any  the  least  reason, 
wounded  in  his  belly'"  and  that  he  died  of  the  wound  (this  part 
of  the  document  is  missing,  but  the  title  shows  that  Cornelissen 
died  of  the  wound). ^4*^ 


Jan  Cornelisen,  from  Flensburg,  Denmark,  received  the  small 
burgher's  right  in  New  Amsterdam,  April  14,  1657.  In  1659  he 
was  a  carrier  of  beer  with  wages  of  a  trifle  more  than  six  guilders 
a  week.'*'*^  On  December  31,  1660,  he  and  some  other  beer  car- 
riers appeared  in  court  to  defend  themselves  against  a  complaint, 
made  by  the  Farmer  of  Beer  and  Wine.  The  complaint  was,  that 
they  had  taken  beer  from  the  breweries  and  brought  it  to  the 
burghers'  houses  without  having  a  permit  from  the  Farmer.     They 

437  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    118f. 

438  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    202. 

439  Ibid.,   XIII.,   pp.   240,   241. 

440  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    407;    III.,   p.    150. 

441  The   Records   of   New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    VII.,    p.    236. 



were  also  represented  as  having  brought  an  anker  of  strong  beer 
to  Johannes  de  Decker's  house  without  a  permit.  The  reply  made 
by  the  accused  was  that  the  Farmer  was  mistaken :  there  was  a 
permit  for  it,  and  Mr.  Decker  knew  it.  The  court  recommended 
the  "comparants  not  to  remove  any  beer  without  having  a  permit 
for  so  doing."  ^42 

From    Braunius:      Theatrum    urbium,    iv. 

On  January  10,  1661,  Jan  Cornelisen  and  seven  others  ap- 
peared in  the  city  hall  offering  their  services  as  watchmen.  They 
were  accepted  by  the  burgomasters  as  Watch.  The  wages  for 
each  watchman  was  eighteen  guilders  a  month.  Cornelisen  took 
the  usual  oath  of  fidelity  to  the  "Instructions  for  Watchmen."  ^^^ 

Under  date  of  March  13,  1659,  it  is  stated  in  an  instrimient 
of  conveyance  that  Cornelisen  bought  of  Reinhout  Reinhoutsen 
a  lot  in  New  Amsterdam,  situated  on  the  Schape  Weitie,  west  of 
the  Prince  Graft.  His  lot  was  bounded  on  the  south  by  a  lot, 
for  some  time  owned  by  Reinout  Reinoutsen  but  transferred  by 

442  Ibid..    VII.,    pp.    152,    262. 

443  Ibid.,   VII.,    p.    265. 


him,  March  13,  1659,  to  Thomas  Verdon/^  On  the  north  it  was 
bounded  by  a  lot  belonging  to  Pieter  Rudolphus;  on  the  west  by 
the  tannery  of  Reinhoutsen;  on  the  east  by  Prince  Graft.  Its 
dimensions  were  on  the  east  side  24  feet ;  on  the  west  side,  17 ; 
north  and  south  side,  119. 

On  July  15,   1661,  Cornelisen  deeded  to  Willem  Jansen  Van 
Borckloo  this  lot,  and  a  house  that  he  had  built  upon  it.f 


Laurens  Corneliszen  (Coeck),  from  Denmark,  was  in  New 
Amsterdam  as  early  as  1676,  or  before.  The  marriage  records  of 
the  Dutch  Reformed  church  in  New  Amsterdam  states  that  he  was 
from  Denmark.  He  married  Margriet  Barents,  March  5,  1676.^^* 
He  is  not  to  be  taken  for  another  resident  of  New  Amsterdam, 
known  as  Captain  Laurens  Cornelissen. 

On  March  21,  1677,  Laurens  Corneliszen  and  Margariet 
Barents  had  a  child  baptized,  Cornells,  the  sponsors  were  Barendt 
Arentszen  and  Marritie  Cornells,  perhaps  a  sister  of  Laurens. 
Their  child,  Grietie,  was  baptized,  December  21,  1678;  their  daugh- 
ter, Marritje,  June  22,  1687. 

On  March  1,  1691,  their  son  Barent  was  baptized.  The 
father's  name  in  the  baptismal  records  is,  in  this  instance,  entered 
as  Laurens  Corneliszen  Coeck. ^'^^ 


Marritje  Cornells,  from  Flensburg,  was  in  New  Amsterdam 
as  early  as  1659,  when  she  was  married  to  Hans  Christiaensen, 
from  Holstein.     After  his  death,  she  married.  May  31,  1665,  Cor- 

*  D.  T.  Valentine,  Manual  of  the  Corporation  of  the  City  of  New  York, 
1865,    pp.    657-8. 

t    Ibid.,   1865,  p.   681. 

444  Collections  of  the  New  York  Genealogical  and  Biographical  Society,  I., 
p.    41. 

445  Ibid.,    pp.    127,    135,    180,    202. 

190  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

nelis  Beckman,  of  "Stift  Bremen."     By  Christiaensen  she  had  a 
daughter,  Neeltje,  who  was  baptized  November  12,  1660. 


Paulus  Cornelissen  was  in  New  Netherland  as  early  as  1654. 
He  was  from  Flensburg,  in  Denmark.  Under  date  of  September 
1,  1654,  a  note  was  given,  at  Fort  Orange,  of  the  following  con- 
tent: "I,  the  undersigned  Claes  Cornelissen,  acknowledge  and  con- 
fess that  I  am  well  and  truly  indebted  to  Paulus  Cornelise  (Van 
Flensburgh),  now  ready  to  depart  for  Patria,  in  the  sum  and  num- 
ber of  six  beavers."^^^  Whether  he  be  the  Paulus  Cornelissen 
who,  in  New  Amsterdam,  in  January,  1668,  sued  Thomas  Lourens, 
and  who  worked  for  the  Dane  Laurens  Duyts,  I  can  not  determine. 

Paul  Cornelissen  is  also  mentioned  as  late  as  1671.^'*^ 


Pieter  Cornelis,  or  Pieter  Cornelis  Low,  a  laborer  from  Hol- 
stein,  came  to  New  Amsterdam  in  1659,  in  the  ship  "de  Trouw," 
which  sailed  on  February  21,  1659.^^^ 

He  married  Elisabeth,  a  daughter  of  Mattys  Blanchan,  and 
had  issue,  i.  e.,  Cornelis,  who  was  born  1670  in  Esopus,  and  mar- 
ried in  New  York,  July  5,  1695,  Margaret  Borsum.  Pieter  had 
other  children  also. 

Under  date  of  November  1,  1676,  is  a  testamentary  document 
of  Pieter  and  his  wife,  which  reads  as  follows : 

".  .  .  The  survivor  shall  possess  the  entire  estate ;  at  remar- 
riage one-half  thereof  shall  go  to  the  children.  If  both  parties 
should  die  without  having  remarried,  the  children  are  to  inherit 
the  property,  the  minors  first  being  brought  up.     If  either  party 

446  Munsell,    Collections    on    the    History    of    .    .    Albany,    III.,     p.     199. 

447  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,     1653-1674,    VI.,    p.     108.     Ibid.,    IV., 
p.   86. 

448  Year   Book   of   the   Holland    Society   of   New   York,    1902. 


should  survive  and  not  marry,  such  survivor  shall  have  the  use  of 
the  estate  until  death. "^49 

There  is  a  later  will,  dated  December  20,  1690,  in  which  Pieter 
designates  himself  as  "Pieter  Cornelissen  Low,"  yeoman  of  Kings- 

His  progeny  have  been  numerous  and  widespread. 


Pieter  Cornelissen  was  from  "Warbeer"  (Varberg  in  Sconia), 
in  Denmark.  Varberg  has  been  a  Swedish  town  since  1658,  and 
hence  Cornelissen  may  have  received  the  surname  "the  Swede" : 
in  a  document  of  1666  he  is  spoken  of  as  Pieter  Cornelissen,  alias 
the  Swede.  Or  he  may  have  been  called  Swede,  because  his  wife 
was  Swedish.  He  had  married  on  August  5,  1656,  in  New  Am- 
sterdam, Brieta  Ollofs,  from  Goteborg,  Sweden.  By  her  he  had 
a  daughter,  Margariet,  who  was  baptized  on  April  15,  1657. 

In  December,  1666,  Brieta,  having  become  a  widow,  married 
Jan  Jacobsen  from  Friesland.  The  Orphanmasters  appointed,  in 
the  same  month,  Focke  Jans  and  Cornelis  Aerts  as  guardians  for 
her  daughter.'*^^ 

Whatever  else  is  recorded  of  Pieter  Cornelissen,  is  limited  to 
a  notice  in  the  court  records,  viz.,  that  he  on  November  1,  1664, 
sued  Bastian  the  Wheelwright  for  an  ox  he  had  sold  to  him,  for 
which  he  demanded  230  guilders.  The  matter  was  likely  settled 
out  of  court,  as  arbitrators  were  appointed  to  reconcile  the  parties. ^^^ 


Sybrant   Cornelissen,   a   soldier   in   the   service   of    the    West 
India  Company,  was  in   New  Amsterdam  about  1664.     On  Jan- 

449  G.  Anjou,   Ulster  County    (N.   Y.)    Wills,    1906,   I.,   p.   35. 

450  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    73. 

451  Year  Book  of  the  Holland   Society   of   New  York,    1900,   p.    128. 

452  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,    1653-1673,   V.,   p.   149. 

DUYTS.  193 

uary  31,  in  that  year,  he  made  a  declaration,  at  the  request  of  one 
Paul  Pietersen,  in  regard  to  a  quarrel  between  Maritie  Tomas  and 
Tryntie  Martens,  the  wife  of  Paul.'*^^ 

Sybrant  Cornelissen  was  from  Flensburg  in  Denmark,  as  we 
learn  from  a  notice  of  July  17,  1664,  stating  that  he,  on  that  date, 
was  appointed  assistant  surgeon,  and  that  he  was  to  be  employed 
in  shaving,  bleeding,  and  administering  medicine  to  the  soldiers.'*^'* 
In  other  words,  Sybrant  appears  to  have  been  an  old-time  barber- 
surgeon.  In  E.  B.  O'Callaghan's  "Register  of  New  Netherland," 
p.  124,  Sybrant  is  listed  as  "Physician  and  surgeon  at  Esopus." 


Ursel  Dircks,  from  Holstein,  came  in  1658  to  New  Amster- 
dam with  his  two  children,  aged  two  and  ten,  by  the  ship  "de  Moes- 
man,"  which  sailed  May  1,  1658,  for  New  Netherland.'*^^ 


Laurens  Duyts  came  over  to  New  Netherland  in  1639  in  the 
ship  "de  Brant  van  Trogen."  Among  his  fellow  passengers  were 
the  Danes  Captain  Jochem  Pietersen  Kuyter,  Jonas  Bronck  (?), 
and  Pieter  Andriesen.  Duyts  and  Andriesen  were  to  work  for 
Jonas  Bronck :  to  clear  a  tract  of  five  hundred  acres,  which  Bronck 
had  purchased  from  the  Indians.  Duyts  thus  became  one  of  the 
pioneers  of  the  present  Borough  of  Bronx.  He  was  commonly 
known  as  Laurens  Grootschoe  (Big  Shoe).  He  was  born  in  Hol- 
stein in  1610. 

He  married  Ytie  Jansen.  By  her  he  had  three  children :  a 
daughter,  Margariet,  who  was  baptized  on  December  23,  1639,  the 
sponsors  being  Gerrit  Jansen  of  Oldenburg  (perhaps  he  was  Ytie's 
brother),  Teuntje  Joris  and  Tyntje  Martens;  a  son,  Jan,  who  was 

453  Year  Book  of  the  Holland   Society   of   New   York,    1900,   p.    157. 

454  Calendar   of  Historical   Manuscripts,   I.,   p.   278. 

455  Year   Book   of   the   Holland   Society   of   New   York.    1902. 

194  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN   NEW   YORK,   1630-1674. 

baptized  on  March  23,  1641 ;  another  son,  Hans,  who  was  baptized 
in  1644:  Jochem  Pietersen  Kuyter  was  sponsor  at  the  baptism 
of  the  boys.^^^ 

Duyts  appears  to  have  been  farming  in  different  places,  leas- 
ing the  lands  he  tilled. 

In  March,  1654,  he  had  a  land  dispute  with  Francoys  Fyn. 
Fyn  had  a  certain  parcel  of  land  lying  on  Long  Island  over  against 
Hog  Island  (now  Blackwell's  Island).  Duyts  had  sold  this  with- 
out Fyn's  knowing  it,  claiming  it  was  his  own  land."*^^ 

Duyts  leased  for  some  time  the  bowery  of  the  Norwegian 
woman  from  Marstrand,  Anneke  Jans.  He  was  to  pay  her  two 
hogs  in  rent.  As  he  had  paid  only  one,  he  was  sued,  in  May, 
1658,  by  Anneke's  son-in-law,  Johannes  Pietersen  Verbrugge,  later 
mayor  of  New  York,  and  was  condemned  to  deliver  the  hog  to 
the  plaintiff.^58 

Duyts's  moral  life  does  not  deserve  mention.  But  in  order  to 
show  hos  Laurens  "Big  Shoe"  trampled  upon  the  laws  of  decency 
and  how  such  a  lawbreaker  was  punished,  we  relate  that  Laurens 
Duyts  of  Holstein  received  a  most  severe  sentence  from  Stuyvesant 
on  November  25,  1658.  For  selling  his  wife,  Ytie  Jansen,  and 
forcing  her  to  live  in  adultery  with  another  man  and  for  living 
himself  also  in  adultery,  he  was  to  have  a  "rope  tied  around  his 
neck,  and  then  to  be  severely  flogged,  to  have  his  right  ear  cut  off, 
and  to  be  banished  for  fifty  years. "'*^^ 


Signature   of   Laurents   Duyts. 

Laurens  died  at  Bergen,  New  Jersey,  about  1668.  His  son, 
Hans,  lived  at  Harlem  in  1667.  Also  the  other  son,  Jan,  lived 
there.     "He  bore  a  good  name  at  Harlem,  and  did  not  deserve  the 

456  See  articles  "Bronck,"  "Kuyter,"  "Pieter  Andriessen."  J.  Riker, 
Harlem,   Its  Origin  and  Early  Annals,   p.   256. 

457  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,  1653-1674,  I.,  p.  183f.  Tradition  says 
that  Francois  Fyn  was  an  Englishman.  Could  he  have  been  a  Dane — from  Fyn, 
Denmark?      See    Excursus.      Part    II. 

458  Ibid.,    II.,   p.    380. 

459  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    203. 

EGGERT.  195 

taunt  uttered  one  day  by  Jeanne  de  Ruine,  in  presence  of  Mons 
Pietersen,  a  Swede  or  Finn :  You  villain,  run  to  your  father  Dane." 
Pietersen  claimed  that  Jan  had  said  nothing  to  provoke  it.  Jan 
married  in  1667,  again  in  1673. 

Hans  had  a  daughter,  Cathrine,  who  at  the  age  of  fourteen 
(1688)  was  married  to  Joost  Paulding  from  Holland.  Paulding 
went  to  Westchester.  He  was  the  ancestor  of  John  Paulding,  one 
of    Major    Andre's    captors. '^^o 


Carsten  Jansen  Eggert,  from  Dithmarschen,  in  Schleswig- 
Holstein,  was  in  New  Amsterdam  in  1655,  or  before.  On  Jan- 
uary 8,  1666,  Luycas  Eldersen  sued  him  for  rent.  Eggert  claimed 
that  he  did  not  owe  Eldersen.  The  Court,  however,  referred  the 
matter  to  arbitrators,  who  were  to  try  to  reconcile  the  contending 
parties.     (Records  of  New  Amsterdam,  1653-1674,  II.,  p.  5.) 

On  October  26,  1656,  Eggert  appeared  as  attorney  for  a  Dane, 
Herman  Smeeman,  in  a  suit  started  by  Jan  Barentsen.  (See  arti- 
cle "Herman  Smeeman."     Part  II.) 

On  January  8,  1657,  Pieter  van  Couwenhoven  sued  Eggert 
for  101  lbs.  tobacco,  which  had  been  delivered  to  Eggert  "in  excess 
by  Thomas  Hall."  Eggert  did  not  deny  that  he  had  received  the 
tobacco,  but  said  he  "must  have  from  Hall  fli.  19  for  freight  and 
3.10  for  labor,"  and  consequently  could  offset  that.  His  papers 
were  in  Virginia,  but  he  would  furnish  the  court  with  proof  upon 
the  arrival  of  Hall.  The  court  decided  to  postpone  decision  until 
the  arrival  of  Hall.      (Ibid.,  p.  257.) 

On  March  16,  1660,  David  Jochimzen  sued  Eggert,  demanding 
to  know  why  he  had  given  up  his  agreement,  entered  into  with 
Jacob  Hay  and  Pieter  Claesen.  He  had  leased  from  them  some 
land,  once  owned  by  Dirk  Holgersen,  a  Norwegian,  but  later  trans- 
ferred to  Hay.  The  land  lay  in  the  present  Greenpoint,  Brook- 
lyn. Eggert  said,  in  his  defense,  that  he  could  not  remain  dwell- 
ing on  the  bowery,  as  the  government  had  ordered  those  who  were 
dwelling  on  the  boweries  in  that  region  to  move  away  and  form  a 

460   J.    Riker,    Harlem,    Its    Origin    and    Early    Annals,    p.    256. 

196  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

village.  He  also  said  that  he  could  not  make  use  of  the  land,  as 
he  had  to  transport  his  grain  over  three  and  a  half  thousand  paces 
through  the  rough  forest.  The  court  decreed  that  Jochimzen 
must  first  deliver  the  house  standing  on  the  farm  at  the  village 
at  his  own  cost,  and  then  the  lessee  shall  fulfill  the  conditions  of 
the  lease.     (Ibid.  III.,  p.  144.) 

On  July  12,  1661,  Christina  Capoens,  wife  of  Jacob  Hay,  later 
wife  of  David  Jochimsen,  sued  Carsten  Jansen  Eggert  and  Hen- 
drick  Janzen  Sluyter  because  they  had  taken  sods  from  her  mea- 
dow. She  wanted  them  to  indemnify  the  loss  she  had  sufiFered, 
"and,  moreover,  to  pay  something  for  the  poor."  The  defendants 
replied  that  they  did  not  know  that  the  land  belonged  to  the 
plaintiff.  The  Court  dropped  the  matter  by  reprimanding  the 
defendants,  charging  them  not  to  repeat  the  offense.  (Ibid.,  II., 
p.  342.) 

On  November  28,  1673,  Eggert  sued  Dirck  Claessen  Potte- 
backer,  claiming  that  he  had  lent  Pottebacker's  wife  three  beavers, 
of  which  he  had  only  received  one  back.  Pottebacker  was  con- 
demned to  return  the  other  two  also.     (Ibid.,  VII.,  p.  27.) 

Carsten  Jansen  Eggert  was  listed  in  1674  as  possessing  in 
New  Amsterdam  property  on  the  present  South  William  Street, 
then  known  as  The  Mill  Street  Lane.  It  was  rated  as  "fourth 
class"  property,  no  value  being  given.  (Year  Book  of  the  Holland 
Society  of  New  York,  1896.) 

Eggert  had  several  relatives  in  New  Amsterdam,  as  is  seen 
by  his  will,  in  which  his  sister  Anneke  Jans,  who  was  from  Hol- 
stein,  is  mentioned;  also  his  sister,  Grietje  Jans,  who  is  mentioned 
in  the  marriage  records  as  being  from  Dithmarschen ;  and  finally 
Dirck  Jansen. 

Under  date  of  May  9,  1678,  we  find  in  "Collections  of  the 
New  York  Historical  Society,"  I.,  p.  48,  this  interesting  entry: 

"Whereas,  Carsten  Jans  Eggert,  of  this  city,  did  in  his  last 
will  bequeath  his  estate  part  by  way  of  legacy,  and  the  rest  to  be 
disposed  of  by  way  of  gifts  to  his  next  relations,  that  is  to  say  the 
sum  of  500  guilders,  wampum,  to  the  Lutheran  Church,  as  a  legacy, 
and  to  his  sister,  Greetje  Jans,  wife  of  Jacob  Pietersen,  150 
guilders,  wampum,  the  rest  to  be  divided  equally  between  his 
brother,  Dirck  Jansen  De  Groot,  his  sister,  Greetye  Jansen,  and 


Bruyn  Ages,  the  son  of  his  other  sister,  Annatje  Jans  and  Bruyn 
Ages,  both  deceased,  making  Hendrick  Williams  and  David 
Westells  executors,  as  in  said  will,  and  additions  the  7th  and  19  of 
April  last.     The  same  was  confirmed  May  9,  1678." 

So  far  as  we  know,  Eggert  was  one  of  the  few  Lutherans  in 
the  new  world,  who  at  such  an  early  period  bequeathed  a  legacy 
to  the  Lutheran  church  of  the  City  of  New  York. 


Jacob  Eldersen,  sometimes  called  Jacob  Eldersen  Brower 
(the  brewer),  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  1656,  when 
Gerrit  Fullewever  conveyed  a  lot  to  him.  In  the  instrument  of 
conveyance  it  is  said  that  Jacob  was  from  Liibeck,  where  the 
Danes  are  numerous.  He  was  probably  a  Dane.^^^  After  having 
lived  in  New  Amsterdam,  he  went  to  Harlem,  of  which  he  was 
one  of  the  founders  (1661). ^^2  Hq  ^y^s  at  Esopus  in  1667.  In 
a  document  of  1670  his  name  is  written  Eldessen;  in  a  document 
of  1674,  Elbertsen.463 

When  he  was  in  New  Amsterdam  he  signed  the  petition  of 
the  Lutherans  (1657),  requesting  that  the  Lutheran  preacher 
Goetwater  might  stay  in  the  city  instead  of  being  deported.'*"'* 

Jacob  Eldersen's  record  in  New  Amsterdam,  however,  does 
not  give  much  evidence  of  his  being  a  model  churchman. 

From  the  court  minutes  we  glean  the  following: 

In  February,  1656,  Andries  Van  der  Sluys  brought  action 
against  him  for  rent.*^^ 

On  September  18,  Marritje  Pietersen  sued  him  for  shooting 
her  dog.     She  requested  indemnification   for  it  to  the  amount  of 

461  D.  T.  Valentine,  Manual  of  the  Corporation  of  the  City  of  New  York, 
1861,   p.   582. 

462  .T.  Riker,  Harlem,  Its  Origin  and  Early  Annals,  p.  190.  Riker  says  he 
was  a  Dane. 

463  Year  Book  of  the  Holland   Society   of  New  York,    1897,   p.    122. 

464  See  note  42. 

465  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    II.,   p.    47. 

198  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 

fl.  16.  Eldersen  acknowledged  that  he  had  shot  the  dog  in  self- 
defense.  In  catching  a  stone  to  drive  him  away,  Jacob  was  bit 
in  the  finger,  so  that  he  was  obliged  to  have  it  dressed  by  a  surgeon. 
The  plaintiff  replied  that  he  "shot  the  dog  when  she  called  him  and 
he  was  by  her  person,"  and  she  denied  that  the  dog  bit  him.  On 
the  next  court  day,  the  surgeon,  Hans  Kierstede's,  declaration  rela- 
tive to  the  wound  was  exhibited  by  Eldersen,  in  court.  But  the 
plaintiff  was  absent. 

On  January  14,  1658,  Eldersen  again  appeared  in  court,  sum- 
moned by  the  Schout,  and  charged  with  striking  Bruin  Barensen, 
a  cooper  at  Brooklyn.  Eldersen  now  claimed  he  had  struck  Baren- 
sen w^ith  a  broom  stick,  warding  off  Barensen,  who  drew  a  knife. 
He  averred  he  had  not  used  a  club.  Barensen  was  severely  beaten 
and  lay  a  long  time  abed.     Eldersen  was  put  in  prison. 

A  few  days  later,  intercession  was  made  for  his  release  from 
imprisonment,  but  the  Court  took  no  action. 

On  January  23,  Eldersen  escaped,  and  the  Schout  requested 
that  "his  goods  and  effects,  which  he  has  in  this  country,  may  be 
provisionally  seized  and  he  be  summoned  by  bell  ringing  to  appear 
in  person  within  eight  days  and  to  hear  such  demand  and  conclu- 
sion as  the  Schout  shall  have  to  make."  The  request  was  approved 
by  the  court. 

On  January  28,  an  order  was  given  that  no  one  should  harbor 

or  hide  the   fugitive.     He  was   summoned,   February    15   and  22, 

was   found   February  25,  but  would   not   appear.     Hence  he  was 

arrested.     He  secured  the  aid  of  an  attorney,  and  through  him  he 

obtained  release,  promising  to  reply  within  48  hours  to  the  answer 

"in  reconvention  of  the  Fiscal  entered  before  the  Director- 

On  February  12,  1658,  Bruin  Barentsen.  whom  Eldersen 
struck,  died. 

On  March  11,  the  Court  therefore  passed  the  following  sen- 
tence : 

"Whereas,  Jacob  Eldersen,  brewer's  servant,  a  good  while  ago 
seriously  beat  and  wounded  one  Bruyn  Barensen  with  a  sledge 
hammer  with  which  wood  is  cleft,  according  to  declaration  thereof, 
and  with  a  broom  handle  according  to  his  own  confession,  whereby 
the  above-named  Bruyn  Barensen  lay  a  long  time  bed  ridden,  and 

466  Ibid.,  II.,   pp.   166f.,   298,   301,   309,   318,   339,   340. 


he,  Jacob  Eldersen,  was  placed  provisionally  in  confinement  by  the 
Sellout  at  the  request  and  with  the  consent  of  the  Court,  and  again 
released  on  bail ;  nevertheless,  as  the  longer  it  was  with  the 
wounded,  the  worse,  and  the  bail  importuned  the  Schout  to  have 
the  bail  bond  discharged,  the  above-named  Jacob  Eldersen  was 
again  placed  in  close  confinement  to  await  the  issue  of  the  patient, 
to  be  then  proceeded  against  according  to  the  circumstances  of  the 
case;  therefore,  he,  the  above-named  Jacob,  having  remained  a 
few  days,  violated  the  public  prison,  broke  out  of  the  same  and 
fled  away.  Whereupon  the  Schout,  demanding  citation  of  the 
absconder  from  the  Director-Gen  ( era )1  and  Council,  obtained  it 
from  their  Honors,  and  thereupon  (he)  was  three  several  times 
summoned  by  sound  of  the  bell  to  hear  all  such  demand  and  con- 
clusion as  the  Schout  should  have  to  make  against  him :  finally, 
three  days  after  the  third  citation  he  again  made  his  appearance, 
whereupon  the  Schout  placed  him  for  the  third  time  in  his  former 
prison  after  communication  with  the  Court  of  this  City,  and 
whereas  Dirck  van  Schelluine  being  allowed  and  authorized  by  the 
aforesaid  Jacob  Eldersen  to  act  for  the  above-named  Jacob,  re- 
quested release  of  the  prisoner,  and  having  obtained  it  from  the 
Court,  has  proceeded  in  virtue  of  authority  and  consent  for  the 
above-named  Jacob  Eldersen  against  the  Schout  in  his  case,  which 
he,  the  Schout,  had  against  him,  Jacob  Eldersen ;  which  papers, 
documents  and  proofs,  used  in  the  suit  on  both  sides,  being  seen 
and  maturely  weighed  by  the  Court  as  before,  they  cannot  find, 
that  they  avail  anything  in  behalf  of  the  aforesaid  Jacob  Eldersen 
by  sufficiently  proving  that  he  acted  on  the  defensive;  moreover, 
the  breaking  jail  perpetuated  by  him  was  a  sign,  that  he  was  con- 
vinced in  his  mind  of  his  guilt :  They,  therefore,  hereby  condemn 
Jacob  Eldersen  above-named,  to  pay  as  a  fine  for  having  inflicted 
a  wound  on  Bruin  Barentsen  above-named,  the  sum  of  three  hun- 
dred guilders;  as  he  has  broken  the  public  jail,  which  justly  de- 
serves corporal  punishment,  yet  in  consideration,  that  he  willingly 
surrendered  himself  he  was  therefore  condemned  in  the  sum  of 
one  hundred  guilders,  all  to  be  applied  as  is  proper;  and  further  in 
the  costs  of  suit.  Thus  done  and  sentenced  in  the  Court  of  Burgo- 
masters and  Schepens  of  the  City  of  Amsterdam  in  N.  Netherland. 
Datum  ut  supra   [March  11,  1658]. 

"By  order  of  the   Burgomasters  and   Schepens  of    the    City 
above  named,  "Joannes  Nevius,  Secret(ar)y.-*6" 

467   Ibid.,    II.,    p.    352f. 

200  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

Five  years  later  Jacob  Eldersen  was  severely  beaten  in  Har- 
lem by  some  workmen,  who  perhaps  were  trying  to  pay  off  Elder- 
sen  for  the  death  of  their  countryman.  (See  the  article  Pieter 
Jansen  Slot.     Part  II.) 

Eldersen  had  other  litigation  in  New  Amsterdam.  On  Sep- 
tember 3,  1658,  Mighiel  Jansen  sued  him  for  a  debt,  and  a  week 
later  Christian  Pieters,  a  Dane,  did  the  same. 

In  June,  1662,  Eldersen  himself  brought  action  against  Wil- 
liam Britton,  George  Jewel,  James  Clerk,  and  John  Too,  of  New- 
ton, for  "alleging  that  he  had  stolen  said  Britton's  tobacco."'*^^ 

The  material  at  our  disposal  does  not  permit  of  forming  any 
judgment  as  to  Eldersen's  character.  His  weakness  was  perhaps 
his  temper  coupled  wnth  a  demeanor  or  disposition  which  caused 
people  to  tease  him  or  indulge  in  merriment  at  his  expense.  He 
has  nevertheless  the  honor  of  being  one  of  the  founders  of 


Thomas   Fredericksen,     from    Oldenburg,    Holstein,    was    in   i 
New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  1650.     He  was  a  cooper,  and    was 
known  as  Thomas  Fredericksen  de  Kuyper.     On  July  11,  1651,  he  \ 
signed  a  document  as  witness  in  a  transaction,  the  particulars  of  j 
which  need  not  be  stated  here.^'^" 

His  wife  was  Marretie  Claes  Adriaens,  by  whom  he  had  chil-  ; 
dren :  Adrian,  baptized  September  18,  1650 ;  Tryntie,  baptized  ' 
February  23,  1653;  Francyntie,  April  4,  1655;  Tryntie,  January  ; 
16,  1658;  Cornelis,  January  15,  1659;  Tryntie,  September  3,  1662;  i 
Thomas,  February  4,  1672.^^1 

As  early  as  1655,   Fredericksen    was    engaged    in    distilling 
brandy.     In  February,  1656,  he  petitioned  for  permission  to  keep 
a  tavern,  which  was  granted    him    by    the    Court  of   New  Am-  1 

On  June  22,  1656,  he  secured  a  lot  in  Sheep  Pasture,  the  pres- 

468  Ibid.,   III.,   pp.   3,   7. 

469  Riker,    Harlem,    Its    Origin    and    Early    Annals. 

470  New   York   Colonial   Documents,    XIV.,   p.    142. 

471  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    II., 
pp.   27,   33,    39,    47,    51,    66,    104. 

472  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,    16531674,   I.,   p.   403;    II.,   p.  33. 


ent  William  Street,  west  side,  near  Exchange  Place.     In  August 
he  conveyed  it  to  Coenrat  Ten  Eyck.'*'^^ 

Signature   of   Tomas   Fredericksen,    1659. 

His  wife  was  no  exception  to  many  of  the  early  New  York 
women  in  finding  her  way  to  the  court  of  justice.  She  had  a 
quick  tongue. 

In  October,  1654,  she  complained  against  Hendrick  Egberts 
that  he  had  railed  at  her  and  said  that  "General  Stuyvesant  had 
caused  her  to  be  dragged  from  the  ship  and  that  he  would  have  a 
post  fixed  for  her,  and  other  such  expressions.  Egbert  denied  that 
he  had  used  such  injurious  words,  but  acknowledged  that  he  called 
her  a  whore,  because  she  first  called  him  a  banished  knave  and 
rogue,  and  such  like  names."  Marritje  denied  this.  The  parties 
were  ordered  to  prove  their  mutual  statements.^"'* 

On  September  18,  1656,  she  was  again  before  the  Court,  this 
time  as  defendant.  The  entry  in  the  court  minutes  referring  to 
this  case  is  as  follows : 

"Schout  N.  de  Silla,  pltf.  vs  Marretie  Claes,  and  Jochem 
Beeckman's  wife,  for  quareling  and  slander  perpetrated  on 
Highway  (Broadway).  Marretie  Claesen  appears  in  court,  com- 
plaining that  Jochem  Schoester's  wife  scandalously  slandered  her, 
while  she  stood  at  the  door,  with  many  dishonorable  speeches  and 
proposals,  and  requesting  that  she  be  ordered  to  let  her  in  peace. 
Jochem  Beeckman  and  his  wife  appeared  both  in  court  complain- 
ing that  they  were  slandered  by  Martie,  and  fiew  at  each  other 
in  court  with  hard  words,  without  having  proof  on  the  one  side 
or  other.  —  Therefore  the  Court  imposed  silence  on  parties  and 
ordered  them  to  live  henceforth  quiet  and  in  peace  and  order,  as 
good  neighbors  ought  to ;  or  failing  therein,  that  on  first  complaint 
and  proof,  other  disposition  shall  be  made  in  the  matter ;  condemn- 
ing Jochem  Beeckman  or  his  wife  in  the  penalty  of  fl.    10.    and 

473  D.  T.  Valentine,   Manual   .   .  of  the  City  of  New  York,    1861,   p.   588. 

474  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    I.,   p.   258. 

202  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

Thomas  Fredericksen  or  his  wife  in  the  penahy  of  fl.  6  for  the 
benefit  of  the  deaconry  of  this  City."^'^^ 

Thomas  Fredericksen  seems  to  have  been  of  a  more  peaceable 
disposition  than  his  wife.     In  March,    1657,    he    was    appointed   j 
weigh  house  laborer  at  the  warehouse  of  the  West  India  Company,   j 
having,  with  others,  joint  supervision  of  the  scales  and  the  car- 
riage of  beer  and  wine.     In  September,  1659,  he  resigned  his  of- 
fice, "thanking  the  magistrates  for  the  favor ;  who  accept  it,  thank-   j 
ing  him  for  the  service."^'''^  i 

In  the  fall  of  1660  he  had  a  dispute  with  Abraham  Lubbersen  i 
in  regard  to  a  small  boat.  Lubbersen  demanded  of  him  sixty  j 
florins  for  this  boat.  Fredericksen  was  at  the  time  at  Fort  Orange,  i 
When  he  returned,  the  court  authorized  two  citizens  to  decide  j 
the  question  and  if  possible  reconcile  the  litigants.^'^'''  \ 

Fredericksen  had  considerable  property  in  New  Amsterdam,  j 

On  June  29,  1656,  he  conveyed  to  A.  Lubberszen  a  lot  "situated    i 
west  of  the  Prince  Graft  boundary  to  the  South  on  the  house  and  ' 
lot  of  Nicholaas  Dela  Plaine  and  to  the  North  the  tannery  of  Coen-  | 
rat  Ten  Eyck.     Wide  in  front  on  the  street  or  West  side  twenty- 
six  feet,  in  the  rear  twenty-seven  feet,  length  on  the  South  as  well 
as  the  North  side  fifty-nine  feet."* 

On  July  15,  1659,  he  deeded  another  lot  to    Abraham  Lub- 
berszen, "A  lot  west  of    the    Prince    Graght;    bounded    east    by 
Prince  Graft;  south,  by  house  and  lot  of  said  Tomas  Frericksen;  j 
west,  by  lot  of  Touseyn  Briel ;  and  north,  by  lot  of  said  Frericksen.  j 
Broad,  in  front  on  the  street,  the  east  side,  26  feet;  in  the  rear, 
the  like ;  deep,  35  running  feet."t 

On  July  10,  1660,  he,  in  company  with  Dirck  Jansen,  deeded  ' 
to  Boel  Roeloffsen  a  lot  east  of  the  Prince    Graght.     See    article 
Dirck  Jansen,  under  date  of  July  10,  1660. 

On    February    12,    1664,    Fredricksen    conveyed     to     Cornelis  | 
Barensen  Van  der  Kuyl :  "a  house  and  lot  north  of    the  Bever's 
Graft;  bounding  west  the  lot  of  Touseyn  Briel;  east,  the  Prince  i 
Graft.     Front  and  rear,  S^y^  feet;  east  and  west  sides,  51  feet  7  ; 

475  Ibid..    II.,   p.    166. 

476  Ibid.,   VII.,   p.    146;    III.,   p.    43. 

477  Ibid.,    III.,    pp.    203,    222. 

*  Collections  of   the   New   York   Historical    Society,    XLVI..    p.    77f. 
t   Valentine,   Manual  of  the  .   .   City  of  New  York,   1865,  p.   661. 

HAEMENS.  203 

inches."  Under  same  date  he  conveyed  to  Abraham  Lubbersen : 
"a  lot  west  of  the  Prince  Graft ;  bounding  south,  the  house  and  lot 
of  Nicolaas  De  la  Pleine ;  and  north,  the  tannery  of  Coenraat  Ten 
Eyck.  In  front,  26  feet ;  rear,  27  feet ;  south  and  north  sides,  59 
feet."|     He  had  once  before  sold  this  lot. 


Tryntie  Harders,  from  Tonning,  which  formerly  belonged  to 
Denmark,  was  in  New  Amsterdam  before  1643,  when  she  as  widow 
of  Hendrick  Hoist,  was  married — June  14 — to  Hugh  Aertsen, 
widower  of  Annetje  Theunis. 

After  the  death  of  Aertsen,  Tryntie  married,  December  23, 
1648,  Albert  Corneliszen  Wantenar,  from  "Vechten."'*'''^ 


Jan  Pietersen  Haring  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as 
1669,  when,  on  February  31,  his  child  Cozyn  was  baptized. 
Haring's  wife  was  Grietje  Cozyns,  who  had  been  married  to  Her- 
man Theunissen  Van  Zell,  April  19,  1654.  Haring's  second  child, 
Marytie,  was  baptized  October  11,  1679.  Haring  was,  as  the 
name  indicates,  a  Dane:  Haring  is  in  Denmark.  He  was  deceased 
before  1685,  when  his  widow  married  Daniel  de  Clerq. 


Laurens  Harmens  came  over  to  New  Netherland  in  1660.  He 
was  a  farmer  from  Holstein.  He  arrived,  accompanied  by  his 
wife,  on  the  ship  "de  Leide,"  which  sailed  March  4,  1660.^'^^ 

t   Ibid.,   1865,  p.   706. 

478  Collections  of  the  New  York  Genealogical  and  Biographical  Society,  I., 
pp.   12,    14. 

479  Year  Book   of   the   Holland    Society   of   New  York,    1902,    p.    12. 

204  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 


Mrs.  Laurens  Harmens  arrived,  with  her  husband,  in  New 
Netherland  in  1660.  Laurens  Harmens  was  a  farmer  from  Hol- 
stein.  It  is  probable  that  both  he  and  his  wife  were  Danes,  and 
not  Germans. 


Marten  Harmensen,  from  Krem  (Krempe),  in  Holstein,  about 
four  miles  N.  N.-E.  of  Gliickstadt,  was  in  Esopus  1660-1663.  He 
was  a  mason.  His  name  was  on  the  muster  roll  of  the  soldier's 
company  at  Esopus,  March  28,  1660.'*^*'  In  1661  he  subscribed 
fl.  25  towards  supporting  the  preacher  Hermanus  Bloem,  who  had 
been  called  as  pastor  by  the  inhabitants  of  Esopus. *^^ 

On  January  29,  1662,  he  married  Claesje  Teunis,  widow  of 
Cornelis  Teunissen.^^^ 

He  owned  a  bowery  in  Wiltwyck  (=Esopus).  On  June  7, 
1663,  after  the  massacre  in  this  new  village,  he  was  found  killed 
and  stripped  naked  behind  a  wagon.  From  his  bowery  one  woman 
and  four  children  were  taken  prisoners.'*^^ 


Bernardus  Hassing,  from  Hassing,  in  Denmark,  was  in  New 
Amsterdam  before  November  13,  1666,  when  he  acted  as  sponsor 
at  a  baptism.  On  July  7,  1669,  he  married  Aeltje  [Neeltje]  Cou- 
wenhoven.  They  had  children.  Warnardus  was  born  1670; 
Jacob,  1672;  Hester,  1674;  Heyltje,  1677;  Johannes,  1678;  Pieter, 
1679.  and  Lysbeth,  1685.  Hassing  and  his  wife  were  members  of 
the  Dutch  Reformed  church  in  1686,  and  lived  "Longs  de  Wall" 
(Wall  St.). 

480  New  York   Colonial   Documents,    XIII.,   p.    153. 

481  Ibid.,  XIII.,   p.   214. 

482  R.   R.   Hoes,   Baptismal   and   Marriage   Register  of  the   .   .   .   Dutch   Church, 
Kingston,    p.    499. 

483  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    245. 

HELMSZ(EN).  205 


Heyltje  Hassing  acted  as  sponsor  at  a  baptism  in  New  Am- 
sterdam, November  13,  1666.  She  was  possibly  a  relative  of 
Bernardus,  and  a  Dane. 


Johannes  Hassing  stood  sponsor  Nov.  13,  1666,  at  a  baptism 
in  New  Amsterdam.  He  was  probably  a  relative  of  Bernardus 
Hassing,  and  a  Dane.  An  Anna  Hassing  became  a  member  of 
the  Dutch  Reformed  church  in  New  Amsterdam,  1668.  Was  she 
his  wife? 


Jan  Helmsz(en)  (Jan  de  Bock),  from  Barlt  in  Holstein,  ar- 
rived at  New  Amsterdam  by"  den  Houttuyn"  on  August  4,  1642, 
and  drew  wages  from  August  13,  1642,  in  the  colony  of  Rensse- 
laerswyck.  From  about  1650  to  1658  he  is  charged  with  an  an- 
nual rent  of  fl.  445  for  a  farm  at  Bethlehem,  which  he  appears 
to  have  taken  over  from  Jan  Dirksz  from  Bremen.  In  1651  he 
had  on  this  farm  six  horses  and  seven  cattle.^^"* 

On  October  9,  1650,  he  acted  as  sponsor  in  New  Amsterdam 
at  the  baptism  of  Arent,  son  of  Barent  Jacobsen.'*^^ 

A  letter  of  May  5,  1660,  from  Stuyvesant  to  Ensign  Smith  of 
Esopus,  seems  to  refer  to  Jan  Helms :  "At  the  request  of  I.  .  .  . 
Helms,  made  to  us,  we  have  given  him  permission  to  bring  twenty 
or  twenty-tive  schepels  of  bread  from  the  Esopus. "^^^ 

484  Van    Rensselaer    Bowier    Manuscripts,    p.    827. 

485  Collections   of   the    New   York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    II., 
p.  28. 

486  New  York   Colonial   Documents,   XIII.,    p.    165. 

206  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 


Fredrick  Hendricksen  (Kuyper=Cooper)  was  a  Dane  from 
Oldenburg.  He  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  1659.  On 
June  1,  in  that  year,  he  married  Annetje  Christoffels,  of  Amster- 
dam.'*^'''  He  must  not  be  taken  for  Frederick  Hendricksen,  a  skip- 
per, who  was  his  contemporary  in  New  Amsterdam. 

Frederik  the  cooper  had  his  share  of  litigation.  His  wife  also 
had  hers. 

In  1661,  his  wife  was  litigating  with  Jan  Hendricksen  from 
Bommel,  whom  she  accused  of  having  said  that  she  stole  pork 
and  sausage  from  him.  The  parties  appeared  several  times  before 
the  court.  But  "inasmuch  as  no  sufficient  proof  was  produced 
on  both  sides  in  their  suit"  the  court  ordered  that  they  "shall  re-  \ 
main  at  peace  towards  each  other,  nor  further  trouble  one  another  ! 
regarding  previous  disputes,  and  each  bear  his  own  costs. ""^^^         j 

On  November  8,  1664,  Frederick  Hendricksen  was  sued  by  ' 
Balthazar  de  Haart,  who  demanded  of  him  thirty-seven  and  a  half  , 
guilders  for  a  half  year's  rent  due.  He  also  demanded  that  Hen-  { 
dricksen's  wife  should  vacate  the  house.  Hendricksen  replied  ; 
that  he  had  rented  it  from  people  who  had  gone  to  Holland,  and  i 
that  he  had  paid  them.  De  Haart  rejoined  that  Hendricksen  had  i 
promised  to  pay  him  the  rent.  Hendricksen  denied  this,  but  was  j 
ordered  by  the  court  "to  satisfy  and  pay  the  plaintiff." 

On  December  6,  De  Haart  demanded  execution  of  the  judg- 
ment, which  he  obtained  against  Hendricksen,  with  costs.  The 
court  granted  this  and  ordered  the  marshal  to  put  "these  in  execu- 
tion with  the  costs  accrued  thereon. "^^^ 

Hendricksen  appeared  as  plaintiff  in  the  court  of  New  Am- 
sterdam on  November  8,  1664.  He  sued  Huge  Barentzen  and 
Annetje  Jacobs,  saying  that  "the  defendants  accused  him  and  no 
one  else,  of  having  robbed  Annetje  Jacobs  to  the  amount  of  the 
sum  of  forty  guilders."  Annetje  said,  in  defense,  that  no  other 
person  than  Hendricksen  and  his  wife  could  come  into  the  house. 

487  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 
p.  24. 

488  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    III.,    pp.    268,    289,    299, 
314,    331. 

489  Ibid,,    v.,    pp.    153,    169. 

JACOBS.  207 

Barentzen  now  demanded  a  copy  of  the  declaration  to  give  an 
answer  thereunto,  and  the  court  granted  this  request,  ordering 
Hendricksen  to  prove  on  the  next  court  day  that  the  defendants 
had  accused  him  of  theft.  The  case,  it  would  seem,  was  dropped, 
as  the  records  contain  nothing  more  about  it.^^*^ 

From  a  list  of  the  inhabitants  of  New  Amsterdam  who  were 
assessed  in  1665,  we  learn  that  Hendricksen  lived  in  High  Street.'^^i 

He  was  employed  by  the  West  India  Company  as  a  cooper. 
In  January,  1662,  he  petitioned  the  Council  for  an  increase  of  wages. 
The  Council  granted  it.^^^ 

On  August  22,  1665,  Hendricksen  was  sued  by  Jan  Bos,  who 
demanded  of  him  the  sum  of  fl.  10  in  seawan.  Hendricksen  ad- 
mitted the  debt  and  was  ordered  by  the  court  to  pay  it  and  the 
costs  of  the  suit.^^3 

In  March,  1667,  Jan  Otten  sued  Hendricksen  for  fl.  18  in 
seawan  to  pay  a  debt.  Hendricksen's  wife  "admitted  the  debt," 
whereupon  the  court  ordered  that  it  should  be  paid.''^'* 

In  1670,  Mary  Mattheus  sued  Hendricksen  for  fl.  45.16  to 
cover  a  debt  contracted  by  him.  He  was  ordered  to  pay  the  debt 
with  costs  of  the  suit.^^^ 


Engeltje  Jacobs  "van  Hoogharsteen  in  Holsteyn"  was  married, 
February  15,  1658,  in  New  Amsterdam,  to  Christiaen  Toemszen 
"van  Strabroeck  in  Brabant."  ^^^ 

490  Ibid.,  v.,  p.    154. 

491  Ibid.,    v.,    p.   222. 

492  Calendar   of   Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    233. 

493  The  Records  of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    V.,   p.   289. 

494  Ibid.,    VI.,    p.    61. 

495  Ibid.,    VI.,    p.    259. 

496  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 
p.  22. 

208  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 


Pieter  Jacobsen  came  to  New  Netherland  by  the  ship  "de 
Trouw"  which  sailed  on  February  12,  1659.  He  was,  as  is  stated 
in  the  list  of  passengers,  from  Holstein.'*^^  He  was  a  miller,  and 
settled  in  Esopus  or  Wiltwyck.  The  Baptismal  Register  of  the 
old  Dutch  church  in  Kingston  (==Esopus)  giving  the  date  of  the 
baptism  of  Pieter's  son,  Pieter,  —  October  1,  1662,  states  that  the 
father  is  "miller  here."  "^"^  In  September,  1663,  the  court  induced 
him  "to  give  his  mill  for  forty  or  fifty  soldiers  to  lodge  them."  -^^^ 

In  1664  he  is  mentioned  as  being  in  partnership  with  Pieter 

On  January  15,  1663,  he  and  others,  belonging  to  the  local 
militia  of  Wiltwyck,  wrote  a  letter  to  Director  Stuyvesant,  com- 
plaining that  the  civil  magistrates  of  Wiltwyck  had  pulled  down 
an  ordinance  published  by  them  (the  militia). 

In  the  same  year  he  signed  an  ordinance  "to  be  observed  in 
time  of  need,"  made  by  the  officers  of  the  "train  band."  ^"^ 

The  wife  of  Pieter  Jacobsen  was  Grietjen  Hendricks  Wester- 
camp. ^^2     Pieter  died  at  or  before  the  beginning  of  1665.-^°^ 


Anneke  Jans,  from  Dithmarschen  in  Holstein,  was  marri^c 
March  29,  1653,  in  New  Amsterdam,  to  Hage  Bruynsen.  from 
Vexio,  in  Smaaland,  Sweden. ^°^  She  was  a  sister  of  Dirck  Jansen, 
Carsten  Jansen  Eggert,  and  Greetje  Jansen. ^*^^  Hage  Bruynsen 
bought  a  house  in  New  Amsterdam,  in  1653,  apparently  upon  the 

497  Year  Book  of  the  Holland   Society   of   New  York,    1902,   p.   8. 

498  R.   R.   Hoes,   Baptismal    and    Marriage   Registers   of   the    old   Dutch    Cliurch 
.  .  in  Kingston,  p.  2. 

499  New   York   Colonial   Documents,    XIII.,    p.   341. 

500  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,    1897,   p.   124. 

501  New   York   Documentary   History,   XIII.,    pp.    236f. 

502  See   reference     498. 

503  See  reference  500. 

504  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 
p.   18.     There  were  many  having  the  name  Anneke  Jans  in  New  Netherland. 

505  Collections   of   New  York  Historical   Society,   I.,   p.   48. 

JANS.  209 

site  of  No.  255  Pearl  Street.  This  house  is  one  of  interest,  as 
the  lodging  place,  in  1679,  of  the  Labbadist  missionaries  Danker 
and  Sluyter.^*'*^ 

In  October,  1653,  Bruynsen  bought  a  house  lot  in  Beverwyck, 
with  the  intention,  it  would  seem,  of  moving  to  that  place.  His 
wife  was  to  accompany  him.  But,  for  a  time  at  least,  she  was 
obliged  to  postpone  the  journey.  This  postponement  was  due  to 
a  suit  which  she  had  brought  against  Mrs.  Abraham  Genes. 

On  July  14,  1653,  she  made  the  complaint  before  the  court, 
that  "on  Tuesday  last,  when  four  napkins,  bought  by  her  of  her 
master  Croon  from  Holland  were  lying  out  to  bleach,"  Mrs.  Gennes 
"picked  them  up  and  carried  them  away."  The  minutes  proceed : 
"Deft,  says  she  had  been  robbed,  and  pltf.  demands  proof  that 
they  [the  napkins]  had  been  stolen  from  deft,  or  else  return  of 
the  napkins  and  suitable  satisfaction.  Deft,  admits  having  taken 
up  and  away  from  the  bleaching  ground  4  napkins  in  the  presence 
of  Martin  Loockermans  and  Engeltje  Mans,  because  they  belonged 
to  her,  and  she  says,  that  she  misses  other  napkins  and  linen,  which 
she  had  not  yet  seen  or  found ;  also  that  neighbors  have  compared 
the  said  napkins  with  others,  daily  used  by  her,  and  have  found 
them  to  be  of  the  same  pattern  and  linen,  while  upon  one  of  them 
there  is  the  same  mark  as  shown  by  affidavit ;  she  has  left  it  with 
Anneke  Loockermans  and  Tryntie  Kips  for  safekeeping.  The 
latter,  called  into  Court  with  it,  state,  that  it  is  the  same  napkin, 
as  left  at  their  house,  but  is  not  like  the  one,  shown  by  pltf. 
Having  been  examined  by  pltf.,  she  says,  that  two  of  the  napkins, 
taken  by  deft,  are  changed  and  that  the  one  with  the  mark  may 
have  been  mixed  with  hers  by  Engeltie  Mans  at  her  wedding.  The 
Court  examines  and  compares  the  four  napkins  with  those  of  the 
deft,  and  find  them  to  be  alike." 

Under  date  of  September  8,  1653,  the  court  minutes,  again  re- 
ferring to  this  case,  state: 

"Madame  Genes  being  summoned  into  court  by  the  Schoui 
...  is  asked  (since  Madame  Genes  intends  to  remove  to  Father- 
land, and  Annetiie  aforesaid  intends  to  go  to  Fort  Orange) 
whether  she  can  produce  any  further  proof.  She  gives  for  answer : 
No  other  proof  than  before :  that  they  are  found  in  all  respects  like 
her  napkins,  and  she  is  willing,  if  she  can  retain  her  napkins  and 

506  Calendar    of    Historical     Manuscripts,     I.,     p.     379.     J.    H.      Innes,      New 
Amsterdam   and   Its   People. 

210  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 

will  remain  unmolested  on  that  account,  to  forgive  the  said  Annetie 
her  fault,  and,  never  to  trouble  her  on  that  account." 

Under  date  of  September  9  the  minutes  state  the  following: 
"Annetie  .  .  .  ,  wife  of  Age  Bruynsen,  appeared  in  Court ;  requests 
a  pass  to  go  to  Fort  Orange.  Wheras  she  instituted  the  suit  about  } 
the  four  napkins  of  Mme.  Genes,  and  the  case  has  not  been  j 
prosecuted  by  her,  therfore  Burgomasters  and  Schepens  notify 
her,  the  petitioner,  first  to  settle  with  Mme.  Genes,  or  else  prosecute  j 
her  suit,  and  remain  bound  over  to  the  Court,  so  that  their  I 
Worships  of  the  Court  may  remain  exempt  from  any  complaint  > 
of  refusing  justice,  etc.^^'^ 

The  records  say  nothing  as  to  how  the  case  was  settled.  } 

Anneke  and  Hage  had  a  son,  who  was  born   in   1654,  and  j 

married  Gessi     Schuman  of  New  York,  in  1681.^*'^     Anneke  was  i 

dead  when  Hage,  April  7,  1661,  married  Egbertie  Hendricks,  of  i 

Meppel.  ; 


Ciletje  Jans,  from  Christianstad,  which  before  1658  belonged 
to  Denmark,  now  to  Sweden,  was  married  on  April  7,  1661.  in 
New  Amsterdam,  to  Hendrick  van  der  Wallen.^*^^  Her  husband 
was  from  Harlem  in  Holland  and  had  been  sent  over  as  an  ex- 
perienced clerk  to  assist  Claes  van  Ruyven.^^'^ 

A  daughter,  Elizabeth,  was  born  to  Ciletje  and  Hendrick. 
She  was  baptized  July  2,  1662.  Ciletje's  husband  and  two  other 
men  had  united  their  efforts  in  liberating  a  slave  belonging  to 
Nicholas  George,  for  ten  pounds  sterling.  The  money  was  not 
paid.  On  March  25,  1664,  suit  was  therefore  brought  against 
Ciletje,  who  was  then  a  widow,  to  obtain  the  amount.  The  Court 
decreed,  however,  that  Ciletje  should  not  pay  more  than  one  third 
of  it.511 

Her  husband  was  dead  before  November  23,  1663,  when  she 

507  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,    1653-1674,   I.,   pp.   87,    113f.,    118. 

508  See   article    "Hage   Brxiynsen."      Part   III. 

509  New  York   Genealogical   and   Biographical   Record,   VI.,    p.    143. 

510  New    York    Colonial    History,    XIV.,    p.    418. 

511  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,    1653-1674,   V.,   p.  40. 

JANS.  211 

declared  in  court  that  she  knew  "nothing  about  her  deceased 
husband's  business  in  Holland."  ^^^ 

On  February  9,  1664,  she  married  Paulus  Richard  "Van 
Rochel"  in  France.  Johannes  Schivelberg  was  appointed  guardian 
of  her  child.^^2 

She  seems  to  have  married  a  third  husband,  Jan  Hoppen,  who 
may  have  been  a  Norwegian.  They  joined  the  Dutch  Reformed 

On  January  11,  1665,  she  petitioned  the  Court  that  she  be  re- 
leased from  a  house  in  which  she  was  residing,  and  which  had 
been  rented  by  her  deceased  husband :  "She  finds  it  difficult  to  make 
up  the  rent,  and  says  that  Jacques  Cousseau  stated  to  her,"  that 
the  curators  of  the  estate  of  the  owner  of  the  house  "told  him, 
she  should  be  released  from  the  last  year's  lease ;"  she  also  under- 
stood that  they  "have  offered  to  rent  the  house  to  Juffw.  Wessels." 
The  curators  had  made  an  attachment  on  her  goods  for  rent.  On 
January  31,  she  produced  an  extract  from  the  Register  of  the 
Resolution  of  the  Orphan  chamber,  wherein  it  was  proved,  accord- 
ing to  the  order  of  the  Burgomasters  and  Schepens,  that  Jacques 
Causseau  told  her  that  the  curators  should  have  to  release  her  from 
the  last  year's  rent.  The  court  looked  over  the  extract  and  decreed 
that  she  should  be  released  from  the  last  year's  rent.  —  "If  she  was 
to  have  paid  anything  on  it,  they  ought  to  have  notified  her  there- 
of." It  declared  that  the  attachment  made  on  the  goods  was 


Dorothea  Jans,  from  "Breestede"  (Bredstedt)  came  in  companv 
with  her  brother,  Jan  Jansen  and  Engeltje  Jans,  to  New  Amster- 
dam, in  1636.  She  was  married  to  Volckert  Jansen  from  Fred- 
rickstad,  and  had  several  children.  She  also  had  two  sisters  and 
one  brother  in  New  Amsterdam.  See  the  articles  "Engeltje  Jans," 
"Tryntie  Jans,"  "Jan  Jansen  van  Brestede,"  "Volckert  Jansen." 
(Part  II). 

512  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,    1900,   p.   125. 

513  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,   1653-1674,    V.,    p.   53. 

514  Ibid.,   v.,   pp.    176,    181. 

212  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 

'''eLSJE  JANS. 

Elsje  Jans,  from  "Breestede"  (Bredstedt),  a  daughter  of  Jans 
Jansen  and  Engeltje  Jan  van  Breestede,  came  with  her  parents 
to  New  Netherland  in  1636.  She  was  married,  on  May  17,  1643, 
to  x\driaen  Pietersen  van  Alcmar,  widower  of  Grietje  Pietersen. 

The  Council  minutes  of  that  period  tell  us  how  Adriaen  wooed 
and  won  her  as  his  wife.  It  appears  that  Elsje  was  in  the  service 
of  Cornells  Melyn  of  Staten  Island.  She  left  the  service  before 
her  term  had  expired,  in  order  to  marry  Adriaen.  Melyn  was 
much  displeased  at  this,  and  brought  suit  against  Egbert  W'outer- 
sen,  her  stepfather,  "husband  and  guardian  of  Engel  Jan,  her  i 
mother,"  for  damages  on  account  of  Elsje's  marriage  engagement.     | 

Elsje  appeared  in  court  on  September  11,  1642,  and  testified  j 
that  "her  mother  and  another  woman  had  brought  a  young  man  i 
to  Staten  Island."  She  claimed  she  had  never  seen  him  before,  j 
They  desired  that  she  should  marry  him.  She  declined  at  first,  but  ! 
finally  consented.  "She  concluded  her  testimony  by  returning  in 
court  the  pocket-handkerchief  she  had  received  as  a  marriage 

Five  days  later  she  made  the  declaration  that  she  sent   for 
Adriaen  Pietersen,  and  that  on  his  coming  to  Staten  Island  she    j 
accompanied  him  on  board  his  yawl.  ' 

A  week  later,  Melyn  and  the  Fiscal  had  Pietersen  before  the 
court,  charged  with  Elsje's  abduction.  Pietersen  was  ordered  ta 
bring  her  into  court,  deliver  her  to  Melyn,  and  receive  her  again 
from  him  "on  giving  security  for  the  payment  of  the  damage  Melyn 
may  have  sufifered."^^^ 

After  the  death  of  Adriaen  Pietersen,  Elsje  married  Hen- 
dricksen  Jochemsen,  of  Esopus.  After  his  death  she  married  Cor- 
nells Barentsen  Slecht  (Sleght),  who  w^as  in  New  Amsterdam  in 
1662,  and  at  Wiltwyck  (Esopus)  in  1664.^16 

Elsje  had  three  sisters  and  one  brother  in  New  Netherland. 

See  articles  "Dorothea  Jans,"  "Engeltje  Jans,"  "Tryntie  Jans," 
and  "Jan  Jansen  van  Breestede." 

515  New   York    Genealogical    and   Biographical   Record,   VII.,    p.    117. 

516  The  Records   of  New   Amsterdam,    1G53  1674,    IV.,   p.   170.      T.   F.    Chamber. 
The  Early  Germans  in  New  Jersey,   1895,  p.  497. 

JANS.  213 


Engeltje  Jans,  from  '"Breestede"  (Bredstedt,  in  Schleswig), 
came  with  her  husband,  Jan  Jansen,  to  New  Amsterdam  about 
1636.  By  him  she  had  the  following  children:  1)  Tryntie,  who 
was  married  to  Rutger  Jacobsen  Schoonderworth  or  Van  Woert. 
and  whose  descendants  assumed  the  name  of  Rutgers;  2)  Jan 
Jansen  van  Breestede,  who  in  1647  married  Marritje  Lucas  f  An- 
dries)  ;  3)  Dorothea  Jans  van  Breestede,  who  in  1650  was  married 
to  Volckert  Janszen  from  Frederickstadt,  and  whose  descendants 
comprise  the  Dow  family  of  New  York;  4)  Elsie  Jans  van  Bre- 
stede,  who  was  married  three  times. ^i'''  See  articles  "Dorothea 
Jans,"  "Elsje  Jans,"  "Tryntie  Jans,"    "Jan  Jansen  van  Breestede." 

After  the  death  of  Jan  Jansen,  Engeltje  Jans  was  married, 
on  September  1,  1641,  to  Egbert  Woutersen,  of  Isselsteyn.  He  is 
often  mentioned  in  the  Court  Record  of  New  Amsterdam  1653  — 
1674  as  arbitrating  in  disputes.  He  and  his  wife  were  frequently 
invited  to   stand   sponsors  at  baptisms. 

They  made  their  will  on  June  20,  1652.^^^ 

Woutersen  took  the  lease  of  a  bowery  on  December  1.  1646, 
on  Manhattan ;  and  on  May  10,  1647,  he  obtained  a  patent  for  a 
tract  of  land,  called  in  Indian  Apocalyck,  lying  across  the  North 
Kiver,  west  of  the  Manhattan. 

Woutersen  died  1680,  without  issue. 


Gnetje  Jans  was  from  Dithmarschen,  in  Schleswig-Holstein. 
She  was  a  sister  of  Dirck  Jansen,  Anneke  Jans  (Holstein),  and 
Carsten  Jansen  Eggert,  in  whose  will  she  is  mentioned.  See  article 
Carsten  Jansen  Eggert.  On  October  6,  1652  she  was  married,  in 
New  Amsterdam,  to  Jacob  Pietersen  Van  Leyden.^^^  They  had 
a  son.  Pieter,  who  was  baptized  on  August  31,  1653. 

517  New   York   Genealogical   and  Biographical  Record,    VIII.,   p.    117. 

518  Calendar  of    (N.   Y.)    Wills,    Compiled  by  B.   Fernow,   p.   480. 

Engeltje  Jans  stood  sponsor  several  times.  In  1642,  she  stood  sponsor  at 
the  baptism  of  a  child  of  Hans  Nieholaeszen,  who  was  possibly  a  Dane.  All  the 
sponsors  at  this  baptism  seem  to  have  been   Scandinavians. 

519  The   New  York   Genealogical    and   Biographical   Record,   VI.,    p.    81. 

214  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 


Magdalentje  Jans,  from  Dithmarchsen,  was  married  January 
22,  1650,  in  New  Amsterdam,  to  Jan  Peers.^^o 



Tryntie  Jans  from  "Breestede"  (Bredstedt)  came  to  New 
Netherland  with  her  parents,  Jan  Jansen  and  Engeltje  Jans,  in 
1636.^2^  She  had  two  sisters  and  one  brother  in  New  Netherland. 
See  the  articles  "Dorothea  Jans,"  "Elsje  Jans,"  "Jan  Jansen  van 

On  June  3,  1646,  she  was  married,  in  New  Amsterdam,  to 
Rutger  Jacobsen,  a  resident  of  Rensselaerswyck  (Albany). 

Rutger  Jacobsen  came  from  Schoonderwoert,  a  village  some 
twelve  miles  south  of  Utrecht,  Holland.  He  served  as  a  farm  hand 
on  the  farm  of  Teunisz  from  Breuckelen,  for  the  term  of  six 
years,  beginning  in  April  1637,  at  fl.  100  a  year. 

In  1643  he  was  engaged  as  foreman  on  the  great  Flats  in 
Rensselaerswyck  at  fl.  220  a  year  and  some  clothes. 

From  1648  to  1654  he  is  charged  with  an  annual  rent  of 
fl.  125  for  a  saw  mill  on  the  fifth  creek,  and  for  the  same  period 
he  is  charged,  jointly  with  Barent  Pietersz,  with  an  annual  rent 
of  fl.  550  for  a  saw  mill  and  grist  mill,  also  on  fifth  creek.  From 
about  1648  he  owned  a  sloop  plying  upon  the  Hudson  between 
Rensselaerswyck   and   New   Amsterdam. 

Signature  of  Rutger  Jacobs,   husband  of  Tryntie  Jans. 

On  April  4,  1649,  he  agreed  to  pay  fl.  32  a  year,  for  three 
years,  for  rent  of  his  house-lot  and  the  right  to  fur  trade.  In 
October  1860,  he  and  Goossen  Gerritsz  were  authorized  to  brew 

520  Ibid.,   VI.,   p.   38. 

521  Munsell,    Collections    on    the    History    of    .    .    .    Albany,    IV.,    pp.    89,    158f. 

JANS.  215 

beer,  on  condition  of  paying  a  duty  of  one  guilder  for  every  barrel 
of  beer  and  of  brewing,  free  of  charge,  the  beer  needed  for  the 
households  of  Van  Slichtenhorst  and  de  Hooges.^-2 

Jacobsen  seems  to  have  lived  most  of  the  time  in  Rensselaers- 
wyck,  though  he  and  his  family  occasionally  resided  in  New  Am- 
sterdam, where  he,  in  1649,  bought  a  lot  on  High  Street,  on  which 
he  built  a  house.  In  1656,  at  Fort  Orange,  he  mortgaged  this 
house  and  lot  for  the  amount  of  1528  guilders.^-^  His  wife  gave 
another  mortgage  in  this  house  and  lot  in  1658,  when  she  also 
mortgaged  her  house  and  lot  at  Fort  Orange.  This  was  done  to 
meet  what  the  officer  Cornells  Steenwyck  was  trying  to  collect 
from  the  Jacobsens :  a  sum  of  5,482  guilders. ^^^  Jacobsen  re- 
tained the  house  in  New  Amsterdam  till  the  fall  of  1660,  when 
it  was  sold  at  public  auction  to  one  Johannes  Withart,  his  own  at- 
torney. Jacobsen  contested  the  sale  in  Court,  and  requested  an 
advance  on  the  price,  claiming  that  the  house  and  lot  were  not 
"held  up"  before  they  were  sold.  The  Court  considered  the  com- 
plaint. After  having  several  hearings,  it  decided  that  Jacobsen 
had  no  reason  to  start  suit.  But  as  Jacobsen  started  litigation 
anew,  arbitrators  were  appointed  to  decide  the  matter.^^s 

Tryntie's  husband  was  a  prominent  man  in  Beverwyck.^26 
On  April  23,  1652,  he  secured  a  lot  in  this  town.  He  was  engaged 
in  public  life,  being  a  councilor,  from  1649  to  1651,  in  Rensselaers- 
wyck,  for  which  he  received  fifty  florins  a  year.^27  j^  1656  he 
was  a  magistrate  of  Rensselaerswyck,  and  laid  the  corner-stone 
of  the  new  Dutch  Church,  situated  at  the  intersection  of  the  present 
State  Street  and  Broadway  in  the  city  of  Albany. 

We  know  very  little  about  Tryntie.  Her  daughter  Engel  was 
baptized  April  10,  1650;  and  her  daughter  Margrietje  was  married, 
in  1667,  to  Jan  Jansen  Bleecker,  from  Meppel  in  the  province  of 
Overyssel,  ancestor  of  the  Bleecker  family,  well  known  in  the 
annals  of  New  York.^^s 

Rutger  Jacobsen  died  before  December  9,  1665. 

522  Van    Rensselaer    Powier    Manuscripts,    p.    812. 

523  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,  1900,  p.  161. 

524  Ibid.,    1900,   p.    165. 

525  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,  1653-1674,  III.,  pp.  224,  229,  236,  238, 
254,   261,   297. 

526  E.   B.   O'Callaghan,    History   of   New   Netherland,    II.,    p.    587. 

527  Van   Rensselaer   Bowier   Manuscripts,   p.    812. 

528  J.  H.   Innes,   New  Amsterdam  and   Its  People,  p.    173,   note.  , 

216  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 


Barent  Jansen  (Van  Ditmars)  married,  in  1664,  in  New 
Netherland,  Catalyntie  De  Vos.  She  was  the  widow  of  Arent 
Andriessen  (p.  34),  a  Norwegian,  and  the  daughter  of  Andries  De 
Vos,  deputy  director  of  Rensselaerswyck.  He  was  killed  in  the 
French  and  Indian  massacre  in  1690,  when  the  town  of  Schenec- 
tady, where  he  lived,  was  destroyed  by  Indians. 


Dirck  Jansen  (de  Groot),  from  Dithmarschen,  was  a  cooper  j 
in  New  York.  He  was  brother  of  Carsten  Jansen  Eggert,  Greetje  i 
Jansen  (wife  of  Jacob  Pietersen),  and  Anneke  Jans  (wife  of  Hage  j 

At  the  death  of  his  sister,  Anneke  Jans,  in  1661,  Dirck  was  i 
appointed  guardian  of  her  son  Bruyn  Hage.  In  1668,  Bruyn's  i 
father  died,  whereupon  Dirck  Jansen  and  two  others  requested  the  ; 
court  that  they  might  proceed  to  administer  the  estate  of  Bruynsen.  i 

Under  date  of  September  4,  1674,  the  Records  of  New  Am-  i 
sterdam  state  this :  j 

"Dirck   Jansen,   cooper,   appearing   in   Court   as   guardian  of  ' 
Bruyn  Haagen,  late  servant  of  Hendrick  Bosch ;  exhibits  in  Court  i 
an  award  of  the  arbitrators  appointed,  respecting  the  binding  out  | 
of  said  Bruyn  Haagen,  requesting  that  this  W.  Court  may  be  pleased 
to  approve  it  and  to  order  the  abovenamed  Bosch  to  observe  and 
fulfill  it.     The  W.   Court  having    seen    and    examined  the    said 
award,  together  with  the  indenture  of  said  Bruyn  Haagen  made 
by  the  Notary  Math,  de  Vos,  approve  said  award  of  the  arbitrators,  ! 
and  order  said  Hendrick  Bosch  to  observe  and  fulfill  the  same 
punctually,  and  to  pay  the  costs  herein  incurred.     Costs  together,  j 
fl.   12."t  I 

On  July  22,  1677,  Dirck  Jansen  married  Rachel  Detru   (du 

*   Collections   of   the   New   York   Historical    Societj',    I.,    p.   48. 
f    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    VI.,    p.    147;    YII.,    pp.    120,    130f. 
Hendrick  Bosch  was   a   chimney  sweep. 

JAN  SEN.  217 

Trieux),  widow  of  Hendrick  Van  Bommel.  His  first  wife  was 
Wybrug  Jans.  By  his  second  wife  he  had  a  son,  Jan,  who  was 
baptized  March  27,  1678 ;  a  daughter  Grietie,  who  was  baptized 
February  8,  1679;  again  a  son,  Abraham,  baptized  April  26,  1682. 
His  second  wife  is  sometimes  called  Rachel  Rosella  du  Trieux, 
also  Rachel  Philips.  She  was  a  member  of  the  Dutch  Reformed 
Church  in  New  York,  1686. 

Dirck  and  his  wife  lived  on  Marckvelt  Straat  (Market- 
field  St.). 

Dirck  Jansen  of  Dithmarschen,  must  not  be  taken  for  Dirck 
Jansen  of  Oldenburg,  a  contemporary  in  New  York  who  was 
woodsawyer,  ship  builder,  and  real  estate  dealer.  See  article  "An- 
neke  Jans,"  "Carsten  Jansen  Eggert,"  "Greetje  Jans."  Part  II ; 
"Hage  Bruynsen,"   Part  III. 


Hans  Jansen,  or  Hans  Hansen,  van  Nordstrand,  in  Holstein, 
came  to  New  Netherland  in  1639.  We  do  not  know,  who  was  his 
wife.  He  married  early,  as  he  had  a  child,  Rommetje,  who  was 
baptized  on  December  8,  1641,  in  New  Amsterdam.  The  sponsors 
at  this  baptism  were  Laurens  Pieters,  a  Norwegian,  Janneke  Melyn 
and  Styntie  Jans. 

On  November  29,  1652,  he  married  Janneke  Gerrits  van  Loon 
op't  Sandt. 

He  was  a  farmer  and  owned  Bruyenburg  or  Buyennesburg. 

His  will  is  dated  August  20,  1679.* 


Jan  Jansen,  the  progenitor  of  the  Ditmars  family  in  this 
country,  was  from  Dithmarschen  in  Holstein.  He  was  known 
as  Jan  Jansen  platneus  (flatnose).     He  had  land  in  New  Amster- 

*  Teunis  G.  Bergen,  Register  .  .  of  the  Early  Settlers  of  Kings  County,  .  .  . 
N.  Y.,  p.  349.  Collections  of  the  New  York  Genealogical  and  Biographical  Society, 
I.,  p.  17;  II.,  p.   12. 

218  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 

dam,  in  1643  or  earlier.  ^29  On  March  23,  1647,  he  obtained  a 
patent  for  fifty-eight  acres  of  land.  Sometime  before  1650  he  sold 
this  land  to  Joris  Stevensen.^^*^ 

He  died  before  1650.  His  widow,  Neeltie  Douwes,  married 
January  9,  1650,  Lovis  (Tennis?)  Joriszen,  "Van  der  Veer  in  Zea- 
landt."  ^21  Jan  Jansen  had  two  children :  John  and  Douwe  or 

John  settled  at  Flatbush,  and  married.^^^ 



Jan   Jansen,    from    "Breestede,"    (Bredstedt),    came   over  to  j 

New  Netherland  with  his  parents,  Jan  Jansen  and  Engeltje  Jans,  | 

and  his  three  sisters,  Elsje,  Dorothea  and  Tryntie  Jans,  in  1636.^'^  | 

Jan  Jansen  married,  November  1,  1647,  in  New  Amsterdam,  i 

Marritje  Lucas  (Andries),  by  whom  he  had  six  children,  who  were  ' 
born  and  baptized  in  New  Amsterdam. 

Jannetje  was  baptized  July  19,  1648;  Wouter,  December  25, 

1650;  Johannes,   October  27,   1652;  Engel,   November  29,   1654;  | 

Pieter,  June  15,  1656;  Simon,  February  10,  1658.^34  | 

Jansen  and  his  wife  joined  the  Reformed   Church   in   New 
Amsterdam  before  16^0. 

Jan  Jansen  was  a  cooper.     In  1658  he  was  appointed  marker   | 
of  beer  barrels,  or  ganger.     On  April  25,  1659,  he  appeared  in   \ 
court  "requesting,  as  he  is  gauger,  that  the  magistrates  would  be  | 
pleased  to  fix  a  time,  when  he  shall  stamp  the  barrels  and  what 
he  may   demand   for   stamping,   and  marking  a   small   number  of 
barrels.     Whereupon  Burgomasters  resolved  that  the  marking  of 
barrels  shall  take  place  in  the  month  of  May,  and  for  each  barrel 
under  the  number  of  ten,  marked  at  one  time  to  take  two  stivers,   | 

529  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  XIV.,  p.  49. 

530  Ibid.,   XIV.,   p.    141. 

531  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 
p.    15.      New  York   Colonial   Documents,    XIV.,   p.    142. 

532  J.   Riker,    Annals    of    Newtown,    p.    390. 

533  New   York    Genealogical    and   Biographical   Record,    VI.,    p.    37.     Regarding 
his   parents,    see   article   Engeltje   Jans.      Part   II. 

534  Ibid.,    v.,    pp.    91,    95,    118,    153,    176,    182. 

JANSEN.  219 

and  above  ten  one  stiver  each,  but  to  communicate  it  to  the  whole 
Board  of  Burgomasters  and  Schepens."^^^ 

In  1668  he  was  appointed  inspector  of  pipe  staves  and  the 
packing  of  meat.     The  city  record  says : 

(Jan.  28,  1668).  "Jan  Jansen  van  Breestede  and  Jurian 
Jansen  van  Aweryck  being  sent  for  to  Court,  the  W.  Court  pro- 
poses to  them  the  necessity,  that  some  persons  may  be  appointed 
within  this  City  for  the  inspection  and  counting  of  pipe  staves, 
packing  of  meat  and  pork  and  they  being  asked  to  perform  the 
said  service.  The  same  was  accepted  by  them,  and  they  have  taken 
the  oath  in  this  regard  at  the  hands  of  the  W.  Court."  ^^^ 

On  January  5,  1674,  Jan  Jansen  van  Breestede  and  several 
others  were  appointed  firewardens  and  chimney  inspectors  in  the 
city  of  New  Orange  [new  name  for  New  Amsterdam]  "for  the 
term  of  the  current  year."  ^^" 

We  append  the  report  of  these  men,  and  the  resolution  of  the 
Council  acting  upon  it. 

"Pursuant  to  the  commission  of  the  Worship  Magistrates,  the 
Schout,  Burgomasters  and  Schepens  of  this  city  N.  Orange,  we 
the  undersigned  have,  as  Firewardens,  visited  on  the  12th  January, 
1674,  the  houses  of  all  the  inhabitants  of  this  city  aforesaid,  and 
found  divers  fire  places  very  much  exposed  to  cause  a  conflagra- 
tion, wherefore  we  warned  and  notified  them  to  remedy  and  im- 
prove the  same,  thus  to  prevent  mischief ;  we  have  also  caused 
the  City  Crier  to  publish  and  make  known,  that  if  any  of  the  in- 
habitants of  this  City  had  by  them  any  City  fire  buckets  they  are 
to  deliver  them  up  without  delay  at  the  City  Hall  or  to  hand  them 
to  us  Firewardens :  we  however  have  not  as  yet  been  able  to  col- 
lect more  than  57  Buckets,  three  of  which  are  at  Abel  Harden- 
broecks  to  be  repaired :  we  have  also  found  two  old  fire  hooks 
with  one  old  fire-ladder  at  the  City  Hall,  but  they  are  unfit  for 
use  in  case  of  fire  or  other  misfortune;  we  therefore  request  your 
Worships  to  be  pleased  to  provide  therein,  that  so  many  fire  ladders 
and  fire  hooks  may  be  made  as  your  Honors  shall  think  necessary. 

535  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,  1653-1674,  VII.,  p.  221.  On  Nov.  10, 
1676,  an  Andrew  Brested  Cooper  was  assessed  12s,  6d.  in  the  City  of  New  York; 
Jan  van  Bresteed  Witt  was  assessed   6s,    3d. 

536  Ibid.,    VI.,    p.    113. 

537  Ibid.,  VII.,  p.  35.  New  Orange  was  the  name  given  the  City  of  New 
York  by  the  Dutch  in   1673. 

220  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

"Herewith  we  remain  Your  Worship's  humble  and  faithful 
Subjects  and  obedient  servants 

"(was  signed)  Jan  van  Bresteede 

"Reynier  Willemsen 
"Jonas  Bartelsen. 

"The  annexed  petition  of  the  Firewardens  of  this  city  being 
considered,  read  and  taken  into  serious  deliberation  in  Court,  as 
well  as  their  representation  of  the  necessity  of  making  some  pro- 
vision of  fire  hooks  and  ladders  &c  to  be  used  occasionally  and  in 
time  of  fire  —  It  is  apostilled  — 

"The  petitioners  are  fully  authorized  by  the  W.  Court  to  have 
made  such  supply  of  ladders,  hooks  and  such  like  materials  at  the 
expense  of  the  City  as  they  shall  consider  to  be  necessary  (Feb. 
26,  1674)."  538 

Two  of  Jansen's  sons  followed  the  earlier  calling  of  the 
father:  gauging  barrels. 

Jansen  died,  it  is  supposed,  about  the  year  1675. 

His  descendants  in  later  years  have  been  known  as  Breestede. 


Jan  Jansen,  from  Flensborg,  married  on  April  11,  1680,  in 
New  Amsterdam,  Willemyntie  Huygens  de  Kleyn,  a  daughter  of 
Hugh  Barents  Kleyn  (Clein),  resident  of  New  Amsterdam.-'^^^ 
Willemyntie  was  the  widow  of  Barthemeus  Schaet.^^*'  Jan  Jan- 
sen had  several  children  by  her  .  The  twins,  Maria  and  Catharina, 
who  were  baptized  December  10,  1680;  Maria,  baptized  January 
20,  1682;  Johannes,  February  15,  1684.  After  her  death,  he  mar- 
ried, April  14,  1687,  Margaret  Martens  (from  Boston,  1678), 
widow  of  Claes  Roelofsen.  By  her  he  had  a  daughter,  Catharina, 
who  was  baptized  July  24,  1689.5^1  He  joined  the  Dutch  Reformed 
Church  in  New  Amsterdam  on  December  4,  1679.  It  would  seem 
that  he  was  a  baker.* 

538  Ibid.,   VII.,   p.   66f. 

539  Ibid.,   VII.,   p.   2. 

540  New   York   Genealogical   and   Biographical   Record,    VII.,    p.   33. 

541  Ibid.,    VIII.,    p.    38. 

•    Minutes    of    the    Common    Council    of    the    City    of    New    York,     1675-1776, 
I.,   p.    176. 

JANSEN.  221 


Jeurian  Jansen  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  in  1662.  He 
came  on  the  ship  "de  Vos,"  which  sailed  August  31,  1662.  In  the 
list  of  passengers,  it  is  stated  that  Jansen  was  from  Holstein.^^2 
He  must  not  be  taken  for  Jeurian  Jansen  from  East  Friesland,  a 
cooper  who  married,  June  1,  1658,  in  New  Amsterdam.  If  Jansen 
from  Holstein  was  a  soldier,  it  is  probable  that  he  was  the  Jansen 
who  died  on  September  25,  1663,  by  falling  out  of  a  canoe  and 


Laurens  Jansen,  from  Denmark,  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as 
early  as  in  March,  1647,  when  he  secured  a  lot  which  he  conveyed 
to  Pieter  Jacobsen  Marius,  ten  years  later,  October  4,  1657.  It 
was  in  Pearl  Street,  between  the  lot  of  Paulus  Schrick  (A  German 
from  Nlirnberg),  on  the  east,  and  the  house  of  Thomas  Lamb  on 
the  west;  or  —  as  we  would  say:  the  lot  was  on  the  south  side 
of  Pearl  Street,  between  State  Street  and  Whitehall  Street.-^^^ 

Laurens  married  Lysbeth  Hendricks.  But  he  was  dead  be- 
fore July  19,  1659,  when  she  married  Jan  Gervan  .  .  .  ,  a  soldier. 
In  the  marriage  record  she  is  called  the  "widow  of  Laurens  Jansen 
of  Denmark." 

Laurens  Jansen  of  Denmark  must  not  be  confounded  with  the 
Laurens  Jansen  who  is  frequently  mentioned  in  the  "Records  of 
New  Amsterdam,"  as  inhabitant  of  Gravesend. 


Volckert  Jansen,  sometimes  referred  to  as  Volckert  Hans,  or 
Volckert  Jans  Douw,  was  in  New  Netherland  as  early  as   1638. 

542  Year  Book   of  the  Holland   Society  of  New  York,    1900. 

543  New   York    Colonial   Documents,    XII.,   p.    342. 

544  D.   T.  Valentine,   Manual   of   .    .   the   City   of   New  York,    1861,    p.    593. 

222  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 

In  the  marriage  record  of  the  Dutch  church  in  New  York,  it  is  said 
that  he  was  from  "Frederickstadt."  Whether  this  means  Fredrik- 
stad  in  Norway  or  Friedrichstadt  in  Schleswig-Holstein,  founded 
in  1621  for  Dutch  Arminians,  is  difficult  to  decide. ^^^ 

One  writer  claims  that  Volckert  descended  from  Jan  Douw 
of  Leuwarden,  a  province  of  Friesland  in  Holland;  that  he  was 
a  captain  in  the  Dutch  army  when  driven  from  his  home  by  the 
persecution  waged  against  the  Mennonites ;  that  he  fled  to  Fried- 
crichstadt,  taking  his  family  along.  The  same  writer  says  that 
Volckert  Jansen  married  Dorothea  Jans  van  Breestede  while  in 

This  claim  is  in  part  contradicted  by  the  sources.  For  Volck- 
ert Jansen  married  Dorothea  Jans  van  Breestede  on  April  19, 
1650,  in  New  Amsterdam,  not  in  Holland.  In  1673  he  appears 
as  a  Lutheran :  in  that  year  he  and  some  others  signed,  in  Albany, 
a  petition  requesting  that  their  "congregation  of  the  Augsburg 
Confession  at  Willemstadt  (Albany)"  be  given  "free  exercise  of 
their  religious  worship,  without  let  or  hindrance,  to  the  end  that 
they  may  live  in  peace  with  their  fellow  burghers."  ^^'^ 

If  he  was  from  Holland,  he  may  have  been  a  Mennonite. 
The  change  in  confession  might  then  have  been  due  to  his  wife, 
who  likely  was  a  Lutheran.  But  if  he  was  not  from  Holland,  he 
must  have  been  a  Dane  or  a  Norwegian,  judging  from  the  entry 
in  the  church  record.  Fredrikstad,  founded,  1570,  in  Norway, 
was  better  known  than  the  younger  Danish  city,  the  present 
Friedrichstadt,  founded  a  half  century  later.  Naturally  the 
person  who  wrote  "Frederickstadt"  in  the  church  record  would 
not  add  a  geographical  explanation  to  it  if  he  had  the  Norwegian 
town  in  mind.  He  probably  would  have  done  so  if  he  thought 
of  the  twenty-nine  years  old  Danish  town.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  latter  was  well  known  among  the  Dutch. 

Volckert  Jansen  is  mentioned  in  Albany  under  date  of  April 
27,  1642.  In  1647  he  was  employed  at  the  Vlackte.  From  1647 
to  1649  he  and  John  Thomas  (Witbeck)  are  jointly  charged  32 
florins  a  year  for  ground  rent  and  the  right  to  trade.     From  1649 

545  New  York  Genealogical   and   Biographical   Record,    III.,   p.    82.      Ibid.,   VI., 
p.    39. 

546  Cuyler    Reynold,     Hudson    Mohawk    Genealogical    Family      Memoirs.      N^ew 
York,   1910,  p.  384f. 

547  Ecclesiastical  Records  of  the  State  of  New  York,  I.,  p.  636. 

JANSEN.  223 

to   1652  Jansen   is   charged   with   32   florins   a  year   for   his  place 
"on  the  hill,"  on  which  he  built  a  house.^'*^ 

In  1650  he  accompanied  Arent  van  Curler,  manager  of  the 
colony  of  Rensselaerswyck,  on  an  embassy  to  the  Maquas.  In 
1654  he  was  sponsor  for  Engel,  his  niece,  a  daughter  of  Jan  Jansen 
van  Bresteede. 

Volckert  Jansen  was  a  trader,  brewer,  and  dealer  in  real 

On  April  23,  1652,  he  acquired  a  lot  in  Beverwyck.^^^ 
From  May  1,  1653,  to  May  1,  1658,  he,  Pieter  Hartgers  and 
Jan  Thomas  are  jointly  charged  with  an  annual  rent  of  fl.  560 
for  a  farm  on  Papscanee  Island,  formerly  occupied  by  Jurian 
Bestval.  Volckert  Jansen  and  Jan  Thomas  bought  this  farm  in 
1658  for  950  beavers  or  7,600  florins.  On  March  31,  1659,  Volck- 
ert Jansen  secured  a  plantation  at  Fort  Orange  ^^^  and  later  one 
of  33  morgens  at  Esopus.^^^ 

In  company  with  Jan  Thomas  he  conducted  a  brewery.  This 
brewery  situated  on  the  east  half  of  the  Exchange  block  (in  Al- 
bany) and  extending  to  the  river  was  sold  in  1675  to  Harmen 
Rutgers,  son  of  Rutger  Jacobsen,  who  was  Volckert's  brother- 

In  1663  Volckert  and  his  partner  bought,  of  the  Indians, 
Schotack  and  Apjens  Island  and  the  main  land  lying  east  of  it.^^^ 
On  January  24,  1664,  the  Council  of  Rensselaerswyck  passed  a 
resolution  annulling  the  purchase  of  land  from  the  Indians,  at 
Schodac,"  without  the  consent  of  the  colony.  When  notice  of  this 
resolution  was  served  on  Volckert  and  his  partner,  they  produced 
a  patent  from  Director  Stuyvesant,  dated  November  3,  1663. 

Volckert  Jansen  also  owned  Constaples  Island,  lying  opposite 
Bethlehem,  half  of  which  he  sold,  in  1677,  to  Pieter  Winne. 

In  1672  he  owned  Schutter's  Island,  below  Barent  Island, 
which  he   sold  to  Barent   Pietersen   Coeyman. 

548  Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manuscripts. 

549  E.    B.   O'Callaghan,   History   of   New   Netherland,    II.,    p.    587. 

550  Ibid.,   II.,   p.   591. 

551  Ibid.,    II.,    p.    592. 

552  New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Record,    III.,    p.    82f. 



Volckert  Jansen  died  in  1686,  his  wife  Dorothea  in  1701.  The 
descendants  comprise  the  Dow  family  in  New  York.^^^ 

There  were  eleven  children  born  to  Volckert  and  Dorothea, 
four  boys  and  seven  girls:  Jonas,  Andries,  Volckert je,  Dorothe, 
Catrina,  Engeltje,  Hendrick,  Elsje,  Rebecca,  Volckert,  Grietje.-'^^'' 

Jonas  married  first  Magdalena,  daughter  of  Pieter  Quacken- 
bos,  on  November  14,  1683,  and  secondly,  Catrina,  daughter  of 
Jan  Thomas  Witbeck  (the  partner  of  his  father)  and  widow  of 
Jacob  Sanders  Glen  on  April  24,  1691.  He  had  four  children. 
He  died  1736. 

^)U  Bloqmrunfir^jitpi  mS)^U^^,''f6  to^aruC^)cmSl Sr,^  ^^ifli  vorgengca, . un  JuUcjfzs 






f  s 


Andries  was,  in  1684,  master  of  the  open  boat  "John,"  plying 
between  Albany  and  New  York.  He  married  three  times  and  had 
five   children. 

Hendrick  married  Neeltje,  daughter  of  Meyndert  Fredricksen 
from  Jeveren,  October  3,  1697.     He  died  1754,  leaving  six  children. 

Volckert  married  Margaret,  daughter  of  Abraham  van  Fricht. 
November  16,  1701.     He  died  1753,  leaving  five  children.^^s 

553  Munsell,   Annals   of 

554  See   reference    546. 

555  See  reference   552. 

.    .   Albany,   IV.,   p.    118. 



Pieter  Jansen  was  from  Gliickstad  (now  a  part  of  Germany), 
Denmark.  All  that  we  know  about  this  person  is  contained  in  a 
notice  in  the  Court  Record  of  New  Amsterdam.  It  appears  that 
he  died  about  1663.  On  November  29,  1663,  Jan  van  Gelder  and 
Claas  Gangelofzen  Visser  (or  Claas  Jansen  Visser)  were  ap- 
pointed curators  of  Jansen's  estate.  As  Visser  went  to  Curacao, 
Gelder  requested,  on  November  2,  1664,  that  another  might  be  ap- 
pointed in  his  stead.  The  court  then  appointed  Pieter  Wolferzen 
van  Couwenhouven  as  curator.^^^ 


Jacob  Jansz,  from  Nordstrand,  Schleswig,  was  in  the  colony 
of  Rensselaerswyck  as  early  as  1642,  when  supplies  furnished  to 
him  are  charged  to  Cornelis  Hendricks  Nes.  He  took  the  oath  of 
fealty,  November  28,  1651.  (Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manuscripts 
p.  830.) 


Thomas  Jansen  was  in  New  York  in  1677.  In  the  marriage 
records  it  is  stated  that  he  was  from  Denmark,  and  married,  on 
June  11,  1677,  in  Brooklyn,  Jannetje  Brouwers.  He  must  not  be 
taken  for  his  namesake,  also  called  Thomas  Franszen,  mentioned 
in  Teunes  G.  Bergen's  "Register  of  the  early  Settlers  of  King's 
County,"  p.  117,  and  in  "Dr.  Valentine's  Manual  of  .  .  .  the  City 
of  New  York."  1865,  pp.  664,  684. 


Teuntje  Jeurians  (Sofia,  Antonia),  w^ho  came  to  New  Nether- 
land  in  1689  or  before,  was  the  wife  of  the  Dane,  Jonas  Bronck, 

556  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,   V.,  p.   151. 

226  DANISH  IMMlcrSANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

who  died  in  1643.  Bronck  married  her  in  Europe,  perhaps  in  Den- 
mark. She  was  probably  Danish,  as  Marritje  Pieters  of  Copenhagen 
mentions  Teuntje  in  her  marriage  contract,  as  an  heir.  The  fact 
that  she  mentions  Teuntje  first  and  Bronck  second,  would  indicate 
that  the  relationship  existed  between  the  women. 

She  had  at  least  one  son  by  Bronck,  Pieter  Bronck.  Could 
Jems  Bronck,  who  died  in  1653,  and  whom  we  have  mentioned  in 
the  article  "Jo"^s  Bronck,"  have  been  her  other  son? 

After  the  death  of  Bronck,  she  married  Arent  Van  Curler, 
sheriff  in  Rensselaerswyck.  In  a  letter,  addressed  to  Kiliaen  van 
Rensselaer  and  dated  at  the  Manhattans,  June  16,  1643,  Van  Curler 
writes :  'T  am  at  present  betrothed  to  the  widow  of  the  late  M. 
Jonas  Bronck.  May  the  good  God  vouchsafe  to  bless  me  in  my 
undertaking,  and  please  grant  that  it  might  conduce  to  His  honor, 
to   our  mutual   salvation." 

Anthonia  Jeurians  is  also  called  Anthonia  Slachboom,  or 
Slaghboom.  "Slag"  and  "bom"  appear  as  first  syllables  in  Danish 
proper  names.  "Slagbom"  is  Danish-Norwegian  =  turnpike,  bar- 
ricade, bar.  In  German  the  equivalent  is  "Schlagbaum,"  in  Dutch 
"Slagboom."  From  the  name  alone  we  can  form  no  conclusion  as 
to  the  nationality  of  Anthonia,  or  Teuntje. 

She  was  an  aunt  of  Catalina  De  Boog,  who  married  Wilhel- 
mus  Beekman  in  New  Amsterdam,  in  1649.  Catalina  De  Boog 
was  a  daughter  of  Hendrick  de  Boog,  of  Albany,  the  surname 
of  whose  wife  was  Slagboom.  Anthonia  stood  sponsor,  June  26, 
1650,  at  the  baptism  of  Maria,  daughter  of  Beekman  and  Catalina 
de  Boogh,  whose  name  also  occurs  as  De  Bough  and  De  Hoogh. 
Hendrick  de  Boog  or  Hendricks  De  Hoogh  was  captain  of  a  Hud- 
son trading-vessel. 

Teuntje  married  Van  Curler,  probably  in  1643  (1646,  accord- 
ing to  Appleton's  Cyclopedia  of  American  Biography).  He  was 
a  gifted  person,  and  only  eighteen  years  when  he  sailed  from  Hol- 
land to  New  Netherland,  at  the  end  of  December,  1637.  He  was 
a  cousin  of  Kiliaen  van  Rensselaer,  became  secretary  and  book- 
keeper of  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck.  In  1644  he  sailed  for 
Holland,  but  returned  to  New  Netherland,  probably  in  1647.  He 
was  now  appointed  a  Gecommitteerde.  For  a  while  he  was  trustee 
of  voluntary  contributions  for  the  erection  of  a  school.     He  early 


mastered  the  tongue  of  the  Iroquois  Indians, 
chosen  to  go  on  an  embassy  to  the  Maquas. 


In   1650  he  was 

Van  Curler  and  his  wife,  after  returning  from  Netherlands, 
lived  on  their  farm  near  West  Troy,  N.  Y.  Here  he  worked  for 
peace  with  the  Indians  and  for  checking  the  sale  of  "fire  water." 
He  may  be  considered  as  the  "real  founder  of  that  Dutch  policy 
of  peace  with  the  Indians  that  was  afterward  followed  by  the 
English,  which  by  making  an  invincible  obstacle  to  French  ambi- 
tion, aided  so  powerfully  to  secure  this  continent  to  Germanic  in- 
stead of  Latin  civilization." 

In  1661,  being  tired  of  the  semi-feudal  ideas  of  the  patroon 
system,  he  became  one  of  the  leaders  of  a  company  of  free  settlers 
from  Holland  to  Schenectady,  where  he  founded  an  agricultural 
settlement,  in  which  all  purchasers  could  hold  land  in  fee  simple. 

In  1667,  while  on  a  visit  to  Canada,  he  was  drowned  in  Lake 

Signature   of  Arent  van   Curler,    second   husband  of   Teuntje   Jeurians. 

He  left  about  2000  letters  and  papers,  which  are  preserved 
chiefly  in  Albany,  New  York. 

His  uncle,  Kiliaen  van  Rensselaer,  sent  him  many  a  word  of 
admonition  and  censure,  and  asked  him  to  follow  the  advice  of 
older  people.  In  1643  he  wanted  to  know  to  what  extent  Van 
Curler  was  intemperate,  as  he  had  heard  rumors  about  his  drinking 
and  participating  in  attendant  evils.  In  the  same  year  he  was  dis- 
pleased at  his  having  contributed  to  the  erection  of  a  church : 

"I  also  hear  that  he  [Arent]  has  contributed  some  muddles 
of  wheat  toward  the  erection  of  the  church  at  the   Manhatans. 

228  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 

What  orders  has  he  to  give  away  my  goods  in  this  fashion?  I 
could  use  them  very  well  for  the  erection  of  my  own  church.  I 
hope  that  it  is  not  true.  These  young  people,  like  Arent  and  Van  der 
Donck  do  not  think  at  all  of  my  interests,  each  one  thinks  of  his 
own  advancement  ..."  [1643]. 

Teuntje  survived  also  her  second  husband.  She  died  in 
Schenectady,  Dec.  19,  1676.  Three  years  before  this,  she  had 
petitioned  as  "widow  of  Arent  van  Curler  for  leave  to  trade  with 
the  Indians  at  Schenectady."  * 

We  give  below  a  fac-simile  of  a  part  of  Kiliaen  van  Rens- 
selaer's letter,  Dec.  29,  1637,  to  Peter  Minuit,  Director  of  New 
Netherland.  It  begins  "The  bearer  of  this  letter,  my  cousin  Arent 
van  Corler,  sailing  to  my  colony  as  assistant,  is  recommended  to 
you  to  accomodate  him  as  much  as  your  honor's  situation  will 
allow.  I  should  also  be  much  pleased,  inasmuch  as  he  is  still 
young  and  inexperienced,  if  you  had  a  little  instruction  given  to 
him  in  the  process  of  ship's  bookkeeping  as  well  as  in  the  keeping 
of  land  accounts,  as  his  master  Jacob  Planck,  with  whom  he  will 
be,  is  not  too  expert  in  these  matters  himself."  The  conclusion, 
of  which  the  fac-simile  is  given,  reads,  as  translated  in  "Bowier 
Manuscripts" : 

"With  him  go  the  following  young  men  engaged  for  my  colony 
to  wit : 

"Arent  van  Corler,  assistant,  18  years  old. 
"Elbert  albertsen,  18  years  old 
"Claes  Jans  en,  17  years  old 
"Gerrit  hend,  15  years  old 
"Gijsb  Arentsen,  22  years  old 

"Loaded  also 

one  barrel 

of  pitch,  well  hooped 


2  barrels  of  tar,  together 

f  5 
"On   Saturday,  with   the  goods  went : 
Jacob  Arentsen,  25  years  old 

Calendar  of   Council   Minutes,    1668-1783,   p.    18. 

230  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

"Together  six  persons,  who  are  recommended  to  your  honor 
and  whom,  with  my  goods,  you  will  please  cause  to  reach  the 
manatans  at  the  earliest  opportunity  that  circumstances  will  allow. 
From  there  I  hope  they  will  get  further.  I  wish  your  honor  good 
luck  on  the  voyage." 


Marritje  Jeurians  was  from  Copenhagen,  Denmark.  She  was 
married  on  June  2,  1657,  in  New  Amsterdam,  to  Pieter  Janszen 
Romeyn  (Van  de  Lange  straet),  a  widower.  Jansen's  first  wife 
was  Dirckie  Jansz  Van  Meffelen,  daughter  of  Jan  Ruthers.  By 
her,  Jansen  had  a  son  who  was  born  about  1651,  and  who  at  his 
father's  second  marriage  received  Jan  Ruthers  and  Jan  de  Jongh 
as  guardians.^^''' 

By  Marritje,  Jansen  had  several  children:  Jeurian,  who  was 
baptized  November  15,  1662;  Dirck,  baptized  July  25,  1666; 
Belitje,  baptized  July  25,  1666 ;  twins  who  were  baptized  on  Octo- 
ber 26,  1668. 

Jansen  was  a  tavern  keeper.  His  partner  was  a  Dane,  Seve- 
ryn  Laurenszen,  from  Roskilde.  (See  article  "Severyn  Lauren- 
szen,"  Part  II.) 

Marritje  and  the  Rev.  Jacob  Fabritius,  who  in  1669  was  sent 
by  the  Lutheran  consistory  of  Amsterdam  to  New  Amsterdam  and 
who  managed  to  get  into  various  kinds  of  trouble  in  New  Amster- 
dam, being  frequently  in  court,  had  a  dispute  in  which  the  pastor 
was  worsted.  The  Fiscal  charged  him  with  having  "used  force  and 
violence  against  Marritje  Jeurians  in  her  own  house."  He  de- 
manded a  fine  of  five  beavers  with  payment  of  costs.  Fabritius 
admitted  the  charge,  but  said  that  Marritje  "did  provoke  him  with 
harsh  language."  After  the  court  had  heard  the  witnesses,  it  fined 
Fabritius  "two  Beavers  with  costs."  ^^^ 

557  Year  Book  of  the  Holland   Society  of   New  York,    1900,   p.    113. 

558  New  York  Colonial  Documents,   II.,  pp.   692,    693. 

KOCK.  231 


Peter  Klaesen  [Claessen]  arrived,  with  his  wife  and  his  two  chil- 
dren, —  the  one  ^  years  old,  the  other  six  —  at  New  Amsterdam 
in  the  year  1658.  He  was  from  Holstein,  and  a  farmer  by  occupa- 
tion. He  came  over  in  the  ship  "de  Vergulde  Bever,"  which  sailed 
May  17,  1658.^59 

On  December  7,  1664,  Pieter  Claessen  van  Dietmarssen  was 
by  Governor  Richard  Nicoll  granted  a  request,  he  had  made,  to 
pass  on  the  ship  "Unity"  to  any  port  or  harbor  in  Holland.  It  is 
probable  that  this  is  the  Klaesen  who  came  over  in  1658.  His 
wife  and  children  may  have  died  in  the  mean  time.^^*^ 


Mrs.  Peter  Klaesen  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  in  1658,  ac- 
companied by  her  husband  and  two  children.  Klaesen  and  his 
wife  were  from  Holstein,  and  probably  were  Danes. 


Pieter  Laurenszen  Kock  was  from  "Alberrch,"  Denmark.  Al- 
berrch  is  not  to  be  identified  with  Albjerg,  but  with  Aalborg, 
which  on  the  map  of  Denmark  in  Theatri  Europai,  Part  V, 
(Anno  M.  DC.  XLCII)  is  spelled  Alborch.  He  was  in  New 
Netherland  as  early  as  1643,  or  perhaps  before.  In  1643  he  com- 
manded, as  sergeant,  an  expedition  against  the  Indians.  He  and 
one  Baxter  then  had  sixty-five  men,  who  marched  to  Wetquescheck, 
which  consisted  of  three  Indian  "castles."  These  castles  "were 
empty,  though  thirty  Indians  could  have  stood  against  200  soldiers, 
in  as  much  as  the  castles  were  constructed  of  plank  five  inches 
thick,  nine  feet  high,  and  braced  around  with  thick  plank  studded 

559  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society   of  New  York,    1902. 

560  New  York   State  Library  Bulletin   on  History,   No.   2,    1899. 

232  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

with  port  holes."  Kock's  party  burned  two  of  the  "castles",  re- 
serving the  third  for  a  retreat.  "Marching  eight  or  nine  leagues 
further,  they  discovered  nothing  but  a  few  huts,  which  they  could 
not  surprise,  as  they  [themselves]  were  discovered  [by  the  enemy]. 
They  returned,  having  "killed  only  one  or  two  Indians,  taken  some 
women  and  children  and  burnt  some  corn."  ^^^ 

In  the  same  year  Kock  and  Roelof  Jansen  Haes,  a  Norwegian, 
made  a  report  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Colony  that  "the  colony  be- 
hind the  Col"  had  been  destroyed  by  the  Indians : 

"Before  me  Cornells  van  Tienhoven,  Secretary  of  New-Nether- 
land  appeared  Pieter  Cock,  30  years  old  and  Roeloff  Jansen,  20 
years  old,  well  known  to  me,  the  Secretary,  who  at  the  request  of 
Cornells  Jansen  Coelen,  declare  and  testify,  promising  to  con- 
firm their  attestation  by  solemn  oath,  if  so  required,  that  after 
the  Colony  behind  the  Col  had  been  burnt  by  the  savages,  it  was 
impossible  to  go  there  by  land  or  by  water  to  examine  the  place 
and  its  condition,  because  of  the  great  number  of  savages  who 
burn  and  slay  whatever  they  can  lay  hold  of  in  the  woods,  on  the 
Kill  or  elsewhere.  This  the  deponents  declare  to  be  correct  and 
true,  etc. 

"Done  the  3d  of  November  1643  at  Fort  Amsterdam. 


Signature  of  Pieter  Laurenszen  Kock. 

"Roeloff  Jansen  Haes."5«2 

On  March  28,  1647,  Kock  bought  a  lot  on  Manhattan  Island, 
opposite  H.  Kip.^6^ 

In  1653  he  was  considered  to  be  one  of  the  "principal 
burghers  and  inhabitants"  of  New  Amsterdam,  and  was  as  such 
consulted  in  regard  to  measures  intended  by  the  city  government 
to  increase  the  treasury. ^^^ 

In  February,  1653,  if  not  before,  Kock  brought  action  before 
the  court  against  Annetie  Cornelissen    Van    Vorst,    whose    step- 

561  New  York   Colonial  Documents,   I.,   p.   186f. 

562  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    16. 

563  Year   Book   of  the  Holland   Society,    1901,   p.    130. 

564  Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    I.,   p.    126. 

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KOCK.  233 

father  was  Jacob  Stoffelzen.  They  had  been  engaged  and  she  had 
broken  the  engagement.  This  brought  on  the  suit.  We  shall  not 
give  the  history  of  it,  but  content  ourselves  to  state  the  findings  of 
the  court,  given  on  May  18,  1654. 

"The  Commissioners  to  examine  the  papers  in  the  suit  be- 
tween Pieter  Kock  and  Anna  van  Vorst  made  their  report  to  the 
Board  and  their  opinion,  which  is  the  following  judgment,  and  the 
same  being  examined.  Burgomasters  and  Schepens  decide,  that  said 
judgment  shall  for  reasons  not  yet  be  pronounced  but  remain  in 
abeyance  until   future  occasion  and  request  of  parties. 

"A  suit  has  been  instituted  before  the  Court  of  the  City  of 
New  Amsterdam  by  Pieter  Kock,  bachelor,  a  burgher  and  in- 
habitant of  said  City,  pltf.  against  Anna  van  Vorst,  spinster,  liv- 
ing at  Ahasimus  [in  New  Jersey]  deft.,  respecting  a  marriage  con- 
tract, or  an  oral  promise  of  marriage,  mutually  entered  into  be- 
tween said  Pieter  Kock  and  Anna  van  Vorst,  and  in  confirmation 
thereof,  certain  gifts  and  presents  were  made  by  the  pltf.  to  the 
aforesaid  deft. ;  however,  it  appears  by  the  documents  exhibited 
by  parties,  that  the  deft,  the  fiancee  of  pltf.,  in  consequence  of 
certain  misbehavior,  is  in  no  wise  disposed  to  marry  said  Pieter 
Kock,  and  also  proves  by  two  witnesses  (see  affidavit  dated  the 
24  December  1653)  that  Pieter  Cock  had  released  her,  with  promise 
to  give  her  a  written  acquittal  to  that  efl^ect,  therefore  Burgo- 
masters and  Schepens  of  this  City  having  attentively  perused  and 
examined  all  the  documents  by  parties,  adjudge,  as  they  do  hereby, 
that  the  promise  of  marriage  having  been  made  and  given  before 
the  Eyes  of  God,  shall  remain  in  force,  so  that  neither  pltf.  nor 
deft,  shall  be  at  liberty  without  the  knowledge  and  approbation  of 
the  Worsh.  Magistrates  and  the  other  one  of  the  interested  parties 
to  enter  into  matrimony  with  any  person,  whether  single  man  or 
single  woman.  Also  that  all  the  presents  made  in  confirmation 
of  marriage  shall  remain  in  possesion  of  deft,  until  parties  with 
the  pleasure,  good  will,  contentment  and  inclination  of  both  shall 
marry  together,  or  with  the  knowledge  of  the  Magistracy  shall 
release  and  set  each  other  free.  Furthermore,  both  pltf.  and  deft, 
are  condemned  equally  in  this  cost  of  the  suit.  Thus  done  and 
adjudged  in  the  Court  aforesaid  this  18th  of  May,  1654."565 

565  Ibid.,   I.,   p.    199f. 

234  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

Pieter  Laurensen  Kock  married  another,  however,  June  13, 
1657.  This  was  Marries  Anneken  Dircks.  A  child  was  born  to 
them  and  baptized  "Gallas"  on  September  21,  1659.  Not  long 
afterward  Kock  died,  for  on  November  26,  1660,  Marries  re- 
quested as  "the  widow  of  Pieter  Kock"  that  Daniel  Litschoe  and 
Jacob  Hendricks  Varrevanger  should  be  appointed  guardians  of 
her  child. ^^6 

Meantime  Kock's  name  had  appeared  quite  often  in  the  court 
minutes  of   New  Amsterdam. 

On  December  1,  1653,  Kock  petitioned  the  Court  that  he  might 
be  indemnified  for  theft  committed  at  his  house  by  Jan  Gerritsen, 
a  smith.     The  Court  directed  him  to  apply  to  the  officer^^'^ 

On  January  18,  1655,  Cornelis  Jacobsen  Steenwyck  instituted 
action  against  Kock,  demanding  repayment  of  fl.  200  in  wampum, 
which  he  had  loaned  him.  Kock  acknowledged  the  receipt  and 
debt,  but  "requested  that  the  money  be  paid  to  him  which  had  been 
realized  from  the  sale  of  the  property  of  John  the  Smith,  who 
absconded  for  robbery  committed  in  his  house,  in  consequence  o'f 
which  he  had  been  obliged  to  contract  this  debt,  in  order  to  restore 
the  Wampum  to  the  Deaconry ;  in  order  therewith  to  meet  this 
obligation."  The  Court  decided  that  Kock  should  pay  Steenwyck. 
But  it  also  decreed  the  following: 

"Whereas  Jan  Gerritsen,  Smith,  being  accused  of  stealing 
about  5  to  600  guilders  in  wampum  from  the  house  of  Pieter  Kock, 
Burger  and  inhabitant  of  this  city,  has  absconded,  and  to  this  date 
has  not  returned  to  answer;  therefore  the  Burgomasters  and 
Schepens  of  this  City,  have,  at  the  request  of  the  aforesaid  Pieter 
Kock,  and  for  the  restoration  of  the  stolen  wampum,  consented, 
that,  he  shall  appropriate  the  monies,  accrued  from  the  old  iron 
work  sold  to  Burger  Jorissen,  according  to  obligation  of  fl.  111.7^. 
together  with  6  beavers  sequestered  by  the  Secretary  and  should 
he  know  of  anything  else  belonging  to  the  aforesaid  Jan  Gerritsen, 
he  shall  report  the  same,  so  as  to  obtain  something  back  towards 
his  loss.  Therefore  Secretary  Kip  is  ordered  to  hand  over  to  him 
the  aforesaid  obligation  with  assignment,  in  the  name  of  the  Burgo- 
masters and  Schepens,  together  with  the  sequestered  Beavers. "^^® 

Under   date   of   April    19,   1655,   the  court   minutes   state   in 

566  New    York     Genealogical     and     Biographical     Record,     VI.,      p.      85.     Year 
Book  of  the  Holland   Society  of  New  York,    1900,   p.   120. 

567  The   Records   of   New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    I.,    p.    134. 

568  Ibid.,   I.,   p.  277. 

KOCK.  235 

regard  to  this  matter:  "On  the  obhgation,  order  and  insinuation 
against  Borger  Jorissen,  relative  to  the  payment  of  fl.  111.71/^. 
for  purchased  ironwork  from  the  shop  of  Jan  the  Smith,  according 
to  a  note  drawn  in  favor  of  Peter  Kock,  is  endorsed  —  Whereas 
aforesaid  obligation  concerns  only  Peter  Kock,  and  ironwork  was 
sold  for  his  behoof,  Borger  Jorissen  is  again  condemned  to  pay 
the  same,  on  pain  of  execution,  whereunto  the  Constable  is  author- 

Kock's  next  case  of  litigation,  in  December,  1656,  was  started 
in  consequence  of  one  of  his  sheep  having  been  bit  and  killed  by 
a  dog.  He  brought  suit  against  the  owners,  who  after  much  argue- 
ing,  were  condemned  to  pay  him  for  the  loss  of  the  sheep,  each 
(Pieter  van  Couwenhoven  and  Jan  Gillesen  Verbrugge)  "one  half 
of  three  merchantable  beavers,  besides  the  costs  incurred  here- 

In  September,  1659,  he  was  ordered  by  the  court  to  produce 
by  next  court  day  his  papers,  made  use  of  in  a  suit  between  him 
and  Solomon  La  Chair,  Farmer  of  the  Burger  Excise  of  beer  and 
wine.  La  Chair  accused  him  of  smuggling:  Kock  had  eleven  ankers 
of  liquor,  he  disposed  of  one,  consumed  one  himself,  presented 
three  ankers  for  tapper's  and  Burgher's  excise.  The  remaining  six 
ankers  were  seized  by  the  Fiscal.  The  court  dismissed  La  Chair's 
suit,  but  both  he  and  Kock  were  condemned  to  pay  the  costs. 
Notwithstanding  as  Kock  had  been  intended  to  tap,  and  had  not 
taken  out  any  license,  as  the  Law  required,  he  was  fined  twelve 
guilders  in  another  suit  instituted  against  him  by  the  Schout.  He 
was  also  condemned  to  pay  the  costs  of  this  suit,  January  20, 

Aside  from  what  the  court  records  tell  us,  we  know  but  little 
of  Kock's  doings.  In  July,  1659,  he  and  a  Willem  Pietersen  were 
examined   "regarding  expressions   by   Jacop    Coppe   concerning   a 


The  court  minutes  relate  several  matters  concerning  his 
widow,  who  continued  keeping  the  tavern  which  Kock  had  built  on 

569  Ibid.,   I.,    p.   308,    cfr.   p.    324. 

570  Ibid.,   II.,   pp.   248,    257,    270. 

571  Ibid.,    III.,    p.    105. 

236  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

the  opposite  side  of  the  Marckveldt  in  New  Amsterdam,  near  the 
place  where  the  country  people  landed  their  country  boats.  We 
shall  mention  a  few  of  the  lawsuits  in  which  she  was  the  defendant. 
A  suit  instituted  against  her  on  May  24,  1661,  by  Robert  Rol- 
lantsen  and  Abraham  Janzen,  carpenters,  shows  the  patriarchal 
character  of  the  Court  of  New  Amsterdam.  They  claimed  that 
they  had  contracted  to  build  a  house  for  her  deceased  husband; 
but  she  had  "agreed  for  it  with  another."  She  replied  that  with 
the  death  of  her  husband,  the  contract  is  also  dead.  The  Court, 
however,  ordered  the  "defendant  to  allow  the  plaintiffs  to  build 
the  house  or  satisfy  them."  ^'^-  The  house,  which  Anneke  Kock 
occupied  in  her  widowhood  was  "large  and  fine,"  situated  on  the 
corner  of  Battery  place  (Valentine's  History  of  the  City  of  New 
York,  98).  Her  neighbor  was  one  of  the  notable  citizens  of  that 
period,  Martin  Cregier.^'^^ 

Four  other  suits  against  her  show  her  as  the  tavern  keeper. 

On  February  18,  1662,  she  was  asked  by  the  court  why  she 
charged  a  certain  Abraham  Pieters  so  much  for  pins.  To  this  she 
replied  he  had  charged  her  a  very  high  price  for  hogs.  She  had 
also  charged  him  nine  guilders  expenses:  "three  given  to  the  officer, 
three  to  the  Notary,  and  three  spent  on  drink."  The  court  decided 
that  she  had  to  pay  those  expenses  herself. ^'^^ 

But  on  September  12,  1662,  Geertruyd  de  Witt  brought  a  suit 
against  Anneke  Kocks,  which  was  of  a  more  serious  nature.  In 
the  words  of  the  court  minutes : 

"Pltf.  says,  that  deft,  besides  other  insulting  expressions  has 
abused  her  husband  as  a  cuckold,  struck  and  kicked  her  in  the  side 
and  bit  her  in  the  ear.  Deft,  denies  having  struck  her  first  and 
says,  that  her  husband  threatened  to  beat  her  maid,  that  they 
mumbled  at  each  other  and  that  she,  the  pltf.,  first  seized  her  by 
the  cap,  tearing  the  same  from  her  head ;  can  prove  the  same  by 
Martin  Cregier's  daughter;  whereupon  she  [Anneke]  gave  her  a 
slap  or  two.  The  officer  concludes,  that  the  deft,  shall  be  amerced 
in  a  fine  of  two  hundred  guilders,  for  that  the  deft,  struck  and 
kicked  the  pltf.  on  her  body,  being  a  pregnant  woman,  going  on 
close  of  her  term.     Jan  de  Witt,  husband  and  guardian  of  the 

572  Ibid.,  III.,   pp.   310,   364. 

573  D.  T.  Valentine,   History  of  the  City  of  New  York,   p. 

574  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,   IV.,   p.   34. 

KUYTEE.  237 

pltf.,  concludes  in  writing,  that  deft,  shall  repair  the  injuries  in- 
flicted on  him  and  his  wife,  honorably  and  profitably  at  the  estima- 
tion and  taxation  of  this  W.  Court ;  and  pay,  in  addition  on  the 
taxation  as  above,  for  the  suffered  pain,  smart,  loss  and  surgeon's 
fee.  .  .  ."  On  October  10,  the  Court  condemned  Anneke  Kock 
"for  having  dared  to  beat  Jan  de  Witt's  wife,  being  pregnant,  to 
pull  the  hair  from  her  head  and  treat  her  rudely,  in  the  fine  of 
fifty  guilders  payable  to  the  Deaconry  of  this  City;  all  with  costs 
of  suit.5'^5 

On  October  29,  1667,  she  was  condemned  to  pay  a  fine  of 
eighty  guilders  wampum  and  charges  of  a  suit  brought  against  her 
for  having  sold  liquor  to  Indians  on  a  Sunday. 

On  August  4,  1668,  she  was  again  fined  five  pounds  sterling 
with  costs  of  suit  for  having  sold  "Rom  (rum)  to  the  Indians, 
contrary  to  the  Law." 

Very  likely,  Anna  Cornelisen,  who  was  deceased  in  September, 
1658,  and  whom  Kock  had  sued  for  breach  of  marriage  contract 
would  have  been  the  better  wife  of  the  tavern  keeper  from  ancient 


Jochem  Pietersen  Kuyter,  one  of  the  most  influential  colonists 
in  New  Netherland,  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam,  in  July,  1639. 
He  was  a  native  of  Dithmarschen  (not  Darmstad,  as  some  have 
said).  He  came  in  a  private  ship  "De  Brant  von  Trogen"  (The 
Fire  of  Troy).  Captain  David  Pietersz  De  Vries,  who  was  not 
far  from  New  Amsterdam  at  the  time,  and  who  has  left  us  ac- 
counts of  several  of  his  voyages,  has  also  given  us  some  informa- 
tion about  Kuyter: 

".  .  .  We  found  two  ships  had  arrived  from  our  Patria,  one 
of  which  was  a  ship  of  the  company,  the  Herring,  the  other  was  a 
private  ship.  The  Fire  of  Troy,  from  Hoorn,  laden  with  cattle  on 
account  of  Jochem  Pietersz,  who  had  formerly  been  a  commander 

575   Ibid.,    IV.,    pp.    130,    134,    140,    146. 

238  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

in  the  East  Indies,  for  the  King  of  Denmark.  It  was  to  be  wished 
that  one  hundred  to  three  hundred  such  families  with  laborers, 
had  come,  as  this  would  very  soon  become  a  good  country." 

Where  Kuyter  got  his  name,  often  spelled  Cuyter,  has 
not  been  ascertained.  Sometimes  it  occurs  as  Kayser.  Could  the 
original  have  been  Keyser  or  Reyser  or  Knyter?  For  twelve  years, 
he  had  been,  according  to  tradition,  in  the  service  of  the  Danish 
East  India  Colonies.  Mr.  N.  Andersen,  of  Denmark,  who  has 
written  about  Bronck  (Personalhistorisk  Tidsskrift  VI  R.  Vol.  V, 
Part  I)  leaves  it  an  open  question  as  to  what  the  position  which 
Kuyter  held,  actually  was.  Kuyter  may,  h'e  says,  have  been  in  the 
service  of  the  fleet,  or  in  the  service  of  the  East  India  Company 
as  "capitaine  d'  armes"  or  as  skipper,  "capitaine  de  vaisseau." 

Kuyter  was  a  man  of  good  education,  what  is  evident  by  his 
dealings  with  Governor  Kieft,  whom  he  gave  many  a  thrust  in  his 
well-written   documents. 

It  has  been  said  by  historians  that  Kuyter's  friend,  Jonas 
Bronck,  another  Dane,  came  over  in  the  same  vessel  with  Kuyter: 
1639.  I  will  not  dispute  this.  But  I  have  seen  no  direct  proof 
of  the  statement.  If  E.  B.  O'Callaghan's  list  is  correct  in  "History 
of  New  Netherland"  II,  531,  Bronck  got  land  in  New  Netherland 
as  early  as  1637.  This  early  date,  however,  seems  to  be  a  mere 

Kuyter  associated  much  with  Bronck,  whose  sister  he  seems    i 
to  have  married.     But  his  name  is  more  intimately  connected  with 
that  of  Cornelis  Melyn.     Both  he  and  Melyn  were  pleading  for 
justice  to  the  Indians,  when  the  government  of  New  Netherland 
was  flagrantly  disregarding  the  rights  of  the  Red  Man. 

A  Mandamus  of  April  28,  1648,  shows  that  the  government   j 
had  received  a  communication   from   Kuyter  and   Melyn,   stating 
with  what  difficulty  they  had  to  wrestle  in  coming  over  to  New 
Netherland  and  in  their  endeavor  to  colonize  parts  of  it.     It  says: 

'The  States  General  of  the  United  Netherlands,  To  the  first 
Marshal  or  Messenger  having  power  to  serve  when  requested, 
Greeting:  Make  Known,  that  we,  having  received  the  humble 
supplication  presented  to  us  by  and  in  behalf  of  Jochem  Pietersz 
Cuyter  and  Cornelis  Melyn,  containing  that  they,  petitioners,  with 
permission  and  leave  of  the  Assembly  of  the  XIX  of  the  General 
West  India  Company,  with  wife  and  children  and  with  private 

KUYTEE.  239 

means,  besides  a  large  herd  of  cattle,  in  the  year  one  thousand  six 
hundred  and  thirty  nine,  transported  themselves  from  these  coun- 
tries to  New  Netherland,  so  that  they,  petitioners,  after  enormous 
expenses,  difficulties  and  inexpressible  labor,  got  into  condition,  in 
the  year  sixteen  hundred  forty  three,  their  lands,  houses  and  other 
undertakings  which  in  the  aforesaid  year  on  account  of  the  war 
(waged  by  Director  Kieft  unjustly  and  contrary  to  all  interna- 
tional law,  with  the  savages  or  natives  of  New  Netherland)  they 
have  been  obliged  to  abandon  and  as  a  consequence  lost  all  their 

What  is  set  forth  in  this  Mandamus  is  correct  except  as  to 
the  year  of  Melyn's  arrival.  He  came  with  his  family  to  New 
Netherland  in  1641,  not  1639,  but  he  had  made  an  inspection  of 
it  earlier. 

Cornelis  Melyn,  formerly  a  leather  dresser  at  Amsterdam, 
sailed  for  New  Netherland  in  May  1638,  by  the  ship  "  het  Wapen 
van  Noorwegen"  (The  Arms  of  Norway),  arriving  at  Amsterdam 
about  August  4.  Melyn  was  supercargo.  The  colony  of  Rens- 
selaerswyck  had  a  half  interest  in  the  ship  which  on  its  trip.  May — 
August,  1638,  was  so  heavily  laden  that  the  sailors  protested  that 
they  would  not  risk  their  lives  on  it.  It  carried  over  a  number 
of  colonists  and  a  large  quantity  of  goods,  including  eighteen  young 
mares,  thousands  of  bricks,  ironwork,  clothing  material,  spices, 
cheese,  soap,  oil  and  a  box  filled  with  earth  in  which  were  planted 
young  grape  vines. ^'^^ 

After  arriving  in  New  Netherland  and  after  inspecting  the 
new  country,  Melyn  conceived  the  plan  of  founding  a  colony  on 
Staten  Island.  He  returned  to  Holland,  and  in  July,  1640,  got  a 
deed  for  all  of  Staten  Island  save  that  which  David  Pietersz  De 
Vries  had  occupied.  In  August,  in  the  same  year,  he  set  sail  for 
New  Netherland  with  his  people,  cattle,  goods  and  all  other  im- 
plements necessary  for  agriculture,  but  he  was  taken  by  a  Dunkirk 
\  frigate.  He  got  assistance,  however,  and  arrived,  1641,  with  the 
ship  "Den  Eyckenboom"  (The  Oaktree)  in  New  Netherland  on 
Staten   Island   with   41   persons.      He   began   to   build   houses,   to 

*  Collections  of  the  New  York  Historical  Society,  Second  Series,  Vol.  III., 
p.  88. 

576  Bowier   Manuscripts. 

About  this  ship,  see  Education  Department  Bulletin,  No.  462.  Not  all  the 
ships  were  so  aptly  named  as  The  Arms  of  Norway.  One  entering  the  port  of  Nexr 
York  was  called  "King  David,"  another  "King  Solomon,"  a  third  "Adam  and 
Eve,"   etc. 

240  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

plough  land,  and  to  do  everything  conducive  to  establishing  a  good 

The  Indians  were  restless.  One  of  them,  of  the  Weckqua- 
skeek  tribe,  murdered  a  white  man.  The  government  promptly 
demanded  of  the  tribe  that  it  surrender  the  murderer.  Governor 
Kieft  was  looking  for  an  opportunity  to  exterminate  the  Indians. 
A  savage  massacre  of  them  was  the  result  of  his  plotting  with  a 
few  citizens,  for  the  vast  majority  of  the  white  population  would 
have  no  war  with  the  Indians.  The  Indians  retaliated.  Within 
a  short  time  they  reduced  some  thirty  farmhouses  on  Manhattan 
Island  to  four  or  five.  Melyns  colony  was  saved  for  a  time,  but 
late  in  1643  it  was  attacked.     This  attack  left  everything  in  ruin. 

Kuyter's  plantation  was  devastated  by  the  Indians  in  the  fol- 
lowing year. 

Melyn  and  Kuyter,  having  sustained  enormous  loses,  knew 
that  the  government,  with  Kieft  at  the  head,  was  to  blame.  Its 
shortsighted  policy  in  dealing  with  the  Indians  had  brought  on 
the  disaster  to  the  whites.  They  therefore  made  their  influence 
felt  against  Kieft,  and  worked  for  getting  a  better  government. 

But  —  to  come  back  to  the  beginnings  of  Kuyter's  plantation. 
Kuyter  settled  with  his  farmers  and  herdsmen  upon  a  tract  of  four 
hundred  acres  of  fine  farming  land,  of  which  he  had  obtained  a 
grant  from  the  West  India  Company.  This  tract  stretched  along 
the  Harlem  River  from  about  the  present  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-seventh  to  One  Hundred  and  Fortieth  streets,  and  was 
commonly  known,  long  after  his  memory  had  faded  away  among 
men,  as  'Jochem  Pieter's  Flats'.  Kuyter  himself  called  it  Zegen- 
daal,  or  'Vale  of  Blessing'."* 

Kuyter  spent  much  of  his  time  at  the  other  end  of  Manhattan. 
But  he  was  interested  in  the  growth  of  the  village.  In  1642,  he 
was  chosen  'kerkemester,'  to  oversee  the  erection  of  the  new  church 
in  the  fort.  His  insight  into  architecture  and  command  of  people 
and  building  material  was,  no  doubt,  better  than  his  command  of 
Reformed  theology.  He  had  evidently  been  a  Lutheran  when  in 
Dithmarschen,  and  the  assertion  of  the  pastor  in  New  Amsterdam, 
that  Kuyter  was  a  "good  Calvinist"  was  possibly  made  to  ward  off 

*   Cfr.   J.  H.   Innes,   New  Amsterdam   and  Its  People,   p.    108f. 

KUYTEE.  241 

current   ideas   to   the   contrary.      Kuyter   was   also    Elder   of   the 

None  of  the  other  Danes  in  New  Amsterdam  obtained  the 
social  prestige  of  Kuyter.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Board  of 
Twelve  Men  from  August  29,  1641,  to  February  18,  1642 ;  of  the 
Board  of  Eight  Men  which  board  existed  from  September,  1643, 
to  September,  1647.  After  a  journey  to  Holland  he  was  made  a 
member  of  the  Board  of  Nine  Men,  which  existed  from  September 
25,  1647,  until  the  city  was  incorporated,  in  1653,  when  he  was 
made  Schout  or  Sheriff. 

Kuyter's  plantations  were  yielding  good  returns  of  tobacco. 
But  they  were  exposed  and  unprotected,  and  could  be  ruined  by 
the  Indians  speedily  and  without  opposition.  Like  most  of  the 
Twelve  Men,  Kuyter  was  opposed  to  using  violent  measures 
against  the  Indians.  He  foretold  Director  Kieft  the  quick  retribu- 
tion which  would  ensue  for  their  massacre. 

His  own  bowery  house  was  well  palisaded.  It  therefore 
escaped  the  first  devastation  of  the  Indians,  but  on  March  5,  1644, 
his  buildings  were  set  on  fire  in  the  night  and  destroyed  by  the 
savages.  Kuyter  himself  was  absent.  The  house  was  guarded, 
but  little  resistance  was  offered.  Among  the  guards  was  Pieter 
Jansen,  a  Norwegian.      (See  article  Pieter  Jansen.     Part  I.) 

One  of  Kuyter's  concerns  was,  as  has  been  indicated,  to  get 
a  better  government,  and  a  better  Director. 

Director  Kieft,  in  order  to  increase  the  finances  of  the  West 
India  Company,  imposed  an  excise  upon  the  wines  and  spirits  at 
the  rate  of  four  stivers  per  quart,  likewise  upon  every  beaver  skin 
one  guilder.  In  proclaiming  this  excise,  Kieft  acted  in  opposition 
to  the  Board  of  Eight  Men.  They  claimed  that  imposing  taxes 
was  an  act  af  sovereignty  which  the  West  India  Company  did  not 
possess,  and  that  the  hiring  and  keeping  of  soldiers  was  the  busi- 
ness of  the  company  and  not  of  the  settlers.  Kieft  showed  himself 
rude  in  dealing  with  the  Board  of  Eight  Men.  Once  he  snubbed 
the  board  by  summoning  three  of  its  members — Kuyter,  Melyn 
and  Hall — to  come  a  certain  day  at  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning. 
They  came  and  waited  till  past  noon.  Kieft  had  gone  off  some- 
where on  other  business,  and  the  three  finally  went  off  "as  wise  as 
they  came." 

242  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

Another  error  of  Kieft's  was  that  once  when  the  brewers  re- 
fused to  pay  the  taxes,  he  caused  sundry  casks  of  hquor  to  be  con 
fiscated  and  handed  over  to  thirsty  soldiers! 

After  six  months  of  wrangHng,  the  Eight  Men  sent  their 
eloquent  "Memorial"  to  the  States  General,  in  which  they  described 
the  condition  of  the  country  and  registered  their  gravamina.  The 
petition  asked  for  a  new  governor  and  for  some  limitation  of  his 
power  by  representatives  of  the  people. 

Meantime  Kuyter  had  been  forced,  on  account  of  the  burning 
of  his  bowery  house,  to  move  to  New  Amsterdam.  He  purchased 
a  small  house  at  the  corner  of  Pearl  and  Broad  Streets.  His  for- 
mer neighbor,  Cornelis  Melyn,  proved  a  faithful  ally  to  him. 
But  like  Kuyter  he  was  a  thorn  in  the  flesh  of  Director  Kieft. 

Kieft  was  now  replaced  by  Peter  Stuyvesant,  who  had  been 
governor  of  the  island  of  Curacao.  Stuyvesant  had  lost  a  leg  in  a 
fight  with  the  Portuguese  at  San  Marin,  had  returned  to  Holland 
in  1644,  and  was  appointed  as  Director  General  of  New  Nether- 
land  in  May,  1645,  but  did  not  arrive  before  in  May,  1647. 

When  Kieft  surrendered  the  government,  he  asked  the  people 
to  give  his  administration  their  formal  endorsement.  They  refused. 
Kuyter  and  Melyn  declared  they  had  nothing  to  thank  him  for. 
Within  a  few  days  after  Kieft  had  delivered  up  his  office,  Melyn 
and  Kuyter,  as  representatives  of  the  old  Board  of  Eight  Men, 
brought  a  formal  complaint  against  Kieft  and  asked  for  an  in- 
quiry in  the  abuses  of  his  late  government  and  respecting  his 
treatment  of  the  Indians. 

Stuyvesant  was  averse  to  entertain  the  complaint.  He  saw 
that  it  would  form  a  precedent  in  case  his  own  administration 
proved  inefficient.  His  dignity  was  ruffled :  the  sacredness  of  the 
Directorship  must  be  sustained. 

Kieft  was  enraged  and  accused  Kuyter  and  Melyn  of  being 
the  real  authors  of  a  "Memorial  of  the  Eight  Men"  sent  to  the 
States  General.  He  said  the  memorial  was  a  false  libel,  which 
Kuyter  and  Melyn  had  sent  to  Holland  without  the  knowledge  of 
their  colleagues. 

They  were  accordingly  summoned  to  show  cause  why  they 
should  not  be  banished  as  "pestilent  and  seditious  persons."  They 
appeared  and  answered  so  well  for  their  acts  that  Kieft  had  to 

KUYTER.  243 

take  up  a  new  line  of  proceeding.  They  offered  to  bring  forward 
the  four  survivors  of  the  Eight  Men  to  testify  that  these  had  signed 
the  charges  against  Kieft  of  their  own  will  and  not  through  the 
influence  of  the  persons  accused. 

John  Fisk  says:  "Indictments  were  brought  against  Kuyter 
and  Melyn,  on  sundry  trumped-up  charges,  chiefly  alleging  treach- 
erous dealings  with  the  Indians,  and  attempts  to  stir  up  rebellion. 
With  shameless  disregard  of  evidence,  a  prearranged  verdict  of 
guilty  was  rendered."  Melyn  was  sentenced  to  seven  years'  ban- 
ishment and  a  fine  of  300  guilders.  Kuyter  to  three  years'  ban- 
ishment and  a  fine  of  150  guilders.  They  were  sentenced  on  July 
25,  1647. 

On  August  17,  in  the  same  year,  Kieft  set  sail  for  Holland. 
He  took  with  him  Melyn  and  Kuyter  as  prisoners.  In  the  same 
ship  was  Domine  Bogardus,  who  had  his  share  of  trouble  with 
Kieft  and  was  to  answer  charges  in  Holland.  By  some  error  of 
reckoning,  the  ship  struck  on  the  rocks  near  Swansea.  Eighty-one 
persons,  including  Ex-Governor  Kieft  and  Reverend  Bogardus, 
were  drowned.  Twenty  reached  the  shore  in  safety.  Among 
these  were  Kuyter  and  Melyn.  Kuyter  told  how  he  had  lashed 
himself  to  a  portion  of  the  after  deck  of  the  vessel  and  how  when 
the  first  dim  light  broke  after  the  night  of  horror,  he  had  discov- 
ered himself  to  be  alone  upon  the  floating  fragment,  except  for 
what  he  took  to  be  another  person  likewise  lashed  fast.  Speaking 
and  receiving  no  answer,  he  concluded  that  the  man  was  dead ;  it 
turned  out  to  be  a  cannon,  which  with  the  wreck  and  Kuyter  was 
thrown  by  the  violent  storm  upon  the  beach.* 

Kuyter  and  Melyn  had  the  shallow  waters  dragged,  for  three 
days,  until  they  brought  up  a  chest  containing  their  most  impor- 
tant papers. 

Kuyter  and  Melyn  reached  Netherlands  at  the  end  of  the 
year  1647  and  laid  their  case  before  the  States  General.  This  body 
was  favorably  disposed  to  them.  An  appeal  was  granted  from  the 
verdict  pronounced  upon  them  by  Governor  Stuyvesant  and  his 
Council.  Stuyvesant  was  summoned  to  appear  before  them  to 
justify  his  acts. 

It  was  arranged  that  Melyn  should  go  back  to  New  Nether- 

*  J.  H.  Innes,   New  Amsterdam   and   Its  People,   p.    114f. 

244  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

land  and  have  the  papers  served  on  Stuyvesant.  Kuyter  should, 
however,  remain  in  the  Netherlands,  to  be  in  readiness  if  Stuyve- 
sant acted  treacherously  or  arbitrarily. 

Melyn  arrived  in  Nev^  Netherland  in  March,  1649,  Kuyter 
followed  later. 

There  is  on  record  a  letter  from  the  Prince  of  Orange  to 
Director  Stuyvesant,  informing  him  that  Melyn  and  Kuyter  had 
received  permission  to  return  to  New  Netherland,  and  ordering 
the  Director  not  to  molest  them.     It  reads  thus: 

"The  Prince  of  Orange 

"Honorable,  Prudent,  Discreet,  Dear  Sir: 

"You  will  receive  by  the  bearers  here  of  Jochem  Pietersen 
Cuyter  and  Cornelis  Melyn,  the  commands,  which  their  High: 
Might :  the  States  General  have  concluded  to  issue  to  you,  direct- 
ing you  to  allow  these  men  to  enjoy  their  property  there  free  and 
unmolested  by  virtue  of  the  provisional  appeal,  granted  to  them 
by  their  High :  Might :  with  the  clause  suspending  the  sentence 
passed  over  them  by  you  on  the  25th  of  July  1647. 

"Although  I  do  not  doubt,  that  you  will  obey  and  respect 
these  orders,  yet  I  desire  hereby  to  admonish  you  earnestly  and 
advise  you  expressly,  that  you  allow  these  men  to  enjoy  quietly 
and  without  contradiction  the  result  of  the  resolution  passed  by 
their  High:  Might: 

"Herewith,  etc., 
"At  the  Cravens'  Hague, 

"May  19th,  1648.  Your  very  good  friend 

"W.  d'Orange. 
"To  the  Honorable 
Prudent,  Discreet,  Our 
Dear  and  Special  Friend 
Petrus  Stuyvesant 

"Director  of  Netherland."^^'^ 

Kuyter  made  his  peace  with  Stuyvesant,  whom  with  two 
others  he  admitted  in  1651  into  joint  ownership  with  himself  in 
his  plantation  on  the  Harlem  flats,  where  he  was  now  actively  en- 

577  New    York   Colonial   Docmnents,    XIV.,   p.    87. 

















































B  ^ 

AA.  Houses  on  the  Marckveldt.  BB.  Houses  on  Marckveldt  Steegh  and  Bever 
Graft.  C.  Rear  of  the  "Five  Houses."  D.  Brewery  of  West  India  Co.  E.  Old 
Chureli.  F.  Old  Parsonage,  where  Anneke  Jans,  from  Norway,  lived.  G.  Hend. 
Hendricksen  Kip.  H.  Anthony  Jansen  van  Vees.  I.  Hendr.  Jansen  Sniit.  J.  Hendr. 
Willemsen,  baker.  K.  Houses  of  Teunis  Craie.  L.  Jacob  Wolphertsen  van  Cou- 
wenhoven.  M.  Cornelis  Melyn  (later  occupied  by  Jacob  Loper,  a  Swede).  N.  Capt. 
Jochem    Pietersen     Kuyter,     a    Dane.      O.     Sibout    Claessen.  P.     Cornelis    van    Tien- 

hoven.      Q.    Adriaen    Vincent. 

LAEASON.  245 

gaged  in  restoring  his  impaired   fortunes.     But  in   1654    he    was 
murdered  by  the  Indians  at  Harlem. 

Kuyter  was  married  to  Lentie  Martens,  who  possibly  was  a 
sister  of  his  friend,  Jonas  Bronck.  As  Bronck's  full  name  appears 
to  have  been  Johannes  or  Jonas  Martensen  Bronck,  his  father's 
name  was  Marten  or  Morten ;  hence  the  daughter's  surname  would 
be  Martens. 

On  April  24,  1654,  "Leyntie  Martens,  widow  of  Jochem  Pr. 
Kuyter,  late  elder  and  schepen  of  New  Amsterdam,  confers  powers 
of  attorney  upon  Govert  Loockermans,  merchant,  and  Dirck  Van 
Schelluyne,  notary  public,  especially  for  the  purpose  of  represent- 
ing her  in  settling  affairs  regarding  lands  named  Segendael  with 
....  Stuyvesant  .  .  .  .,  Roodenborch,  Cornells  Potter,  as  per  con- 
tract dated  Sept.  23,  1651.  Witness  Arent  Van  Hattem,  Burgo- 
master, and  Paulus  Leendersz  Van  die  Grift,  schepen."* 

Lentie  Martens  did  not  long  remain  a  widow.  On  December 
18,  1654,  she  was  married  to  Willem  Jansen,  from  Gelderland,  the 
superintendent  of  the  Harlem  plantation.  But  during  the  outbreak 
in  the  fall  of  1655,  she  too  was  killed  by  the  Indians.  She  was  a 
member  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church. 

Kuyter  left  no  children. 

J.  Riker,  the  historian  of  Harlem,  says  about  Kuyter: 
"By  his  bold  defense  of  popular  rights  he  conferred  invalu- 
able benefits  upon  his  fellow  colonists  and  those  succeeding  him, 
and  which  entitles  him  to  a  place  on  the  roll  of  public  benefactors. 
Kuyter  should  have  a  memorial  in  Central  Park"  in  New  York 


John  Larason  (Larsen),  was  a  "Danish  nobleman,  compelled 
to  flee  and  lose  his  estates  by  confiscation  on  account  of  a  con- 
spiracy, in  1660,  because  of  taxes.  He  fled  to  Scotland,  and,  hear- 
ing that  a  price  was  set  on  his  head,  came  to  America,  and  pur- 
chased a  large  tract,  about  1,700  acres,  near  Brooklyn,  L.  I." 

Year  Book  of  the  Holland   Society  of  New  York,    1900,   p.    178. 

246  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

John  Larason  is  on  the  rate  list  of  Newton,  L.  I.,  1683.  He 
probably  married,  (1)  May  22,  1683,  Jemima  Halsey;  (2)  Decem- 
ber 22,  1686,  the  widow  Mary  Howell.  He  died  at  Chester  (?), 
N.  J.,  at  an  advanced  age.     He  probably  had  a  son. 

"Larason"  may  be  a  corruption  of  "Lauridsen,"  or  an  as- 
sumed name.     "Larasen"  often  occurs  in  older  Norwegian  records. 

Catharine  Larason,  who  was  married  in  1779;  Anne  Larason, 
married  in  1768;  David  Larason,  married  in  September,  1780; 
James  Larason,  married  in  1783  (see  New  Jersey  Archives,  First 
Series,  XXH.,  pp.  236,  247),  may  be  descendants  of  John  Larason. 

From    Braunius:    Theatnim    urbium. 

I  must  add  that  this  information  is  given  mainly  on  the  author- 
ity of  Theodore  Freylinghuysen  Chambers.  The  flight  of  Lara- 
son, as  well  as  the  price  on  his  head,  would  perhaps  throw  some 
interesting  light  on  the  so-called  Revolution  in  Denmark  in  1660, 
when  the  nobility  lost  their  power  and  the  king  was  made  an  abso- 
lute monarch.  The  flight,  if  at  all  historic,  must  have  been  due 
to  something  else  than  a  "conspiracy"  connected  with  the  change 
in  the  government  of  Denmark  in  1660.^"^ 


Jan  Laurens,  from  Ribe,  in  Denmark,  is  on  the  list  of  sol- 
diers who  were  to  sail  to  New  Amsterdam,  April  15,  1660,  on  the 

578  Theodore  F.   Chambers,   The  Early   Germans  of  New  Jersey,   their  History, 
Churches,   and  Genealogies,    1895,   Dover.   New  Jersey,   p.   437. 


ship  "de  Bonte  Koe."  In  a  footnote  the  list  says:  Presumably 
some  of  these  soldiers  will  be  found  missing.  Whether  Jan  Lau- 
rens was  among  the  missing,  cannot  be  ascertained,  as  the  sources 
reveal  nothing  more  about  him.^'^^ 


Severyn  Laurenszen,  from  Roskilde,  in  Denmark,  was  in  New 
Amsterdam  as  early  as  1656.  On  May  25,  in  that  year,  he  married 
Tryntie  Reynderts,  of  Hengel,  widow  of  Arent  Theuniszen.^^o 

We  meet  him  first  as  a  soldier,  then  as  a  tavern  keeper,  finally 
as  a  farmer  and  public  official. 

On  April  12,  1658,  he  was  sentenced  for  theft.  The  sentence, 
as  entered  in  the  Records,  reads:  "Severyn  Lourens,  Lance  Cor- 
poral, for  theft  to  be  stripped  of  his  arms  and  publicly  flogged  and 

He  was  committed  to  jail,  but  broke  jail  before  the  sentence 
of  April  12  was  executed.  On  May  28,  1658,  he  was  pardoned 
and  permitted  to  live  on  Long  Island.^^^  He  returned  to  New 
Amsterdam  and  became  a  tavern  keeper,  in  partnership  with  Jan 
Jansen  Romeyn.  On  May  11,  1662,  both  he  and  Jansen  were 
prosecuted  for  selling  liquor  during  divine  service. ^^^  On  July  3, 
1664,  he  was  sentenced  in  court  for  "permitting  persons  to  play 
nine  pins  on  his  premises  on  Sunday. "^^^ 

On  August  10,  1661,  Laurenszen  stood  sponsor  at  the  baptism 
of  Adrian,  a  son  of  his  partner,  Jan  Jansen,  and  wife,  Marretje 
Adrians  (Jeurians),  from  Copenhagen.  (See  article  Marritje 
Jeurians.     Part  IL) 

In  November,  1661,  Captain  Post  sued  Laurenszen  for  "forty- 
one  guilders,  five  stivers  according  to  account."  But  Laurenszen's 
wife  came  forward  and  produced  an  offset  account  and  "besides 

579  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,    1902. 

580  New  York   Genealogical   and  Biographical  Record,   VI.,   p.   84. 

581  Calendar   of   Historical   Manuscripts,    I.,   p.   194. 

582  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   196. 

583  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   237. 

584  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    248. 

248  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 

this,  some  claim."  The  Burgomasters  and  Schepens  referred  the 
matter  in  question  to  Thomas  Hall  and  Frerick  Lubbersen  to  hear 
the  parties,  "to  examine  and  decide  their  affairs,  and  if  possible, 
reconcile  them;  if  not,  to  report  their  decision  to  the  Court."^8o 

Under  date  of  April  25,  1662,  the  court  calendar  stated  that 
"Severyn  Lauwersen  and  Jan  Janszen  van  de  Lange  Straat"  had 
a  suit  against  Daniel  Vervelen,  and  that  both  parties  were  in  de- 
fault.    The  suit  seems  to  have  been  about  a  debt.^^^ 

On  May  2,  1662,  Johannes  de  Witt  brought  suit  against 
"Severyn  Lauwerens  and  Jan  Janszen  van  de  Lange  Straat."  He 
demanded  of  them  two  hundred  guilders.  They  acknowledged 
the  debt,  but  said  that  for  the  sum  of  one  hundred  guilders  they 
gave  an  assignment  to  de  Witt  on  Daniel  Vervelen.  De  Witt, 
they  claimed,  was  content  with  this.  De  Witt  replied,  he  was  sat- 
isfied only  "if  Vervelen  paid  it."  The  Court  having  heard  the 
parties,  ordered  Laurenszen  and  Janszen  to  pay  the  two  hundred 
guilders. ^^'^ 

On  May  6,  1664,  Laurenszen  with  five  others  appeared  before 
the  Director-General  and  stated  that  "the  General  has  enclosed  the 
Highway  heretofore  made  use  of  and  made  another  road,  which 
is  not  passable  in  winter."  The  result  of  this  visit  was  a  promise 
of  the  General  that  he  would  "attend  to  it."^^^ 

The  next  notice  of  Laurenszen  in  the  court  records  is  under 
date  of  July  4,  1665:  "Mr.  Harmen  Wessels  entering  requests, 
that  the  attachment  issued  by  him  on  Jan  Damen's  goods  in  the 
hands  of  Severyn  Laurensen,  may  be  declared  valid.  Fiat  quod 

On  October  3,  1665,  the  Court  in  New  Amsterdam  took  notice 
of  Laurenszen  by  deciding  the  following: 

"Whereas,  complaint  has  been  made  to  us  on  the  part  of 
Wolphert  Webber,  that  he  has  suffered  much  damage  in  his  garden 
through  the  cattle  of  Severyn  Laurenszen,  with  requests  that  some 

585  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,   III.,   p.   411. 

586  Ibid.,  IV.,  p.  67. 

587  Ibid.,    IV.,    p.   72. 

588  Ibid.,   v.,   p.    52. 

589  Ibid.,   v.,   p.   271. 


persons  may  be  appointed  to  inspect  the  same  and  estimate  the 
damage,  therefore  the  Major  and  Aldermen  of  the  City  of  New 
York  this  day  appoint  and  authorize  Mr.  Thomas  Hal,  Dirck 
Siecken,  and  Arien  Cornelissen  to  inspect  the  aforesaid  garden, 
to  estimate  the  pretended  damage  and  to  determine  how  the  same 
occurred,  whether  by  imperfect  fencing  or  otherwise,  and  if  pos- 
sible to  reconcile  parties ;  if  not,  to  report  their  finding  to  the  W. 

In  1662,  "Severyn  Lourens,  of  Roodschildt  in  Denmark"  and 
his  wife  made  their  joint  will.  "Her  children  were  Reiner,  Mary, 
and  Hendrick  Arents   (Van  Engelen)."^*^! 

On  August  5,  1671,  Severyn  Laurenszen  being  a  widower, 
married  a  second  time.  His  second  wife  was  Grietje  Hendricks, 
widow  of  Focke  Janszen,  "both  residing  at  the  bowery. "^^- 

In  1672,  the  Court  of  New  Amsterdam  elected  Severyn  as 
overseer  of  fences  and  highways. ^^^ 


Hendrick  Martensen  (Hendrick  Martensen  Wiltsee),  from 
Copenhagen,  was  in  New  Netherland  before  1660.  On  January 
10,  1660,  he  married  in  New  Amsterdam,  Margaret  Meyers  (Mey- 
ring,  Meyrinck),  widow  of  Herman  Jansen  and  daughter  of  Jan 

Previous  to  this,  he  may  have  been  for  some  time  at  Esopus, 
as  he,  on  August  21,  1659,  deeded  property  at  Esopus  to  Lukas 

Shortly  after  his  marriage  he  brought  action,  at  New  Amster- 
dam, against  Herman  van  Borssum,  demanding  remuneration  for 
damage  to  a  canoe,  which  van  Borssum  committed  by  sailing  against 

590  Ibid.,    v.,    p.   295. 

591  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,   1900,  p.  142.     New  York 
Colonial   Documents,   XIII.,   p.    74. 

592  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,    1653  1674,  VI.,   p.   335. 

593  Ibid.,   VI.,   p.   374. 

594  Munsell,   Collections  on  the  History  of   .   .   .   Albany,   VI.,   p.   154. 

250  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

it  with  his  boat.  At  the  first  hearing  van  Borssum  denied  that  he 
had  done  any  damage.  At  the  second  hearing,  the  wife  of  Mar- 
tensen  appeared  against  him,  declaring  that  he  had  stated  that  he 
would  let  the  canoe  be  repaired.  Van  Borssum  admitted  this,  and 
said  he  had  stated  this  to  prevent  trouble.  The  court  informed 
him  that  it  was  better  to  let  the  canoe  be  repaired  than  to  proceed 
further,  which  would  be  more  expensive.  Van  Borssum  then  I 
promised  he  would  repair  the  damages.  The  court  informed  Mrs. 
Martensen  of  this  and  ''ordered  her  to  be  satisfied  therewith  to  | 
prevent  further  costs."^^^  ! 

At  the  close  of  the  year  Martensen  was  at  Esopus,  or  Kings-  jji 
ton,  where    his    daughter    Sophia    was    baptized,    December   11, 
1660.5'J6     On  May  2,  1661,  he  "drew  a  lot  at  Esopus:  lot  No.  2, 
and  was  allotted  same."^^'^ 

He  was  at  this  time  a  soldier  at  the  garrison  on  the  Esopus. ^^^ 
In  the  summer  of  1663  he  was  in  the  Esopus  war.  He  was  cap- 
tured by  the  savages  and  reported  killed,^''^  but  this  proved  to  be  a 
mistake,  and  he  soon  obtained  his  liberty. 

On  April  28,  1667,  he  signed,  with  other  burghers  of  W'ilt- 
wyck,  a  document,  stating  that  they  had  been  in  arms  in  the  Brod- 
head  mutiny,  when  Captain  Brodhead  had  threatened  to  burn  the 

In  1673  Martensen  petitioned  the  court  of  New  Amsterdam  to 
render  judgment  in  a  matter,  not  known  to  us,  regarding  Staten 
Island.  This  court,  however,  referred  him  "to  the  Court  at  Staten 
Island  to  demand  justice  there  from  them,  or  otherwise  to  act  as 
he  thinks  proper;  as  this  Court  has  no  connection  with  that  of 
Staten  Island."6oi 

In  early  records,  Martensen  was  sometimes  called  Wiltsee. 
He  is  the  ancestor  of  many  families  bearing  this  name,  commonly 
written  Wiltsie.  He  had  >i^  sons :  Martin,  who  was  baptized  in 
Wiltwyck,  April  3,  1667;  Hendrick,  baptized  in  New  Amsterdam, 


595  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,   III.,  pp.   147,   153. 

596  R.    R.    Hoes,    Baptismal    and    Marriage    Register    ...    of    the    old    Dutch 
Church  of  Kingston. 

597  New   York   Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    195. 

598  Ibid.,   XIII.,  p.   202. 

599  Ibid.,   XIII.,    p.   245. 

600  Ibid.,   XIII.,  p.  414. 

601  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,    VII.,  p.   20. 



Orig-innl    View    by   ^ohan   aM4::g„Djj 
From    J.    A.    Frideija'l  |,  .;,jj^j 

Det    IrdiA 


k,   ei'-aved    by    Johan    Diricksen. 
RigeaSistorie.    1588-1699. 

NISSEN.  251 

November  24,  1669;  Meyndert,  February  11,  1672;  Teunis,  Jan- 
uary 10,  1674;  Jacob,  March  18,  1676.  They  all  married  and  had 
families.  Their  posterity  is  now  numerous,  particularly  in  West- 
chester and  Dutchess  Counties.^*^^ 

Of  his  daughters,  Sophia  was  baptized  in  1660  (see  above)  ; 
Jannetje  was  baptized  January  7,  1663.  One  of  the  sponsors  at 
this  baptism  was  Marten  Hoffman,  a  Swedish  Lutheran.  Barbar(a) 
was  baptized  March  1,  1665.^*^^ 


Pieter  Martensen,  from  Dithmarschen,  arrived  at  New  Am- 
sterdam in  1663,  on  board  the  ship  "de  Rooseboom,"  which  sailed 
March  15,  1663.  He  was  accompanied  by  his  child,  seven  years 

In  1701  he  seems  to  have  resided  in  Albany.^os 


Christian  Nissen,  Christian  Nissen  Romp,  from  Holstein,  was 
in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  1657.  On  February  4,  in  that 
year,  he  married  Styntie  Pieters,  of  Copenhagen. 6*^^  He  was  a 
Lutheran  by  creed :  he  signed  the  petition  of  the  Lutherans  in  New 
Amsterdam,  October  10,  1657,  requesting  that  the  government 
might  permit  the  Lutheran  pastor  Johannes  Goetwater  to  remain 
in  New  Netherland  instead  of  being  deported.^*''^ 

We  find  Nissen  as  sponsor  at  the  baptism  of  several  children 
in  New  Amsterdam.  On  January  27,  1657,  he  was  sponsor  for 
a  child  of  Carl  Margen  and  Cathalyntie  Hendricks ;  November  6, 
for  a  child  belonging  to  Gustavus  Daniels  and    Annetje    Loons; 

602  Riker,    Annals   of   Newtown,    p.   372. 

603  See  Reference  596. 

604  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,  1902,  p.  23. 

605  New   York    Colonial   Documents,    IV.,    p.    939. 

606  New  York   Genealogical   and   Biographical   Record,   VI.,   p.   85. 

607  See   note   42. 

252  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

November  24,  for  a  child  belonging  to  a  Dane,  Christian  Pieter- 
sen ;  April  4,  1659,  for  a  child  of  Mathys  Boone. ^^^^  On  December 
11,  1660,  he  was  sponsor  in  Kingston,  at  the  baptism  of  Sophia, 
the  daughter  of  the  Dane  Hendrick  Martensen.^o^ 

Christian  and  his  wife  had  boarders  for  some  time  during 
their  residence  at  New  Amsterdam.  For  on  February  11,  1658, 
Nicolas  Velthuysen  was  ordered  by  the  court  to  pay  Nissen  for 
"board,  drink,  attendance  and  washing  for  Jan  van  Deventer's 
account  8  gl.  per  week,  amounting  for  six  weeks  to  fl.  48."* 

On  June  27,  1659,  Nissen  conveyed  a  lot  in  New  Amsterdam 
to  Gerrit  Hendricksen.  The  lot  was  "situate  in  the  Marckvelt 
Steegh ;  bounded  west  by  the  house  and  lot  of  Frerick  Aarsen; 
on  the  north,  by  the  lane  aforesaid ;  on  the  east,  the  house  and  lot  of 
Nicolaas  Boot ;  on  the  south,  by  house  and  lot  of  Teunis  Tomassen 
Van  Naarden.  In  breadth  and  length,  according  to  deed  of  Oc- 
tober 25,  1658. "t  Not  much  later  Nissen  moved  to  Esopus.  On 
March  28,  1660,  he  went  as  sergeant,  with  a  company  of  seventy- 
seven  men,  to  "Manathes."^^*' 

In  1661  he  commanded  the  garrison  at  Wiltwyck  ( Kings- 
ton).<^ii  New  York  Colonial  Documents  (II,  pp.  453,  455,  463) 
give  data  as  to  how  much  powder  his  garrison  at  various  intervals 
possessed.  The  same  work  contains  several  communications  from 
Nissen,  addressed  to  Director  Stuyvesant.^^^ 

Nissen  was  a  faithful  commander,  and  was  held  in  esteem  by 
the  government,  as  is  seen  by  the  following  letter  of  his  to  the 
Director  and  Council  and  by  the  action  taken  upon  it. 

Nissen's  letter,  written  in  June,  1662,  reads  as  follows: 
"To  the  Noble,  Worshipful  Director-General  and  the  Honor- 
able Council  of  New  Netherland.     Shows  with  all  due  reverence 
Christian  Nissen,  chief  sergeant  in  the  service  of  your  Hon.  Wor- 
ship that  I  have  had  charge  in  this  quality  for  some  time  of  the 

608  Clollections    of   the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    II. 

609  R.    R.    Hoes,    Baptismal    and    Marriage    Registers    of    the    .    .    .    Church   of 

*   The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674.    II.,   p.    329. 

610  New  York   Colonial  Documents,  XIII.,  p.   153. 

t   Valentine,    Manual  of  the  .   .   .  City  of  New  York,   1865,  p.  660. 

611  Year  Book   og   the   Holland    Society,    1897,   p.    125. 

612  New  York   Colonial   Documents,    XIII.,   pp.    191,    323,    367f. 

NISSEN.  253 

garrison  at  the  Esopus  and  find  that  my  pay  is  not  sufficient  for 
my  subsistence,  to  attend  duly  to  my  position  and  therefore  I  re- 
quest that  your  Hon.  Worships  will  please,  to  consider,  that  I  need 
a  little  higher  pay,  and  I  do  not  doubt  that  after  your  Hon.  Wor- 
ships have  taken  it  into  consideration,  they  will  favor  me  with 
higher  pay.  Which  doing  I  remain  Your  Hon.  Worships'  servant 
Christian  Niessen." 

The  Director  and  Council  acted  favorably  on  the  request : 
"The  Director-General  and  Council  considered  the  expenses 
which  the  petitioner  must  now  and  then  necessarily  incur  in  the 
discharge  of  his  duties,  and  as  the  same  have  been  attended  to  with 
great  diligence  and  vigilance  since  his  appointment,  it  is  decided. 
That  the  petitioner  shall  henceforth  receive  twenty  guilders 
monthly  pay.     Date  as  above  [29.  June,  1662]. ^^^ 

On  August  19,  1663,  Ensign  Nissen  was  sent  out  with  fifty- 
five  men  to  certain  corn  plantations  to  look  for  savages  who  had 
been  committing  ravage  and  murder.  Two  months  before  this, 
he  had  evinced  great  courage  in  the  war  against  the  Indians.  Of 
his  forty-two  men,  one  was  killed,  sixteen  wounded. 

Notwithstanding,  Nissen,  as  little  as  any  one  else,  could  escape 
the  censure  of  Director  Stuyvesant,  who  sent  him  a  reprimand 
at  the  close  of  the  year,  censuring  him  for  disobedience  of  orders. 
It  reads : 

"Honorable,  Valiant  Sir :  We  are  very  much  surprised  by 
your  improper  disobedience  in  not  carrying  out  our  so  plainly  ex- 
pressed orders  and  directions  to  send  back  the  saddles,  the  surplus 
hand  and  side  arms,  not  in  use,  the  three  bronce  pieces  and  the 
old  rope.  Although  we  cannot,  on  account  of  the  unfavorable 
season,  correct  at  present  your  disobedience  and  disregard,  as  it 
ought  to  be  done,  yet  we  warn  you  not  to  disobey  henceforth  any 
of  our  orders  upon  so  unfounded  presumptions  and  made  up  pre- 
texts, but  to  execute  and  obey  them,  as  it  is  proper,  else  we  shall 
be  obliged  to  proceed  with  cashiering  or  otherwise  according  to 
circumstances.  Meanwhile  we  command  you  herewith  to  send 
down  the  required  things  promptly,  if  the  state  of  the  weather 
permit,  which  is  left  to  the  judgment  of  the  bearer.     Closing  here- 

613   Ibid.,   XIII.,   p.   223. 

254  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

with  etc.     Actum  Fort  Amsterdam  December  19,   1663.     To  En- 
sign Christian  Nissen.''^^* 

Evidently  Nissen  acted  in  good  faith  and  knew  better  than  the 
Director  what  was  needed  at  Esopus.  He  retained  the  confidence 
of  Stuyvesant,  however,  and  sent  him  a  letter  dated  April  21,  1664, 
in  regard  to  an  Englishman  who  said  that  the  English  would  pos- 
sess New  Netherland  in  six  or  eight  weeks. ^^^ 

The  Englishman  was  not  mistaken,  for  in  September,  1664, 
New  Netherland  became  the  possession  of  England. 


Claes  Petersen  came  to  New  Amsterdam  in  1660.  He  was  a 
soldier,  "Adelborst"*  from  Dithmarschen,  who  left  Holland  by  the 
ship  "de  Bonte  Koe,"  which  sailed  April  15,  1660.  In  the  list  of 
passengers  kept  by  the  ship,  it  is  stated  that  he  assigned  two  months' 
wages  per  year  to  Marritie  Hendrixen,  his  betrothed. 

He  seems  to  have  been  in  Esopus  in  1663.^^^ 

614  Ibid.,   XIII.,   p.   320. 

615  Calendar   of   Historical   Manuscripts,    I.,    p.   306. 

*  An  Adelborst,  as  Dr.  L.  Daae  says,  was  a  soldier  of  the  navy,  who  drew 
greater  wages  than  the  common  file,  received  better  treatment,  and  had  better 
prospects  of  advancement.  Hence  many  young  men  of  education  and  good  family 
often  started  on  their  career  as  Adelborsts.  In  the  Introduction  (in  this  volume) 
we  have  referred  to  the  fact  that  the  Dutch  fleet  had  many  Scandinavians  in  its 
service.  In  1665  the  Norwegian  hero.  Curt  Sivertsen  Adelaer,  was  asked  to  accept 
the  position  of  vice-admiral  in  the  Dutch  fleet.  (Danske  Samlinger,  2.  Ra?kke.  5. 
p.   18.) 

In  1672  Holland  had  a  navy  of  135  vessels  manned  by  20,738  men.  The 
navy  and  mercantile  fleet  must  have  had  altogether  40-50,000  sailors.  Naturally  a 
little  country  like  Holland  had  to  employ  a  great  number  of  foreign  sailors,  many 
of   whom   were   Danes   and   Norwegians. 

Says  the  English  writer  Molesworth,  in  "An  Account  of  Denmark  in  1692": 
"The  best  seamen  belonging  to  the  King  of  Denmark  are  the  Norwegians;  but  most 
of  these  are  in  the  service  of  the  Dutch,  and  have  their  families  established  m 

Another  English  writer,  criticising  Molesworth's  account,  admits:  "The 
Danes  and  Norse  are  very  good  seamen,  the  Dutch  are  mighty  desirous  of  them, 
and  consequently  have  several  of  them  in  their  service;  yet  not  so  but  tliiit  tliey 
would  return  upon  occasion;  and  indeed  all  the  seamen  are  so  ready  to  be  employed 
in  the  King's  service,  that  there  is  no  need  of  pressing  to  man  the  fleet."  See 
"Animadversions   on   a   pretended   Account   of   Denmark." 

616  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,  1902,  p.  ^4;   1897,  p.  127. 

PIETEES.  255 


Anneke  Pieters,  from  Holstein,  widow  of  Jacques  Kinnekom, 
was  married  November  22,  1652,  in  New  Amsterdam,  to  Barent 
Jansen  Bal,  from  Velthusysen  in  Benthem.  Barent  Bal's  name  is 
met  with  as  early  as  1640,  when  he  was  sponsor  at  a  baptism. 

On  August  31,  1651,  Remmert  Jansen  gave  Barnt  Jansen  Bal 
and  Hendrick  Jansen  lease  of  a  bowery  on  the  south  side  of  Hans 
Hansen's  brewery,  called  in  Indian  Rinnegackonck.  See  Calendar 
of  Manuscripts,  I.,  p.  55. 


Elsje  Pieters,  from  Holstein,  is  registered  in  the  Church  Record 
of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church  in  New  Netherland  as  Elpken 
Neven  van  Eckelvaer  in  Holstein.  The  transcriber,  no  doubt,  had 
difficulty  in  reading  the  original.  Elpken  is  a  corruption  for 
Elsje,  Aeltie,  or  Heyltie.  "Neven"  represents  an  obstinate  at- 
tempt to  decipher  Pieters  or  Peters.  Eckelvaer  is  another  cor- 
ruption. Can  it  mean  Eckernforde?  "Elpken  Nevens  van  Eckel- 
vaer" was  married,  September  14,  1652,  in  New  Amsterdam,  to 
Albert  Jansen.  He  was  widower  of  Hilletje  Willems.  "Elpken" 
was  widow  of  David  Clement.  At  the  baptism  of  a  child  of 
Jochem .  Kalder,  February  9,  1653,  Albert  and  his  wife  were 
sponsors.  Her  name  is  given  in  the  records  under  that  date  as 
Heyltie  Pieters.^^'^  Elsje  is  the  name  she  is  generally  mentioned 
by  in  the  Church  Record. 

Albert  was  a  carpenter  from  Amsterdam.  He  was  in  New 
Netherland  as  early  as  1642.  On  August  7,  1644,  he  is  credited 
with  191/^  day's  wages  at  sixteen  stivers  a  day  for  work  done  at 
the  house  of  Domine  Megapolensis  in  Albany.^is 

In  1643  he  signed  the  resolution  of  the  commonalty  of  the 

617  New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Record,    VI.,    n.    81.     Ibid.,    V., 
p.   148. 

618  Van   Rensselaer  Bowier   Manuscripts,   p.    830. 

256  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

Manhattans;  in  1654  he  acted  as  sponsor  at  a    baptism    in  New 
Amsterdam. 61^ 

He  worked  in  1653  for  Harmen  Smeeman,  a  Dane.^^*^ 

He  had  property  in  New  Amsterdam,  in  1655,  when  he  was 
taxed  for  fifteen  florins.^-^  On  February  28,  1658,  he  requested 
of  the  Court  that,  as  he  was  about  to  build  a  small  house  and  his 
lot  was  too  little,  an  adjoining  lot  be  granted  him.  The  Court 
granted  him  a  lot  next  to  that  of  Jannetje  Bones,  on  condition  of 
paying  what  it  was  valued  at.^-- 

lie  was  doing  carpenter  work  for  a  Mr.  Stickely  in  1658.  He 
seems  also  to  have  been  tanning  hides  for  upholstery.  In  June 
Stickely  brought  suit  against  Albert  for  three  hides.  Albert  an- 
swered that  he  had  made  for  Stickely  two  pillows  and  a  bedstead, 
for  which  he  was  to  have  500  pounds  of  tobacco.  The  Court  set- 
tled the  dispute  by  ordering  that  Albert  should  pay  Stickely  what 
the  hides  weighed,  in  hides  or  beavers,  on  the  condition  that 
Stickely  should  give  security  to  pay  what  he  owed  Albert.^-^ 

Albert  and  Aeltie  had  several  children. 

Albert  Jansen  was  dead  February  26,  1659,  when  guardians 
were  appointed  for  his  widow  and  the  five  surviving  children,  of 
whom  four  were  girls,  and  one  a  boy.  The  eldest  child,  Catryn, 
was  born  about  1651,  perhaps  her  father  was  Aeltie's  first  husband. 
Gritie  was  baptized  July  13,  1653;  Elsje,  July  8,  1654;  Marritje, 
September  17,  1656;  Jan,  March  31,  1658.62-1 

The  fact  that  Jochem  Kalder,  his  wife  Magdalene  Waele,  and 
Annetje  Jans  were  sponsors  at  the  baptism  of  Albert  and  Aeltie's 
daughter,  1654,  and  that  Albert  and  Aeltie  (Heyltie  Pieters)  were 
present  at  the  baptism  of  the  daughters  of  Jochem  Kalder,  Feb- 
ruary 9,  1653,  and  September  17,  1656,  shows  that  the  two  fami- 
lies were  related,  or  had  other  ties  in  common,  based  on  sympathy, 
nationality,  or  religion.^^s 

619  New   York   Colonial   Documents,    I.,   p.    193. 

620  The   Records  of   New   Amsterdam,   I.,   p.    58. 

621  Ibid.,    I.,   p.   371. 

622  Ibid.,    II.,    p.    343. 

623  Ibid.,   II.,   p.   406. 

624  Year  Book   of  the  Holland   Society   of   New   York,    1900,    p.   116.     Albert's 
wife  is  here  called  Aeltie. 

625  Collections   of    the    New   York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    H-, 
pp.   33,   37,   43. 

PIETEES.  257 


Marritje  Pieters  was  from  Copenhagen.  She  was  married, 
1639,  in  New  Amsterdam,  to  Jan  Jacobsen  of  "Vrelandt,"  a 
brother  of  CorneHus  Jacobsen  van  Vrelandt,  alias  Cornelius  Jacob- 
sen  Stille.  She  seems  to  have  been  a  relative  of  the  famous  Jonas 
Bronck  or  his  wife. 

The  marriage  contract  between  this  Danish  lady  and  her  hus- 
band is  the  earliest  recorded  instance  of  a  marriage  contract  in  New 
Netherland.  It  is  found  in  the  New  York  Colonial  Manuscripts, 
vol.  I.,  page  163,  and  in  New  Jersey  Archives,  First  Series,  vol. 
xxii.,  page  20.  The  translation  is  by  Mr.  George  R.  Howell,  at 
one  time  Archivist  of  New  York.  The  contract  bears  the  date  of 
August  15,  1639,  and  reads  thus: 

"In  the  name  of  God,  amen.  Be  it  known  unto  all  men  that 
on  the  15th  of  August  in  the  year  1639,  before  me  Cornelius  van 
Tienhoven,  Secretary  residing  in  New  Netherland  on  the  behalf  of 
the  Incorporated  West  India  Company,  and  the  undersigned  wit- 
nesses, appeared  the  worthy  Jan  Jacobsen  fram  Vrelant,  future 
bridegroom,  assisted  by  Marritje  Peters  from  Copenhagen,  his 
future  bride,  on  the  other  part,  and  they  the  appearers  declared 
that  they  had  mutually  resolved,  engaged  and  agreed  to  enter  to- 
gether the  holy  state  of  matrimony,  and  that  under  the  following 
nuptial  contract,  praying  the  Almighty  God  that  his  divine  Majesty 
would  be  pleased  to  bless  their  future  marriage  and  let  it  redound 
to  his  honor. 

"First,  in  regard  to  the  property  which  he,  the  bridegroom, 
shall  leave  behind,  in  case  he  come  to  die,  whether  movable  or  im- 
movable, or  such  as  may  rightfully  belong  to  him,  it  shall  belong  in 
free  propriety  to  Marritje  Pieters  aforesaid,  without  any  of  Jan 
Jacobsen's  blood  relations  having  any  claim  thereto.  On  the  other 
hand,  if  Marritje  Pieters,  the  future  bride,  first  happens  to  die, 
Jan  Jacobsen  shall,  in  like  manner,  own  all  her  means  and  goods, 
whether  movable  or  immovable,  in  free  propriety,  without  his 
giving  any  account  thereof  to  any  of  her  blood  relations.  Provided 
always  that  he,  the  bridegroom,  or  she,  the  bride,  aforesaid,  which- 
ever of  them  both  come  to  live  the  longest,  shall  not  possess  the 
property  longer  than  the  day  of  his  or  her  death,  and  then  be  par- 
titioned and  divided  by  the  brothers  or  lawful  heirs  of  him,  the 

258  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 

bridegroom,  and  Teuntje  Jewriaens  of  [New]  Amsterdam,  or 
Jacob  Bronc,  her  present  husband,  as  heirs  of  Marritje  Pieters 
aforesaid,  each  the  just  half. 

"Thus  done  and  executed  in  the  presence  of  the  undersigned 
witnesses  in  Fort  Amsterdam,  this  day  and  year  aforesaid. 

"This   is   the     -|-      mark   of 

"Jan  Jacobsen  above  named. 

"This  is  the    M    mark  of 

"Maritje  Peters  above  named. 
"Claes  van  Elslant,  witness.       Hermanus  A.  Booghardij,  witness." 

We  know  but  little  in  regard  to  Maritje  Pieters.  It  is  prob- 
able that  she  was  a  guest  at  the  parlor  of  the  City  Tavern,  in  New 
Amsterdam,  on  the  night  of  March  15,  1644,  where  besides  her 
husband,  Dr.  Hans  Kiersted,  Domine  Bogardus,  Nicholas  Coorn, 
Gysbert  Opdyck,  and  others  were  present  with  their  wives,  spend- 
ing, as  it  seems,  an  agreeable  evening  together.  But  the  entire 
gathering  was  put  to  flight  by  the  brazen  effrontery  of  Captain 
John  Underbill. 


Signature  of  Marritje  Pieters. 

"About  an  hour  after  supper  there  came  in  John  Onderhil, 
with  his  lieutenant  Baxter,  and  drummer,  to  whom  .  .  .  Philip 
Gerritsen  [the  owner  of  the  parlor]  said,  'Friends,  I  have  invited 
these  persons  here,  with  their  wives ;  I  therefore  request  that  you 
will  betake  yourselves  to  another  room,  where  you  can  be  furnished 
with  wine  for  money.'  They  finally  did  so,  after  many  words. 
Having  been  gone  a  short  time,  said  Onderhil  and  his  company, 
who  had  then  been  joined  by  Thomas  Willet,  invited  some  of  our 
company,  to  take  a  drink  with  them,  which  was  done.  George 
Baxter,  by  Onderhil's  orders,  came  and  requested  that  Opdyke 
would  come  and  join  them, — which  he  refused.  Thereupon  he, 
Onderhil  and  his  companions,  broke  to  pieces,  with  drawn  swords, 
the  cans  which  hung  on  the  shelf  in  the  tavern ;  endeavoring  by 
force,  having  drawn  swords  in  their  hands,  to  come  into  the  room 
where  the  invited  guests  were.     This  was  for  a  long  time  resisted 

PIETEES.  259 

by  the  landlady,  with  a  leaden  bolt,  and  by  the  landlord,  by  keeping 
the  door  shut;  but  finally  John  Onderhil  and  his  associated,  in 
spite  of  all  opposition,  came  into  the  room,  where  he  uttered  many 
words.  Captain  Onderhil,  holding  his  sword  in  hand, — the  blade 
about  a  foot  out  of  the  scabbard, — said  to  the  minister,  as  reported, 
whilst  he  grasped  his  sword :  'Clear  out  of  here,  for  I  shall  strike 
at  random!'  In  like  manner,  some  English  soldiers  came  imme- 
diately (as  we  presume,  to  his  assistance),  .  .  .  Onderhil  being  then 
guilty,  with  his  companions,  of  gross  insolence." 

Several  officers  and  a  guard  from  the  fort  were  sent  for.  But 
this  had  no  effect  on  the  drunken  English  visitors.  Underhill, 
when  threatened  that  Governor  Stuyvesant  would  be  sent  for, 
replied :  "If  the  Director  come  here,  t'is  well.  I  had  rather  speak 
to  a  wise  man  than  a  fool."  In  order  to  prevent  further  mischief, 
the  Dutch-Scandinavian  crowd  broke  up.  (Kiersted,  Bogardus, 
Jacobsen  had  Scandinavian  wives.) 

Interesting  as  Marritje's  marriage  contract  is,  equally  interest- 
ing is  the  Memorandum  of  the  engagement  of  some  farm  laborers, 
including  her  brother-in-law,  Cornelis  Jacobsen  of  Mertensdyk,  in 
1632  (?)  The  Memorandum  is  in  the  handwriting  of  Kiliaen  van 
Rensselaer : 

[June  15,  1632?] 

The  following  persons  have  been  engaged  as  farm  laborers 
for  the  term  of  four  years  commencing  on  their  arrival  on  their 
farm  in  that  country,  on  condition  that  they  receive  for  the  out- 
going and  return  voyages  a  gratuity  hereafter  specified  and  on 
pain  of  all  their  monthly  wages  and  eft'ects  if  they  leave  their  service 
[before  the  end]  of  their  term,  or  if  they  obtain  any  furs  of 
beavers,  otters  or  like  animals  by  trade,  gift  or  exchange,  which 
they  have  expressly  agreed  not  to  do;  and  in  case  they  are  asked 
by  their  farmer  to  do  any  other  work  besides  farming,  such  as 
felling  of  trees  or  other  work  which  they  are  able  to  do,  they  may 
not  refuse  it  but  must  diligently  and  willingly  do  everything  and 
also  serve  under  such  farmer  as  the  patroon  shall  direct. 

Hendrich  frerixsen  Van  bunnick,  26  years  old,  shall  receive 
120  guilders  a  year  and  a  pair  of  boots  once  in  four  years  and  as  a 
gratuity  for  the  passage  25  guilders. 

Cornelis  Jacopsen  van  Marttensdijck,  23  years  old,  shall  re- 
ceive 110  guilders  and  as  a  gratuity  for  the  passage  25  guilders. 

PIETEES.  261 

Cornells  thonissen  van  Meerkerc,  20  years  old,  shall  receive 
Can  write  a  80  guilders  and  two  pairs  of  boots,  but  if  he  behaves 
little  well  he  shall  receive  the  last  year  some  increase  and 

as  a  gratuity  50  guilders. 

gs     Marcus  Mensen  van  Cuijlenburch,  17  years  old,  shall  receive 

40,  50,  60  and  70  guilders  during  the  four  years  and  as  gratuity 
18  guilders. 

the  mark  of  the  mark  of 

X  X 

hendrick  frerixsen  Cornells  Jacopsen 

Cornis  Thonis  the  mark  of 

Marcus  Mensen 
Gerrit  de  reus  would  like  to  have  Hendrick  frerixsz,  Cornelis 
thonisen  and  Marcus  Mensen. 

Marritje's  husband,  it  appears,  was  a  brother  of  Secre- 
tary Cornelis  Van  Tienhoven,  whose  patronymic  appeared  in  the 
name  of  Cornelis  Jacobsen.  Two  brothers  had  the  same  name, 
according  to  J.  H.  Innes,  "New  Amsterdam  and  Its  People,"  p.  313. 

On  August  15,  1639,  Jonas  Bronck  leased  some  of  his  land 
for  a  period  of  six  years  to  Marritje's  husband  and  Cornelis  Jacob- 
sen  Stille,  her  brother-in-law  (not  the  secretary). 

After  the  death  of  Bronck,  his  widow  married  Arent  van 
Curler  who  sold  the  Bronck  property  to  Jacob  Jans  Stoll,  evidently 
a  son  of  Marritje  and  her  husband.  The  "Bronx"  thus  remained 
for  some  time  in  the  hands  of  a  person  of  Danish  blood. 


Styntie  Pieters,  from  Copenhagen,  was  the  wife  of  Ensign 
Christian  Nissen,  to  whom  she  was  married  February  4,  1657,  in 
New  Amsterdam.  She  and  her  husband  were  sponsors  for  sev- 
eral children  in  New  Amsterdam.  About  1660  they  removed  to 
Esopus,  where  Nissen  was  appointed  commander  of  the  garrison. 
(See  article  "Christian  Nissen."     Part  II.) 





Christian  Pietersen,  from  Husum,  was  in  New  Amsterdam 
as  early  as  1657,  when  he,  on  October  28,  married  Tryntie  Corne- 
lis,  from  Durgerdam  in  the  northern  part  of  Holland.^-^  She  was 
the  daughter  of  Adriantje  WaHch  or  WaHngs  and  Cornelis  Jansen 
Shubber.  After  the  death  of  her  father,  her  mother  was  married, 
in  1650,  to  Dirck  Theunissen,  a  Norwegian.  (See  the  article 
Dirck  Theunissen.     Part  I.) 

— ^ — ^ — '--■' 

From   Braunius:    Theatrum   urbium,    iv. 

Christian  and  Tryntie  had  several  children:  Pieter,  who  was 
baptized,  November  24,  1658,  the  sponsors  being  the  Dane,  Chris- 
tian Nissen,  and  Marritje  Cornelis;  Marie,  baptized,  December  22, 
1660;  Cornelis,  January  8,  1662;  Paulus,  June  22,  1664;  Jacob, 
October  21,  1668. 

Tryntie  and  her  mother  joined  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church 
between  1649  and  1660.     Christian  did  not  join  it. 

From  the  court  records  we  obtain  the  information  that  Pie- 
tersen sued  Jacob  Eldersen,  a  Dane,  August  28,  1658,  for  work 

626  New   York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Report,    VI.,    p.    86. 


done  in  the  latter's  brewery.  He  demanded  fl.  12:10  for  "three 
days  and  two  nights  and  one-fourth  of  a  day's  work  earned  in 
Jacob  'Wolfersen's'  brewery."  After  the  Court  had  heard  both 
parties,  Eldersen  was  ordered  to  pay  Christian  Pietersen  (here 
called  Barents)  the  demanded  sum.  Eldersen  was  slow  in  settling 
his  accounts,  and  on  September  10,  1658,  Pietersen  again  brought 
the  matter  before  the  Court,  whereupon  the  bailiff  was  instructed 
to  collect  the  money  from  Eldersen.^27 

On  November  22,  1658,  Pietersen  received  the  small  Burgher 
Right,  took  the  Burgher  oath  and  signed  an  obligation  to  pay  the 
Treasurer  20  gl.   in  beavers,  within  eight  days.^^^ 

On  August  31,  1660,  Pietersen  was  made  defendant  in  an 
action  brought  against  him  by  Jan  Janzen  van  Breestede.  The 
latter  demanded  fl.  44  for  rent  due  in  May  according  to  a  lease 
which  he  exhibited  in  court.  Pietersen  replied  that  he  had  rented 
a  house  with  a  number  of  trees  standing  in  the  garden.  But  one 
tree  had  been  taken  from  the  garden,  from  which  "he  could  have 
made  money  to  the  extent  of  three  beavers."  The  court  referred 
the  matter  to  Pieter  Cornelissen  van  der  Veen  and  Isaac  Grevenrat 
to  decide  the  question  between  the  parties  and  if  possible  reconcile 
them,  "if  not,  to  report  to  the  Court."  ^^^ 

On  October  4,  1661,  Gerrit  Hendricksen,  of  Hardewyk,  deeded 
to  Christian  Pietersen  "a  lot  south  of  the  Marckvelt  Steegh 
(Marketfield  Street)  ;  bounded  east  by  the  house  and  lot  of 
Nicholas  Boot;  south,  by  lot  of  Jacob  Teunissen  Kay;  west,  by 
the  house  and  lot  of  Frerick  Aarsen;  and  north,  by  the  steegh 
aforesaid.  On  the  north  and  south  sides,  20  feet  8  inches;  east 
side,  48  feet;  west  side,  47  feet  6  inches.  On  the  same  date 
Pietersen  deeded  this  property  to  Jacob  Leendersen  Van  der  Grist 
(Valentine,  Manual  of  .  .  .  the  city  of  New  York,  1865,  p.  684  f.). 

On  April  25,  1662,  Nicolaas  Meyer,  a  well-to-do  citizen  of 
New  Amsterdam,  formerly  a  resident  of  Hamburg,  brought  suit 
against  Pietersen,  demanding  of  him  the  balance  of  a  note  and 
book  debt,  amounting  to  the  sum  of  104  guilders  and  four  stivers. 

627  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,   II.,  p.  428;   III.,  p.   7. 

628  Ibid.,    VII.,   p.    200. 

629  Ibid.,   III.,   p.    196. 

264  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

The  defendant  said  that  Meyer  must  deduct  eighteen  guilders  for 
"a  canoe  and  a  half  "  of  hewn  stones,  which  he  delivered  him. 
Meyer  acknowledged  that  he  had  received  the  stones,  but  said  that 
there  were  but  three  carts  full.  The  Court  ordered  Pietersen  to 
pay  Meyer  the   104  guilders. 

The  case  was  again  before  the  court  May  23.  Meyer  ex- 
hibited the  judgment  which  he  had  obtained  against  Pietersen  and 
requested  "fulfillment  thereof,  whereupon  the  Court  ordered 
Pietersen  to  satisfy  and  pay  Meyer  the  judgment  ...  on  pain  of 
execution. ""3" 

On  June  19,  1663,  Isaack  Grevenraat  appeared  in  court  against 
Pietersen.  But  the  latter  was  on  "public  service,"  as  his  wife,  who 
appeared  for  him,  said.  She  requested  time  until  the  fair.  The 
court  ordered  Pietersen  to  appear  on  the  next  court  day.  As 
Pietersen  did  not  appear  on  that  day,  July  3,  Grevenrat  demanded 
that  the  attachment  issued  against  him  be  declared  valid.  The 
Court  concurred  in  the  demand.^^^ 

The  matter  remained  unsettled  as  late  as  February  14,  1665. 
For  under  this  date  the  court  minutes  read  as  follows :  "  .  .  .  Schout 
Allard  Anthony,  arrestant  and  pltf.  vs.  Christiaen  Pietrs,  arrested 
and  deft.  Pltf.  says,  it  appears  by  Tonneman's  book,  that  the  de- 
fendant has  violated  an  attachment  prosecuted  on  the  2d.  July 
1663,  by  Isaack  Grevenraat;  demanding  in  consequence  from  the 
defendant  the  fine  of  sixty  guilders  with  costs.  Defendant  says, 
as  it  was  in  the  Indian  war  he  was  allowed  by  Burgomasters  to 
go  home  on  condition  of  appearing  at  the  next  court  day,  and  in 
the  meanwhile  two  Christians  living  in  the  village  with  him  were 
killed  by  the  Indians.  Isaack  Grevenraat  also  entering,  states  that 
the  defendant  was  allowed  to  go  away.  The  Ofiicer  replying  says 
the  deft,  has  not  fulfilled  the  promise  of  his  wife  to  appear  on 
the  Court  day;  and  therefore  the  attachment  is  prosecuted  and 
declared  valid.  Burgomasters  and  Schepens  condemn  the  deft,  to 
pay  to  the  Officer  the  sixty  guilders  fine,"  unless  he  can  prove, 
that  he  had  the  Burgomaster's  consent  to  go.^^- 

Pietersen  was  interested,  it  would  appear,  in  the  welfare  and 

630  Ibid.,   IV.,   pp.   65,   85. 

631  Ibid.,    IV.,    pp.    259,    273. 
682   Ibid.,   v.,   p.    18G. 


protection  of  wronged  youth,  though  his  effort,  indicative  of  this, 
in  1671,  was  not  crowned  with   success. 

In  May  1671  Abel  Hardenbrook  brought  suit  against  Jan 
Roelofzen,  complaining  that  Roelofzen  "kept  his  runaway  boy 
fourteen  days."  He  demanded  satisfaction  for  this.  Roelofzen 
denied  that  he  had  detained  the  boy,  but  said  he  had  given  him 
lodgings  for  about  eight  days ;  after  he  had  understood  that  the 
boy  belonged  to  Hardenbrook  he  "brought  the  same  himself  to 
him."  Christiaen  Pietersen  and  Jochem  Beeckman  complained  that 
Hardenbrook  beat  and  treated  the  boy  in  such  a  way  that  he  could 
not  possibly  live  longer  with  him.  The  court  thereupon  discharged 
Roelofzen  from  arrest  and  ordered  that  the  boy  should  remain 
with  his  friends  until  next  court  day,  when  the  complaint  on  both 
sides,  relative  to  the  boy,  should  be  further  heard  and  decided. ^^•'^ 

On  the  next  court  day  Pietersen  and  Beeckman  appeared  as 
witnesses  for  the  boy,  whose  name  was  Hendrick  van  der  Borgh. 
Hardenbrook  stated  that  he  had  hired  the  boy  for  the  term  of  four 
years  to  learn  the  shoemaker's  handicraft  and  he  had  now  for 
divers  reasons  run  away.  The  witnesses  testified  that  Hardenbrook 
did  not  provide  proper  board  for  the  boy,  abused  him,  beat  him, 
kicked  him,  so  it  was  impossible  for  the  boy  to  stay  any  longer 
with  him.  The  Court  after  having  heard  the  testimony,  ordered 
that  the  parties  on  both  sides  should  be  released  from  each  other, 
and  that  the  boy  should  pay  Hardenbrook  "for  board  etc.  to  date 
hereof  the  sum  of  one  hundred  guilders  zewant  and  settle  the  costs 
incurred  herein  .  .  .^^"^ 

In  the  same  year  Assur  Levy  brought  suit  against  Pietersen. 
But  it  appears  that  the  latter  was  twice  in  default.  The  records  do 
not  state  what  the  nature  of  the  case  was.*'^-^  It  was  perhaps  re- 
garding commercial  transactions.  We  have,  it  would  seem,  a 
similar  case  under  an  earlier  date,  to  wit : 

On  May  24,  1663  "Hendrick  Jans  Spieringh  of  "Gemoenepa" 
made  a  declaration  at  the  request  of  Jurian  Hanel  regarding  com- 
mercial transactions  with  Christian  Pietersen  and  a  conversation 
regarding  the  same  with  Plans  Dietrich.  Witness  Hendrick  Lou- 
wersen  Van  der  Spiegel. "^^^ 

633  Ibid.,    VI..    p.   284f. 

634  Ibid.,   VI.,   p.  288. 

635  Ibid.,   VII.,   pp.    302,    351. 

636  Year  Book  of  the  Holland   Society  of  New  York.   1900.   p.   156. 

266  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

In  1662  Christian  Pietersen  seems  to  have  lived  for  some 
time  in  Bergen,  New  Jersey.  For  in  December,  that  year,  he  and 
other  inhabitants  of  Bergen  and  Comunipaw  petitioned  the  govern- 
ment to  be  excused  from  fencing  in  their  land,  as  timber  was 
scarce  and  the  fence  would  therefore  be  very  expensive.*^^^ 

As  late  as  1675  we  find  him  a  settler  in  Esopus.*^^^ 

We  have  two  petitions  from  him  at  about  this  time,  which 
show  that  he  had  outstanding  accounts  and  that  he  again  was, 
as  his  wife  had  testified  in  1663,  "on  public  service." 

In  1674  he  petitioned  the  Commandant  and  Court  of  Willem- 
stadt  (the  new  name  of  Albany)  against  Collector  Kregier  what 
Messrs.  Lovlace  and  Lavall  owed  him.  He  was  referred  to  the 
"Commissioners  thereunto  appointed  to  whom  it  belongs  to  examine 
the  justice  of  his  claim."  He  was  at  the  same  time  ordered  to 
pay  the  excise  which  he  owed.®^^ 

Pietersen  was  more  successful  in  his  next  petition,  the  nature 
of  which  we  ascertain  from  the  following  action  taken  on  it: 

"On  the  petition  of  Christian  Pietersen  it  is  allowed  that  the 
little  freight  which  will  be  earned  in  coming  down  and  going  back 
shall  not  be  paid  to  the  public  treasury,  but  to  him  individually, 
inasmuch  as  he  was  pressed  by  the  Commandant  and  Court  of  Wil- 
lemstadt  to  bring  down  the  Committees  and  French  prisoners."** 

Pietersen  was  listed  in  1674  as  possessing,  in  New  Amster- 
dam, property,  rated  as  "third  class,"  on  the  present  Stone  Street, 
between  Whitehall  and  Broad  St.  (Year  Book  of  the  Holland 
Society  of  New  York,  1896)      He  died  before  1686. 


Jan  Pietersen,  a  woodsawyer,  from  Husum,  was  in  New  Am- 
sterdam about  1639.  Under  date  of  March  3,  1689.  we  have  an 
indenture  of  Thomas  Wesson  to  serve  Jan  Pietersen  from  Husum 

637  New   York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    234. 

638  Year  Book  of  the  Holland   Society   of   New   York.    1897.    p.    127. 

639  New  York   Colonial  Documents,   II.,   p.   687. 

640  Ibid.,    II..   p.    708. 


for  three  years.  Under  the  date  of  June  20,  1640,  we  find  a 
receipt  of  Jan  Pietersen  of  Husum  for  three  mares  and  three  milk 
cows  which  he  hired  from  the  West  India  Company.^^i 

It  seems  that  he  married  twice.  The  name  of  his  first  wife 
was  Elsje.  By  her  he  had  a  daughter  Neeltjen,  who  was  baptized 
September  9,  1640 ;  a  son,  Jan,  baptized  June  28,  1643 ;  again  a 
daughter,  Annetje,  baptized  January  28,   1646. 

After  the  death  of  his  first  wife,  it  would  seem  that  he,  on 
May  15,  1652,  married  Grietje  Jans,  of  Groeningen.*''*^  By  her 
he  had  a  daughter  Elsje,  who  was  baptized,  July  13,  1653. 

On  March  28,  1658,  Nicasius  de  Silla  sold  to  "Jan  Pietersen, 
woodsawyer  from  Holstein  a  lot  in  the  Sheep  Valley,  length  on  the 
east  side  seven  running  feet;  on  north  eighty-nine,  on  west  side,  on 
the  Prince  Graght,  twenty-nine,  and  on  the  south  side  ninety-four 
running  feet."  This  would  be  on  the  east  side  of  the  present  Broad 
Street,  south  of  Exchange  Place,  says  D.  T.  Valentine  (1861).*'^3 
In  1659  Pietersen  bought  land  of  Symon  Leen.*^^^ 
On  June  1  "Jan  Pietersen  Van  Holstein  conveyed  to  Thomas 
Wandel  "a  house  and  lot  east  of  the  Prince  Graght ;  bounded  north 
by  house  and  lot  of  Fiscal  De  Sille ;  east  by  lot  of  said  De  Sille ; 
south,  by  house  and  lot  of  Hermen  Van  Hoboocken ;  west,  by  the 
said  Graght.  On  the  east,  7  feet ;  on  the  north,  89 ;  on  the  west, 
29;  on  the  south,  94."  (Valentine,  Manual  of  the  .  .  .  City  of  New 
York  1864,  p.  664.) 


Signature   of  Jan   Pietersen  van  Holstein,    1659. 

On  August  22,  1659,  he  appeared  before  the  Council  stating 
that  he  had  an  account  against  the  city  for  four  guilders,  "for  rid- 
ing timber."  He  was  directed  to  take  a  note  from  the  president  and 
bring  it  to  the  treasurer.^'*^ 

641  Calendar  of  Historical  Manuscripts,  I.  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam 
1653-1674,   III.,    p.    38. 

642  New  York  Genealogical  and  Biographical  Record,  VI.,  p.  81.  Cfr.  dates 
of  December  18.  1672,  May  16.  1678,  February  8,  1680,  in  the  Record  of  Baptisms 
of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church  in  New  Amsterdam. 

643  D.   T.  Valentine,    Manual   of   .    .   .    the   City   of  New   York,    1861.   p.    598. 

644  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1658-1674,    III.,    p.    38. 

645  Ibid.,    VII.,    p.    231. 

268  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

In  1661  Arent  Cornelis  Vogel  brought  suit  against  him.  But 
as  they  both  had  accounts  against  each  other,  they  requested 
arbitrators.  The  arbitrators,  however,  were  not  able  to  settle  it 
that  year,  and  in  1662  Vogel  brought  new  proceedings  against 
Pietersen  for  four  guilders,  eight  stivers  and  eight  pence  —  "and 
moreover  a  seven  years  cow  and  its  increase."  Pietersen's  account 
against  Vogel  amounted  to  fl.  165,17:8  in  beavers.  He  requested 
that  the  case  might  be  finally  disposed  of  by  arbitrators  under 
proper  submission.  The  court  appointed  arbitrators  to  decide  the 
case,  and,  if  possible,  to  reconcile  the  parties. *'^^ 


Jan  Pietersen,  from  Dithmarschen.  was  a  soldier  whose  name 
is  on  the  list  of  passengers  that  sailed  from  Holland  to  New  Am- 
sterdam in  "de  Bonte  Koe",  April  15,  1660.64' 


Marritje  Pietersen,  from  Copenhagen,  was  married  on  July 
28,  1641,  in  New  Amsterdam,  to  Albert  Pietersen  of  Hamburg, 
commonly  known  as  Albert  the  Trumpeter,  being  a  trumpeter  in 
the  service  of  the  West  India  Company.^'^s 

On  February  22,  1649,  he  bought,  in  New  Amsterdam,  a  lot 
of  Jan  Corn(elis)  van  Hoorn.  It  was  situate  on  the  West  side  of 
the  Graft  between  the  lot  of  Frederick  Lubbertsen  and  Conrate 
Ten  Eyck :  "breadth  in  front  of  the  road  or  east  2%  rods  and 
Yz  a  foot ;  in  the  rear  on  the  west,  3  rods.  Depth  on  the  north, 
7  rods,  2  feet;  on  the  south,  7  rods  less  2  feet."  Albert  built  a 
house  upon  this  lot  and  sold  both  to  Reynhout  Rynehoutsen, 
January  19,  1656.«49 

646  Ibid.,    IV.,    p.    168f. 

647  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York.    1902,  p.   14. 

648  New  York   Grenealogical   and  Biographicnl   Record,   VI.,   p.   33. 

649  T).   T.   Valentine,    Manual   of  the   .   .   .    City   of   New   York,    1861,    p.    582. 


On  July  1,  1652,  he  bought  a  lot  on  the  north  side  of  Prince 
Street,  and  about  eighty-five  feet  east  of  the  present  Broad  Street. 
Here,  too,  he  built  a  house.**^*^ 

In  1654  he  asked  for  and  obtained  permission  to  sell  beer  and 
wine  by  small  measure.  It  would  appear  that  he  also  sold  fish 
and  perhaps   other  merchandise,   like   butter  or  pork.'^^i 

Marritje  was  several  times  in  court.  On  November  9,  1654, 
she  sued  Maria  de  Truwe,  demanding  payment  of  fl.  3.11  for  fish 
sold  to  her.  Maria  defended  herself  by  saying  that  she  had  "sent 
the  money  by  the  servant,  and  it  fell  into  the  ditch."  She  had 
no  more  money  for  the  time  being,  but  promised  payment  at  the 
earliest  opportunity.  Marritje  was  satisfied  with  this  explanation, 
and  the  two  women  left  the  city  hall  reconciled. 

Marritje  was  often  obliged  to  visit  the  court  in  order  to  give 
her  testimony  m  regard  to  the  conduct  of  visitors  who  came  to  her 
husband's  place  *'for  beer  and  wine  by  small  measure"  or  for 

She  appeared  in  court  on  September  21,  1660,  testifying  in 
behalf  of  Jan  Rutgersen,  who  was  prosecuted  for  having  struck 
the  wife  of  Frerick  Aarsen.  The  defendant  "denied  it,  bringing 
with  him  Merritje  Pieters,  Albert  Trumpeter's  wife,  as  witness, 
who  declares,  that  she  did  not  see  him  strike  Frerick  Aarsen's  wife." 
Grietje  Pieters,  Aarsen's  wife,  claimed,  however,  that  Rutgersen 
had  struck  her,  and  "if  she  had  not  prevented  it,  he  would  have 
beaten  in  her  brains."  She  now  related  the  causes  which  gave  rise 
to  it.  Marritje's  testimony  did  not  save  Rutgersen,  nor  did  Grietje 
Pieters,  the  wife  of  Aarsen,  gain  anything  by  using  strong  lan- 
guage. Rutgersen  was  fined  six  guilders ;  Grietje  Pieters.  three 
guilder*  "for  her  evil  speaking."*'^^ 

A  week  later  Marritje  appeared  in  court  again,  and  this  time 
her  testimony  saved  her  husband  from  a  fine  for  selling  fish  on  a 
Sunday  morning. 

The  court  records  give  this  information  concerning  her  testi- 
mony : 

"[Tuesday,  28  September]  .  .  .  Schout  Pieter  Tonneman,  pltf. 
vs.  Albert  Trompetter,  deft.     Pltf.  says,  that  deft,  sold  fish  on  Sun- 

650  J.   H.   Innes,   New  Amsterdam   and   Its  People,   p.    150. 

651  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    I.,   pp.    261,   269. 

652  Ibid.,   III.,   p.   215. 

270  DANISH  IMMIGKANTS  IN   NEW   YORK,   1630-1674. 

day  morning,  and  that  Resolveert  Waldron  has  subjected  him  to 
the  fine.  Resolveert  Waldron  appearing  in  court  declares  he  fined 
him  because  he  sold  fish  on  Sunday  morning.  Deft.'s  wife  appears 
in  Court,  says  it  occurred  before  the  ringing  of  the  bell."  The 
Court  dismissed  the  Officer's  suit  as  the  occurence  took  place  be- 
fore the  preaching.^^3 

Of  other  lawsuits  which  directly  concerned  Marritje's  hus- 
band, we  shall  mention  the  following. 

On  November  1,  1660,  "Johannes  Nevius,  rising  in  the  court 
room  of  New  Amsterdam  prosecuted  an  arrest  made  on  a  tub  of 
butter  in  the  possession  of  Albert  Trumpeter  belonging  to  Jan 
Arcet  alias  Jan  Coopal ;  having  a  claim  thereon."  The  court  de- 
clared the  arrest  valid. ®^* 

On  September  16,  1664,  Albert  Trumpeter  prosecuted  "an 
attachment  made  on  a  hog."  The  Court  also  declared  this  attach- 
ment valid. *'^^ 

On  September  2o.  1664,  Marritje's  husband  prosecuted  Daniel 
Tourner  for  taking  a  hog  from  Barent  Island.  Tourner,  who  de- 
clared he  "thought  it  was  his  own,  was  ordered  by  the  Court  to 
make  good  the   removed   hog  to  Albert  Trumpeter."''^^ 

On  October  11,  1664,  Marritje  appeared  in  court  protesting 
against  a  fine  that  had  been  imposed  upon  her  husband.  We  know 
very  little  about  the  particulars.  From  the  minutes  we  infer  that 
Albert  had  been  engaged  in  a  brawl : 

"Schout  Pieter  Tonneman,  pltf.  vs.  Albert  Trumpetter,  deft. 
Pltf.  demands  from  deft,  pursuant  to  award  of  arbitrators,  the  sum 
of  thirty  guilders  for  a  fine  imposed.  Deft.'s  wife  appearing  says, 
she  does  not  know  for  what  the  fine  is  to  be  given,  as  her  husband 
was  struck ;  admits  to  have  demanded  arbitrators  to  settle  the 
matter  in  order  to  prevent  further  mischief,  but  is  not  content  with 

653  Ibid.,  III.,   p.   218. 

654  Ibid.,  III.,  p.  243. 

655  Ibid.,  v.,   p.   114. 

656  Ibid.,  v.,  p.   117. 


the  award.  The  W.  Court  decree,  as  deft,  is  not  content  with  the 
award  of  arbitrators,  that  the  Officer  shall  enter  his  case  anew 
and  for  this  purpose  summon  the  deft,  again. "•'^'^ 

Marritje  and  Albert  had  a  child,  Griet,  who  was  baptized  on 
May  24,  1649.  They  lived,  in  1674,  on  the  present  William  Street, 
between  Hanover  Square  and  Wall  Street,  then  known  as  the 
Smith  street.     In  1679  their  house  was  assessed  at  4s. 

In   1673,  he  sold  the  lot  he  had  bought  in   1652. 

The  deed  of  sale  (Collections  of  the  New  York  Historical 
Society  for  .  .   .  1913,  v.  XLVL,  pp.  16f.)    reads: 

"Appeared  before  me  Nicholas  Bayard,  Secretary  of  the  City 
of  New  Orange  the  worthy  Albert  Pietersz  Trompetter,  burgher 
and  inhabitant  of  this  City,  who  in  the  presence  of  the  subscribed 
Messrs.  Schepens  (by  virtue  of  certain  deed  of  Mr.  Petrus  Stuyve- 
sant,  dated  July  1,  1652  &  confirmation  of  the  same  by  Col.  Richard 
Nicolls  under  date  of  Feb.  14,  1667)  declared  to  cede,  transfer  and 
convey  in  a  right  true  and  free  ownership  to  and  in  behalf  of  Mr, 
Gabriel  Minvielle,  Merchant  within  this  City,  a  certain  his  house 
&  lot  with  everything  on  and  in  the  same  fixed  to  the  earth  and 
rights  as  the  said  Albert  Pietersz  has  possessed  and  owned  the 
same,  as  the  said  house  and  lot  is  fenced  in,  erected  and  confined, 
standing  and  situated  within  this  city  in  the  Sheep  Meadow,  now 
named  the  Prince's  Street  broad  on  the  South  side  of  the  Street 
three  Rods,  one  foot  in  the  rear  broad  on  the  North  side  two  rods 
and  seven  feet ;  long  on  the  East  side  Nine  rods  seven  feet  and 
on  the  West  side  ten  rods ;  all  free  and  unencumbered  without  any 
charge  neither  resting  on  nor  emanating  from  the  same,  excepting 
the  Lord's  right,  For  which  said  house  and  lot  said  Albert  Trom- 
petter acknowledged  and  declared  to  be  well  and  thankfully  satis- 
fied and  paid.  Consequently  said  Albert  Trompetter  in  behalf  of 
the  said  Gabriel  Minvielle  declares  to  cede  and  convey  all  property 
right,  claims  and  pretensions  he  has  possessed  in  said  house  and 
lot,  promising  not  to  proceed  nor  cause  to  be  proceeded  against  the 
same  either  in  law  or  otherwise,  pledging  his  person  and  goods, 
real  and  personal  none  excepted.  In  testimony  of  the  truth  the 
present   has   been   subscribed   to   by   grantor   besides   the    Messrs. 

657  Ibid.,   v.,   p.    134. 

272  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

Schepens  at  New  Orange  on  the  island  Manhatans,  September  30, 
1673.     Guilain  Verplanck. 

''This  is 
made  by 


the  mark 

Signature   of   Albert    Pietersen,    husband   of   Marritje   Pietersen. 

"In  my  presence 

"Epraim   Herman 


Michel  Pies,  from  Holstein,  came  to  New  Netherland  in  1658. 
He  sailed  on  the  ship  "de  Bruynvis",  which  left  Holland  on  June 
19,  1658.  He  was  accompanied  by  his  wife  and  two  children,  one 
of  whom  was  four  years  old,  the  other  an  infant. ®^^ 


Claes  Pouwelsen  a  mason  from  Dithmarschen,  came  to  New 
Netherland  in  "de  vergulde  Otter",  which  sailed  December  22, 
1657.^^*^  He  must  not  be  taken  for  Claes  Poulisen,  who  was  taxed 
in  New  Netherland  in  1655.  It  is  possible  that  Claes  Pouwelsen  re- 
turned to  Dithmarschen,  and  thence  came  a  second  time  to  New 
Netherland  in  the  ship  "de  Pumerlander,"  which  sailed  October 
12,  1662. ^6*^  A  Clause  Pouwelsen  took  the  oath  of  allegiance  in 
1664,  when  the  English  conquered  New  Netherland. 

658  Year  Book   of  the   Holland   Society  of  New  York,    1902,   p.   7. 

659  Ibid.,  p.  6. 

660  Ibid,,    1902. 

EANZOW.  273 


Juriaen  Pouwelsen  was  from  Schleswig,  Denmark.  He  came 
over  by  "den  Houttuyn,"  which  sailed  from  Texel,  in  June,  1642, 
arriving  at  New  Amsterdam  on  August  4,  1642.  He  began  to 
serve  in  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck  August  13,  in  the  same 
year.  He  must  have  been  quite  young  at  the  time,  as  he  is  referred 
to  as  Jeuriaen  Poulisz  Jongen  (the  boy).  In  July,  1644,  he  was  a 
servant  of  a  Michiel  Jansz.  He  does  not  appear  in  the  accounts 
of  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck  after  1644.^^^ 


Jonas  Ranzow  (Ranzo,  Ranson,  Rantson)  ,from  Holstein, 
was  in  New  Netherland  as  early  as  1659  or  before.  On  April 
12,  in  that  year,  he  was  sponsor,  in  New  Amsterdam,  at  the  baptism 
of  Jannetje,  a  child  of  Peter  Van  Doren  and  "annetje  Ranken" 
(perhaps  a  sister  of  Ranzow). ^^^ 

In  1661  he  was  Corporal  in  the  garrison  on  the  Esopus.  He 
paid  in  the  same  year  excise  on  beer  and  wine.^^^ 

In  1663  he  was  an  important  member  of  the  council  of  war  in 
Kingston   (Esopus). ^^^ 

On  September  21,  1664,  he  married  in  New  Amsterdam  Catha- 
ryntie  Hendricks,  daughter  of  Hendrick  Hendricksen,  from  Er- 
langen,  in  Germany.^^^ 

Under  date  of  September  30,  in  the  same  year,  Nicholas  Gosten 
brought  suit  against  Ranzow.  The  charges  are  not  specified  in 
the  minutes  of  the  court.     Ranzow   was   in   default.^^^ 

In  December  Ranzow  and  his  wife,  and  her  parents  were 
permitted,  on  their  own  request  to  leave  New  York  for  Europe. 

661  Van  Rensselaer  Bowier  Manuscripts,   p.   828. 

662  Collections   of   the   New   York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    II., 
p.    52.  ,{ 

663  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,   1897,  p.   128.      New  York 
Colonial  Documents,   XIII.,   pp.   153,   201,   212. 

664  Ibid.,   rV.,  p.   88. 

665  New   York   Genealogical   and   Biographical   Record,    VI.,   p.    146. 

666  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    V.,    p.    121. 

274  DANISH  IMMlcrEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

Evidently   the   change    in   government   caused    many   to   return   to 

We  append  a  copy  of  the  pass  which  the  Governor  gave  them. 

"Whereas  the  Bearer  hereof  Hendrick  Hendrickse  van  Er- 
langer  hath  requested  of  me  Liberty  to  Transport  himself,  wife 
and  Sonn  in  Law  Jonas  Ranzo,  and  his  wife,  unto  Holland,  these 
are  therefore  in  his  Maties  name  to  require  all  Persons  to  permit 
and  suffer  the  persons  above  said  ...  to  pass  in  the  Ship  Unity  .  .  . 
unto  any  Port  or  Harbor  of  Holland.®^''' 

"Manhatans  7th  day  of  Dec.  1664. 

'"Richard  Nicolls.' 


Hans  Rasmussen,  judging  from  the  name,  was  a  Scandinavian, 
probably  a  Dane.  He  served  as  a  soldier  in  New  Netherland,  and 
the  records  state  that  in  the  year  1662  he  was  paid  for  a  certain 
term  of  service  Fl.  124.  15.  S.^es 


Mathys  Roelofs,  from  Denmark,  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam, 
with  wife  and  child,  in  1659.  He  sailed  with  the  ship  "de  Trouw." 
which  left  Holland  for  New  Netherland  February  12,  1659.  His 
child  was  at  that  time  three  years  of  age.^"^ 

In  August,  1659,  he  acquired  land  in  Esopus.  At  about  the 
same  time  he  joined  with  others  in  petitioning  the  authorities  in 
New  Amsterdam  for  the  appointment  of  Rev.  Bloem  as  a  pastor 
in  Esopus.^'^"  Two  months  later  he  and  some  other  settlers  in 
Esopus  signed  a  letter  addressed  to  Director  Stuyvesant,  stating 

667  Colonial   Records   of   General   Entries,   VI.,    1664-65.      In   University   of  the 
State  of  New  York  State   Library  Report,    1898. 

668  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    II.,    p.    182. 

669  Year   Book   of   the   Holland    Society   of   New   York,    1902,    p.    8. 

670  New   York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    103. 

SLOT.  275 

that  they  were  besieged  by  Indians  at  the  Fort.     He  signed  with 

Signature   of   Mathys   Roelofs. 

We  next  find  him  designated  in  the  muster  roll  as  "Constable 
in  the  Netherland  service."^''^ 

In  May,  1661,  he  obtained  a  lot  in  Esoptis.^'- 

From  the  Baptismal  Registers  of  the  old  Dutch  Reformed 
Church  of  Kingston  we  learn  that  the  name  of  Roelofs  wife  was 
Aeltje  Sybrants,  and  that  his  son  Sybrant  was  baptized  in  1661 
(the  date  is  torn  out  of  the  Register).  Among  the  sponsors  at  this 
baptism  were  three  Danes,  Christian  Nyssen.  Jan  Pietersen,  Jonas 
Ransou   (Ranzow).^'''^ 

Under  date  of  June  7,  1663,  an  entry  states  that  "two  little 
boys  of  Mathys  Roelofs  were  killed  by  Indians  at  Wiltwyck."'^"* 
These  boys  must  have  been  the  infant  Sybrant,  and  his  brother 
who  came  over,  with  his  parents,  in  1659. 

In  April,  1664,  Mathys  Roelofs  himself  followed  his  little 
sons  in  death,  being  killed  by  Wapping  savages. ®^^  His  wife  sur- 
vived him. 


Jan  Pietersen  Slot,  the  ancestor  of  the  Slottes  or  Sloats  of 
Orange  County,  New  York,  came  over  in  1650  from  Holstein.  He 
was  accompanied  by  his  two  sons  Johan  and  Pieter,  who  had  been 
born  in  Amsterdam.  He  settled  at  Harlem,  where  he  became 
prominent.  He  was  a  carpenter  by  trade.  From  1660  to  1665 
he  served  as  magistrate.     In  1662  he  sold  a  house  and  lot  to  Dirck 

671  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    119. 

672  Ibid  ,   XIII.,  p.    195. 

673  R.   R.   Hoes,    Baptismal    and   Marriage   Registers   of   tlie   old   Dutch   Church 
of  Kingston,   p.  2. 

674  New   York    Colonial   Documents,    XIII.,    p.    246. 

675  Ibid.,    XIII.,    p.    371. 

276  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

Jansen,  the  Cooper.  In  1665  he  bought  land  at  the  Bowery  in 
New  Amsterdam.  He  acquired  land  in  1667  also.  At  about  this 
time  he  moved  to  New  Amsterdam,  where  he  resided  till  1686. 
He  lived  for  a  while  in  Wall  Street.     He  died  in  1703.6'6 

His  wife,  Claertje  Dominicus  was  a  member   (1686j   of  the 
Dutch  Reformed  Church  in  New  Amsterdam. 


Johan  Jansen  Slot  came  over  with  his  father,  Jan  Pietersen 
Slot  and  his  brother  Pieter  Jansen  Slot,  in  1650.  His  father  was 
from  Holstein,  who  before  coming  to  New  Netherland  resided  a 
while  in  Amsterdam,  where  his  two  sons  were  born. 

On  April  28,  1672,  Johan  married,  in  New  Amsterdam,  Judith 
Elswarts.^''"^  He  made  his  residence  in  New  Amsterdam.  Some 
of  his  children  removed  to  Hackensack.  On  November  10,  1676, 
he  was  assessed  in  the  city  of  New  York  12s.  6d.  In  February, 
1677,  he  had  a  credit,  on  the  books  of  the  city  of  New  York,  of  f70 
in  wampum.* 


Pieter  Jansen  Slot,  a  son  of  Jan  Pietersen  Slot,  a  Dane, 
came  over  with  his  father  in  1650.  He  was  born  in  Amsterdam, 
to  which  his  father  had  immigrated. 

On  May  14,  1657,  he  bought  fifty  acres  of  land  at  Communi- 
paw  in  Bergen  County,  New  Jersey,  on  which  he  was  located  in 

On  August  22,  he  was  sponsor  for  Jannetje.  daughter  of 
Francois  Leerhie  and  Jannetje  Hillebrants. 

676  Teunis  G.  Bergen,  Register  of  Early  Settlers  of  Kings  County,  p.  264. 
J.  Riker,  Harlem,  Its  Origin  and  Early  Annals,  p.  217.  Cornelius  B.  Harvey.  Genea- 
logical History  of  Hudson  and  Bergen  Counties,   pp.    19,    182. 

677  Collections  of  the  New  York  Genealogical  and  Biographical  Society,  I., 
p.  36. 

•   Minutes   of   the    Common    Council   of   the    City   of   New   York.    I.,    pp.    32,   44. 

SLOT.  277 

On  February  2,  1663,  he  married  Maritie  Jacobs  Van  Hoorn, 
or  Winkle,  of  Bergen. "^"^  He  became  a  member  of  the  Dutch 

In  regard  to  the  marriage  festivities  of  Slot,  Mr.  J.  Riker 
relates  the  following: 

"It  happened  that  Pieter  Jansen  Slot,  son  of  the  ex-schepen, 
was  to  wed  a  fair  damsel  of  Ahasimus,*  by  name  Marritie  Van 
Winckel.  The  young  roysters  of  the  village  hearing,  on  Friday, 
February  2d.  1663,  that  the  bans  had  that  day  been  registered, 
were  jubilant  over  the  news,  and  set  to  work, — it  was  an  ancient 
rustic  custom  of  fatherland,  —  to  honor  the  happy  Pieter  by 
planting  a  May-tree  before  his  door.  Now  some  workmen  in 
the  employ  of  Mr.  Muyden  and  others,  in  for  ruder  sport,  not  only 
raised  'a  horrible  noise  in  the  village  by  shouting,  blowing  horns, 
etc.,  while  others  were  asleep,'  but  proceeded  to  deck  the  May-tree 
with  ragged  stockings ;  at  which,  when  discovered  by  Pieter,  he 
was  very  wroth,  taking  it  a  'a  mockery  and  insult.'  He  at  once  cut 
the  tree  down,  but  the  young  men  brought  another  to  take  its 
place ;  when,  as  it  lay  before  the  house,  along  came  Muyden's  men 
and  hewed  it  in  pieces.  Not  to  be  baffled,  the  young  folk  the  same 
night  procured  and  raised  a  third  tree,  which,  however,  shared 
the  same  fate. 

"On  Sunday  morning,  February  4th,  Jan  Pietersen,  at  whose 
house  Pieter  was  staying  and  all  this  happened,  made  his  com- 
plaint to  Montagne,  the  schout ;  the  masters  also  informing  him 
that  their  men  were  plotting  other  mischief,  but  that  they  had  no 
power  to  prevent  it.  The  schout,  now  going  thither,  ordered  the 
rioters  to  disperse ;  but  they  only  defied  him,  and  even  threatened 
him  with  their  guns  and  axes.  Only  more  enraged,  they  gave  the 
Sabbath  to  cutting  down  and  burning  the  palisades  around  Jacques 
Cresson's  barn.  Next  morning  Jacob  Elderts,  who  had  lately 
bought  a  lot  on  Van  Keulen's  Hool,  was  engaged  bringing  thatch 
from  Bronck's  meadow.  Before  he  had  spoken  "a  single  word" 
they  caught  and  beat  him,  also  wounding  him  on  the  head.  In 
vain  'Meester  Willem'  who  witnessed  the  assault,  commanded  them 
to  desist.     Perhaps  it  was  to  pay  off  Elderts  for  the  death  of  their 

678   Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 
p.  28. 

*   New  Jersey. 

278  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

countryman  Bruyn  Barents,  a  cooper,  five  years  before;  perhaps 

"The  Schout,  seeing  that  the  rioters  heeded  not  his  authority, 
and  apprehending  further  trouble,  hastened  the  same  day,  to  in- 
form the  Director,  who  with  the  Council,  referred  the  matter  to 
the  Attorney-General  to  take  further  information  about  it."^'^^ 

In  1671,  Pieter  Jansen  sold  the  Bergen  lands  and  removed 
to  New  Amsterdam,  remaining  there  until  1677,  when  he  removed 
to  Esopus  and  followed  his  trade  as  a  builder. 

In  1673,  after  the  Dutch  regained  possession  of  New  Nether- 
land,  he  requested  of  the  magistrates  of  New  Orange  (=  New 
Amsterdam)   a  lot.^^^* 

Pieter  Jansen  Slot  had  five  children :  John,  born  in  1665 ; 
Jacobus,  1669;  Tryntie,  1671;  Aeltie,  1678;  Jonas,  1681.  The 
descendants  of  these  are  thickly  scattered  over  Rockland  County, 
New  York,  and  Bergen  County,  New  Jersey.^^^ 

Pieter  died  in  1688.  In  1692  his  widow  was  married  to 
Jean  de  Mareets.^^^ 


Herman  Smeeman,  from  Dithmarschen,  was  in  New  Amster- 
dam as  early  as  1645  or  before.  On  December  4,  of  that  year, 
he  married,  in  this  city,  Elisabeth  Everts,  the  widow  of  Barent 

On  April  2,  1647,  he  obtained  a  patent  of  23  morgens,  480 
rods  of  land  on  the  East  river,  "north  of  the  West  India  Company's 
great  bouwerey."^^^ 

On  May  4,  1653,  Michael  Jansen  conveyed  to  Smeeman  "25 
morgens  of  land  with  the  house  and  all  that  is  thereon."     In  the 

679  J.    Riker,    Harlem,    Its   Origin    and    Early    Annals,    p.    196. 

680  New  York   Colonial  Documents,   II.,   p.   631. 

681  Harvey,    Genealogical   History    of   Hudson   and   Bergen    Counties,   p.    182. 

682  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I-. 
p.   71. 

683  Calendar   of   Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.   374. 

SMEEMAN.  279 

same  year  Smeeman  leased  25  morgens,  belonging  to  Olof  Steven- 
sen  Cortland,  at  38  guilders  in  annual  rent.^^^ 

From  the  court  records  we  glean  the  following  in  regard  to 
Herman  Smeeman.  In  February,  1653,  he  was  sued  by  Sybout 
Clousen,  who  demanded  the  payment  of  six  beavers,  earned  from 
Volckert  Evertsen  deceased,  whose  estate  had  gone  into  the  hands 
of  Smeeman,  as  heir.  Evertsen  seems  to  have  been  a  relative  of 
Smeeman's  wife.  Smeeman  denied  the  debt  on  the  ground  that 
it  had  not  been  mentioned  in  former  accounts  or  been  talked  of ; 
and  he  demanded  of  Clousen  a  payment  of  thirteen  beavers,  ac- 
cording to  judgment  of  the  Court  on  October  7,  1652.  The  Court 
decided  the  case  in  favor  of  Smeeman.  On  the  next  court  day 
Clousen  brought  his  account  books  into  court,  and  Smeeman  now 
acknowledged  that  he  had  not  paid  for  the  coffin  for  the  deceased. 
The  Court,  however,  ordered  that  Clousen  should  swear  to  his 
accounts.  If  he  could  not  swear  to  them,  his  demand  was  to  be 
refused.  Later  Clousen  swore  to  the  truth  of  the  statement,  and 
Smeeman  was  condemned  to  pay  for  the  coffin. ^^5 

On  May  11,  1654,  Smeeman  petitioned  the  city  council  that 
he  might  retail  wine  and  beer  to  the  traveler,  out  of  the  city  on 
his  own  farm,  by  paying  the  usual  excise  or  the  sum  the  Council 
and  he  could  agree  on.  But  the  Council  declared :  "the  petitioner 
can  not  have  his  prayer  granted  for  sufficient  reasons. "^^^ 

On  October  23,  1656,  Jan  Barentsen  sued  Smeeman  for  the 
sum  of  fl.  65.10.  Smeeman  acknowledged  the  debt  and  offered  to 
pay,  but  said  that  Barentsen  had  "arrested  his  pease  in  the  straw 
and  therefore  cannot  thrash  them  to  make  money  and  pay  the 
defendant."  The  court  decided,  after  having  heard  both  parties, 
that  Smeeman  should  have  "eight  days  from  this  date"  to  pay 
the  defendant.  But  the  "arrest"  was  declared  invalid  "as  the 
defendant  is  a  burgher  here."^^'^ 

On  January  21,  1658,  Michael  Jansen  brought  suit  against 
Smeeman.  He  demanded  payment  of  the  price  of  his  bowery, 
"about  the  sum  of  fl.  900  in  good  pay,  which  one  trader  can  pass 

684  Ibid.,   I.,  p.  378. 

685  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    I.,    pp.    .50,    52.    58. 

686  Ibid.,   I.,  p.   197. 

687  Ibid.,    II.,    p.    196. 

280  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

off  the  other."  Smeeman  admitted  the  debt,  and  requested  that 
the  bowery  be  sold  in  order  that  Jansen  might  get  his  pay,  as  the 
bowery  was  mortgaged.  The  Court,  however,  ordered  Smeeman 
to  pay  Jansen  the  sum  demanded  within  one  month's  time.^^s 

In  1654,  Smeeman  is  mentioned  as  an  administrator  of  some 
property,  and  in  1656  as  guardian  for  six  minor  children  of  Aryan- 
tie  Curn,  widow  of  Cornelis  Claesen   Swits.*^^^ 

Harmen  Smeeman  was  one  of  the  signers  of  the  Lutherans' 
petition  (165  f.),  asking  that  the  Lutheran  pastor  Goetwater  might 
be  permitted  to  stay  in  New  Netherland,  instead  of  being  deported 
as  the  government  had  unjustly  ordered. ^^^ 

In  1661,  Smeeman  went  to  live  in  Bergen,  New  Jersey. 
Bergen  obtained,  on  September  15,  1661,  a  patent  of  incorporation. 
It  was  called  Bergen,  after  the  town  of  that  name  in  North  Hol- 
land. Michael  Jansen,  Herman  Smeeman,  Casper  Steinmets,  and 
Tielman  van  Neck  were  the  first  magistrates  of  earliest  court  of 
justice  erected  within  the  limits  of  the  present  state  of  New  Jersey. 

In  1661  Smeeman  and  the  three  other  magistrates  of  Bergen 
petitioned  the  Director-General  and  Council  "that  they  may  have 
a  God-fearing  man  and  preacher,  to  be  an  example  to,  and  teach 
the  fear  of  God  in,  the  community  of  Bergen  and  its  jurisdiction." 
They  had  passed  a  list  for  voluntary  subscriptions  towards  paying 
the  salary  of  a  minister.  Twenty-seven  persons  had  voluntarily 
subscribed  fl.  417,  which  sum  would  be  the  approximate  annual 
salary  of  the  minister.     Smeeman  himself  subscribed  fl.  25.^^^ 

Smeeman  often  acted  as  sponsor  at  baptisms  in  New  Amster- 

On  April  7,  1647,  he  was  sponsor  at  the  baptism  of  Aeltie. 
child  of  Hendrick  Van  Duisberg;  July  4,  1649,  at  the  baptism  of 
Geertie,  child  of  Cosyn  Gerritsen ;  October  23,  1650,  at  the  baptism 
of  Christian,  child  of  Claes  Martensen ;  February  18.  1657.  at  the 
baptism  of  Christian,  a  child  of  Christiaen  Barentsen  and  Jannetje 

688  Ibid.,    II.,    p.    307. 

689  Year   Book   of   the   Holland    Society    of    New    York.    1900.    pp.    173,    112. 

690  See   reference   42. 

691  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII.,    p.    233. 


Jans;  Dec.  29,  1661,  at  the  baptism  of  Marritie,  child  of  Jan  Lub- 
bertsen ;  May  24,  1662,  at  the  baptism  of  Johannes,  child  of 
Adriaen  Hendrickszen  and  Gritie  Warnarts ;  August  5,  1663,  at 
the  baptism  of  Caspar,  child  of  Caspar  Steenmuts ;  Dec.  22,  1676, 
at  the  baptism  of  Judith,  child  of  Daniel  Waldron  and  Sara  Rut- 
gers; October  11,  1676,  at  the  baptism  of  Marritie,  child  of 
Hendrick  Gerritszen  and  Marie  Waldron;  July  16,  1679,  at  the 
baptism  of  Annetje,  child  of  Jan  de  Lamontagne  and  Annetje 
Josephs. ^^^ 

After  the  death  of  his  first  wife,  Smeeman  married,  on 
December  1,  1668,  Anneke  Daniels,  the  widow  of  Joseph  Waldron. 
She  was  a  member  of  the  Reformed  Church  in  New  Amsterdam, 
in  1660.  After  the  death  of  Smeeman.  she  was  married,  1682,  to 
Conraetd   ten   Eyck.      She   is   sometimes   called   Annetje   Dama.^-'^ 

In  1674  Smeeman  was  listed  in  New  Amsterdam  as  possessing 
property  on  the  present  east  side  of  Broadway,  between  Beaver 
and  Wall  St.,  then  known  as  a  part  of  the  Markfield  and  Broadway. 
His  property  was  classed  as  "third  class"  and  rated  at  $1000. 
(Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,  1896.)  In  1677 
this  house  was  taxed  6s. 


Roelof  Swensburg  appears  to  have  been  in  New  Amsterdam 
as  early  as  1661.  On  February  19,  1661,  his  widow,  Styntie 
Klinckenborg,  from  Aachen,  was  married  to  Jan  Doske,  from 
Tongeren,  a  soldier.  As  the  name  indicates  ( Swensburg  =  Svend- 
borg)   Roelof  Swensburg  was  a  Dane.^^* 

692  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    II. 

693  Ibid.,   I.,   pp.   33,   51. 

694  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 
p.   27. 

282  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN   NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

Aeltie  Sybrantsen,  the  wife  of  Mathys  Roelofs,  from  Den- 
mark, came  to  New  Netherland  in  1659  by  the  ship  "de  Trouw". 
She  was  accompanied  by  her  husband  and  her  child,  three  years  of 
age.  It  is  probable  that  she  was  Danish,  not  Dutch.  See  article 
"Mathys  Roelofs."     Part  II. 


Pieter  Teunis,  from  Flensborg,  was  among  the  soldiers  listed 
to  sail  from  Holland  to  New  Netherland  in  the  ship  "de  Otter," 
sailing  April  27,  1660.695 


Andries  Thomasen,  of  Jutland,  was  in  New  Netherland  about 
1659.  All  we  know  about  him  is,  that  he  fled  from  Fort  Amstel 
to  Maryland,  in  1659,  and  that  Vice-Director  Aldrich  wrote  to 
Governor  Fendall  of  Maryland,  on  June  25,  of  the  same  year, 
that  Andries  Thomase,  of  Jutland,  Denmark,  a  soldier  "has  de- 
serted and  is  skulking  within  your  Honor's  jurisdiction."  He  re- 
quested that  he  be  sent  back-^^is 


Juriaen  Tomassen,  from  Ribe,  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam,  by 
the  ship  "de  Bonte  Koe,"  which  sailed  from  Europe  on  April  16, 
1663.  About  ninety  persons  were  on  board  on  this  voyage,  one  of 
whom  was  Jan  Laurens,  also  from  Ribe.^^T 

695  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,    1902,  p.   15. 

696  New  York   Colonial   Documents,    II.,   p.    64. 

697  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,  1902,  p.  25.  It  hsB 
been  claimed  that  this  ship  sailed  from  Ribe,  Denmark.  There  is  nothing  that  sup- 
ports this  contention,  though  it  is  a  fact  that  Danish  ships  came  to  New  Netherland 
as  early  as   1644.     See  New  York  Colonial  Documents,   I.,   p.   145. 


Tomassen  married  on  May  25,  1667,  in  New  Amsterdam, 
Tryntie  Hermans,  by  whom  he  had  several  children :  Thomas, 
baptized  January  28,  1668;  Gerrit,  September  27,  1670;  Aeltje, 
December  21,  1672;  Marritie,  April  28,  1680;  Harmen,  October 
21,  1682;  Herman,  December  8,  1686.698 

On  July  16,  1671,  Thomassen  acted  as  sponsor  for  Johannes, 
son  of  Jan  Andrieszen  and  Grietje  Jans;  January  26,  1680,  as 
sponsor  for  Gerrit,  a  child  of  Adriaen  Pos  and  Catharina  Geirits.^^^ 

Juriaen  Tomassen  died  September  12,  1695.  Some  of  his 
descendants  are  called  Yereance  or  Auryansen  (=  Juriansen). 

One  of  his  descendants  was  Daniel  van  Ripen,  a  smith.  He 
served  as  lieutenant  in  the  army  of  George  Washington.  Later  he 
became  Justice  of  the  Peace  in  the  county  of  Bergen,  N.  J.  He 
died  in  July,  1818.  Another  descendant,  Reeltje  van  Ripen,  was 
in  1814  married  to  John  van  Buskerk. 

In  Jersey  City,  N.  J.,  one  of  the  avenues  bears  the  name  of 
the  pioneer  immigrant  from  Ribe :  "Van  Ripen  Avenue."  It  was 
here  that  Tomassen  had  his  land. 


Tobias  Wilbergen  was  in  New  Netherland  as  early  as  1655. 
He  married  on  July  4,  1655,  in  New  Amsterdam,  Hilletje  Jaleff 
from  'Oldenburgerlandt'.  In  the  marriage  record  it  is  stated  that 
Wilberg  was  from  'Torreb'   (Torup),  in  Jutland,  Denmark."''*' 

C98   Collections   of   the   New   York    Genealogical    and   Biographical    Society,    I. 

699  Ibid.,    II. 

700  New   York   Genealogical   and   Biographical   Record,   VI.,   p.   83. 




Christian  Barentsen,  who  is  sometimes  called  Christian  van 
Hoorn  in  the  documents,  was  probably  a  Scandinavian,  a  Dane 
(though  we  do  not  count  him  among  our  188).  A  recent  work 
on  ''Christian  Barentsen  Horn  and  His  Descendants,"  by  C.  S.  Wil- 
liam, in  treating  of  Barentsen  takes  "van  Hoorn"  as  meaning  that 
Barentsen  was  either  from  the  city  of  Hoorn  in  Holland,  or  a 
descendant  of  the  old  Dutch  Van  Hoorn  family. 

It  has  been  difficult  for  me  to  get  away  from  the  supposition 
that  Barentsen  is  a  Dane.  Were  he  Dutch,  it  is  strange  that  he  both 
had  a  name  so  pronouncedly  Scandinavian  as,  "Christian  Barent- 
sen," and  that  he  signed  the  petition  of  the  Lutherans  in  New  Am- 
sterdam in  1657.  A  Dutchman  from  Hoorn  would  in  all  probabil- 
ity have  been  adhering  to  the  Reformed  Church.  Secondly,  a 
Lutheran,  from  Dithmarschen,  Herman  Smeeman,  stood,  in  the 
same  year,  sponsor  at  the  baptism  of  Johannes,  Barentsen's  son. 
Thirdly,  the  names  of  his  children  appear  to  be  those  that  a  Scandi- 
navian rather  than  a  Dutchman  would  select,  especially  the  name 
of  Barent  (Bernt). 

As  to  the  use  of  "van  Hoorn,"  there  is  nothing  to  show  that 
Barentsen  ever  used  it  himself.  There  are  several  places  on  the 
map  called  Horn :  Horn,  formerly  a  suburb,  now  a  part,  of  the  city 
of  Hamburg;  Horn  in  Lippe,  Germany;  Horn  in  Austria;  Horn 
in  Norway;  Horn  in  Island,  and  Horn  in  Denmark. 

*  What    we    here    state    concerning    Barentsen    lies    hard    by    the    field    of    con- 
jectural   criticism,    wliich    is   not    without    merits    in    genealogical    research    also. 


It  may  be  objected  that  these  places  are  spelled  Horn,  and 
not  Hoorn.  But  anyone  familiar  with  the  orthography  in  our 
early  records  will  not  take  this  objection  seriously.  Moreover,  a 
town  named  "Home"  in  Home  Parish  (Ribe  Amt),  Denmark,  is 
spelled  Hornae  and  Hoorn  about  the  year  1340  (J.  T.  Trap, 
Kongeriget  Danmark,  p.  74).  "Van  Hoorn"  may  mean  any  of 
the  Horns  mentioned,  if  they  all  existed  in  the  days  of  Barentsen. 
We  may  leave  the  Horn  in  Lippe  and  Austria  out  of  consideration, 
for  if  Barentsen  were  a  German  he  would  probably  not  have  had 
the  patronymic  termination  of  "sen."  Horn  near  Hamburg  may 
be  the  place  from  which  Barentsen  came.  This  place  was  hard  by 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  Duchy  of  Holstein,  and  not  a  few  Danes 
were  living  in  the  vicinity  of  Hamburg.  It  is  significant  that 
Cornelius  B.  Harvey  in  "Genealogical  History  of  Hudson  and 
Bergen  Counties"  makes  the  statement  — ■  on  what  authority  I 
do  not  know  —  that  "Barent  Christianse"  (likely  the  same  as 
Christian  Barentsen)    is   from  Holstein. 

-  However,  we  need  not  exclude  the  Horn  of  northern  Den- 
mark as  the  original  home  of  Barentsen,  if  it  existed  in  the  seven- 
teenth century.  The  same  may  be  said  of  Horn  in  Norway*  and 
in  Island.  For  early  New  York  had  immigrants  even  from  Faroe 
Islands  (Jonas  Bronck),  and  probably  from  Spitsbergen.*" 

But  may  not  "van  Horn"  have  an  entirely  local  meaning? 
May  it  not  mean  a  pointed  corner  (spitzige  Ecke)  ?  Barentsen's 
lot  and  house  in  New  Amsterdam  —  which  he  bought  in  1657  — 
formed  a  pointed  corner.  What  would  be  more  natural,  according 
to  the  usage  of  Scandinavians,  than  to  call  the  resident  on  this 
lot  Christian  van  Horn,  or  Christian  from  (or,  at)  the  corner? 
The  fact  that  Laurens  Andriessen  (who  married  Christian's 
widow),  became  later  known  as  Laurens  van  Buskirk  (from  the 
church  by  or  near  the  bush),  shows  how  easily  new  names  of  local 
significance  were  invented  and  applied.  Now  Barentsen.  to  my 
knowledge,  is  not  called  "van  Hoorn"  before  he  had  purchased 
the  house  and  lot,  just  mentioned  —  in  1657. 

Another  solution,  if  the  one  given  be  too  hypothetical : 
Barentsen  may  have  got  his  name  at  the  South  River.     See  docu- 

*   Horn  in  Norway   is  not   far   from   Bronno    in   Helgeland.     In    older    Norwegian, 
Horn    signifies   corner. 

**   Tennis    Cornelise    Spitsbergen,    at   Fort    Orange    (1661-1687). 

286  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

ments  published  in  William's  book  on  Barentsen  and  dated  Aug. 
28,  and  Dec.  18,  1658:  July  16,  1659;  January  30,  1660. 

To  maintain,  in  view  of  the  indefiniteness  of  the  sources,  that 
"van  Hoorn"  in  the  present  instance  must  mean  either  a  member 
of  the  Van  Hoorn  family  or  an  immigrant  from  Hoorn  in  Holland 
would  be  just  as  faulty  as  it  would  be  to  contend  that  every  one, 
with  "van  Bergen"  attached  to  his  name  in  the  records  of  early 
New  York,  must  be  "from  Bergen"  in  Norway,  since  there  is  no 
van  Bergen  family  in  that  country.  In  fact,  "van  Bergen"  in  these 
records,  when  "Norway"  is  not  added  to  it,  may  —  and  it  often 
does  —  mean  "from  Bergen  in  Holland,"  "from  Bergen  in  New 
Jersey,"  or  "from  Bergen  in  Germany." 

The  reader  will  pardon  this  digressive  introduction  to  the 
record  of  Christian  Barentsen.  It  shows  how  difficult  it  sometimes 
is  to  decide  the  nationality  of  early  immigrants.  Barentsen  may 
have  been  a  Dutchman,  but  this  is  only  a  possibility,  not  amounting 
to  probability  —  not  to  speak  of  as  an  established  fact. 

As  stated,  he  probably  was  a  Dane.  He  married  Jannetje 
Jans,  by  whom  he  had  three  children:  Barent,  Cornelis.  Johannes 
Christense  (New  Jersey  Archives,  First  Series  XXI,  p.  193).  His 
second  son,  Cornelis,  was  baptized  in  New  Amsterdam,  August  3, 
1653.  Johannes  or  Jan  was  baptized,  at  the  same  place,  March 
18,  1657.  Probably  Annetje's  fourth  son  Andries,  baptized  in 
March,  1659,  also  was  by  Barentsen  (see  article  "Laurens  Andries- 
sen.     Part  II.). 

Christian  Barents  was  a  carpenter.  At  various  times  he  was 
appointed  by  the  Court  to   inspect  carpenter  work. 

In  1654  he  was  a  partner  of  Auken  Jans.  These  two  had 
constructed  a  "sheet-piling"  at  the  Graft  but  it  had  fallen  down, 
caved  in,  in  consequence  of  heavy  rain  and  water.  The  Court 
summoned  them,  but  being  told  what  was  the  cause  of  the  falling 
down,  it  agreed  with  the  carpenters  to  pay  them  for  reconstructing 
it,  the  sum  of  thirty-two  guilders  (besides  providing  two  men 
as  "diggers")  on  condition  that  all  should  l)e  done  and  properly 
repaired.     (The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,  1653 — 1674,  p.  23.) 

On  February  26,  1656,  Barentsen  and  two  others  were  ap- 
pointed firemasters  by  the  burgomasters  of  New  Amsterdam  — 
to  inspect,  whenever  "they  please,  all  the  houses  and  chimneys  in 


jurisdiction  of  the  city  and  there  to  do  for  the  prevention  of  fire 
what  is  necessary  and  to  collect  such  fines,  as  are  prescribed  by 
the  published  orders  and  the  customs  of  our  fatherland."  Most 
of  the  houses  were  built  of  wood,  some  were  roofed  with  reed. 
The  wooden  and  plastered  chimney  was  not  uncommon  (1.  c.  2  If.). 

Barentsen  signed  the  Petition  of  the  Lutherans  in  New  Am- 
sterdam (October,  1657),  requesting  that  the  government  permit 
the  Lutheran  pastor  Goetwater  to  remain  in  the  country.  (See 
note  42,  Part  L) 

Barentsen  was  engaged  at  South  river  (Delaware  river)  when 
he  died,  June  (?)  26,  1658.  On  August  28,  the  court  messenger 
handed  a  letter  to  the  Council,  communicating  "the  demise  of 
Christian  Barentsen."  (See  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of 
New  York,  1900,  p.  114.) 

The  Minutes  of  the  Orphanmasters  of  New  Amsterdam  state 
(We  quote  from  C.  S.  William's  book)  : 

"August  28,  1658,  Orphanmaster  Pieter  Wolfersen  Van  Cow- 
venhoven  produces  a  letter  received  through  Court  Messenger, 
Pieter  Schabanck,  which  having  been  opened,  was  found  to  have 
been  written  and  sent  by  the  Hon.  Alrichs  from  the  South  River 
and  to  report  the  death  of  Christian  Barentsen  Van  Hoorn  on  the 
2()ch  of  July,  1658,  with  a  statement  by  inventory  of  his  estate 
and  request  to  assist  his  widow." 

He  had  property.  Under  date  of  November  7,  1657,  it  is 
recorded  that  Cornells  Jansen  Plavier,  of  New  Amsterdam,  ac- 
knowledged that  he  owes  Barentsen  1233  guilders  and  17  stivers 
purchase  money  of  a  house  and  lot  at  New  Amsterdam,  west  of 
the  broad  "Heerewegh"  bounded  by  the  east  and  north  side  by 
the  said  "Heerewegh"  and  the  city  wall,  to  the  west  Do  (mine) 
Drysius,  to  the  south  the  house  and  lot  of  Jacob  Vis  and  of  the 
Company.  Plavier  mortgaged  the  lot.  (Year  Book  of  the  Holland 
Society  of  New  York,  1900,  p.  167.) 

Under  date  of  May  3,  1658,  we  find  an  entry  that  Hendrick 
Hendricksen,  a  tailor,  was  indebted  to  Barentsen  for  the  sum  of 
500  guilders,  the  balance  of  purchase  money  for  a  house  and  lot 
at  New  Amsterdam,  near  the  land  to  the  Gate,  the  Heerewegh 
to  the  west.  Barentsen  had  bought  it  on  August  1,  1657.  Hen- 
dricksen mortgaged  his  house  to  him.     (Ibid,  p.  165.) 

288  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN   NEW  YOEK,   1630-1674. 

Barentsen's  estate  was  sold  to  Solomon  Hansen  in  January, 
1660.  It  brought  the  sum  of  574  guilders.  The  one  who  super- 
vised the  sale  was  Laurens  Andriessen,  who  had  married  Barent- 
sen's widow,  December  12,  1658.     (Ibid.,  p.  119.) 

It  appears  that  Barentsen  had  a  grist-mill  on  the  estate  of 
his  wife's  father  in  the  colony  of  New  Amstel,  and  that  Vice- 
Director  Alrich,  who  governed  this  colony  was  concerned  about 
the  welfare  of  the  widow  of  Barentsen.  He  wrote  a  letter  to 
Director  Stuyvesant,  August  17,  1658,  in  which  he  asked  the 
Director  to  help  her  and  her  affairs,  recommending  her  to  the 
orphan  masters.  He  again  wrote  to  Stuyvesant,  September  5, 

"In  regard  to  the  widow  of  Christian  B[arents]  as  she  desired 
beyond  measure  to  go  there  and  requested  it  within  three  days 
after  her  husband's  burial  by  word  of  mouth  and  by  writing,  also 
that  the  property,  which  he  left  behind,  might  be  sold  immediately, 
all  of  which  has  been  agreed  to  and  permitted  at  her  repeated  in- 
stances or  demands  and  arranged  for  the  best  of  the  heirs,  so 
that  they  have  been  benefited  more  than  usually  by  some  presents 
or  words  of  consolation,  as  your  Honor  will  have  seen  from  the 
transmitted  letters  and  account  and  sale  of  the  property,  there- 
fore there  is  no  cause  given  the  aforesaid  widow  to  complain,  but 
I  only  advised  or  proposed  to  her.  that  it  would  be  for  her  best 
to  remain  in  possession,  she  should  be  assisted  in  completing  the 
mill,  with  the  income  of  which  through  the  grist  she  would  be 
able  to  diminish  the  expenses  and  live  decently  and  abundantly 
Vv'ith  her  children  on  the  surplus;  besides  that  she  had  yet  o  or  4 
good  cows  with  sheep  and  hogs,  which  also  could  help  her  to 
maintain  her  family,  she  and  her  children  should  have  remained 
on  and  in  her  and  the  father's  estate,  which  was  in  good  condi- 
tion here,  wherein  the  widow  with  the  children  could  have  con- 
tinued reputably  and  in  (good)  position  to  much  advantage:  but 
she  would  not  listen  to  advice  .  .  .  that  she  was  to  be  restricted  in 
her  inclinations  and  wellbeing,  which  I  shall  never  think  of,  much 
less  do.  This  God  may  grant  and  give,  and  I  will  ask  him  to 
take  your  Honor  and  us  with  our  families  in  his  Almighty  care 
and  protection."  (New  York  Colonial  Documents,  XII.,  p.  224.) 

Jannetje  may  have  been  Norwegian.  (See  Laurens  Andriessen. 
Part"  II.) 


In  the  following  excerpts  which  we  quote  from  C.  S.  Williams, 
Barentsen  is  called  "van  Hoorn" : 

1)  From  the  Records  of  New  Netherland. 

"December  18,  1658.  Before  the  Board  appeared  Burgomaster 
Olaf  Stevensen  Cortlandt  who  is  informed  by  the  Orphanmasters, 
of  the  inventory  of  his  property  here,  made  by  the  widow,  wherein 
differences  appearing  with  which  they  do  not  know  what  to  do, 
the  widow  of  the  said  Christian  Barentsen  Van  Hoorn,  called 
Jannetje  Jans,  is  called  and  asked  whether  the  payment  for  the 
house  near  the  Land  Gate  had  been  received ;  she  answers,  yes, 
by  Hendrick  Van  Dyck  who  had  Power  of  Attorney  from  her 
husband ;  asked  about  the  payment  for  the  house  where  Hendrick 
Hendricksen,  the  tailor,  lives,  she  says  not  to  have  received  it, 
but  it  is  still  due  and  charged. 

"Jannetje  Jans,  widow  of  Christian  Barentsen  Van  Hoorn,  is 
ordered  to  send  to  the  South  River  the  last  inventory  made  here, 
as  they  have  the  case  in  hand.  She  has  asked  the  people  on  the 
South  River  to  have  the  proceeds  of  the  goods  there  forwarded 
to  her,  which  was  promised  to  her,  if  she  can  give  bail  or  security; 
she  is  therefore  advised  to  write  to  the  South  River  that  she  will 
give  security  for  the  money  and  offers  as  such  a  house." 

2)  Letter  to  magistrate  at  the  South  River. 
"Amsterdam,  N.  N.     July  16,  1659. 

"At  the  request  of  Lauwrerens  Andriessen,  drayer,  who 
has  married  the  widow  of  Christian  Van  Hoorn,  deceased,  at  the 
South  River  last  year,  we  inform  you  herewith  that  there  are  de- 
posited in  your  Orphans  Court  the  goods  belonging  to  his  children 
as  paternal  inheritance,  while  the  children  are  here  in  this  City, 
and  we  request,  that  following  the  usages  of  other  places,  said 
goods  may  be  sent  to  the  Orphans  Court  here.  You  will  find  us 
in  similar  cases  willing  to  reciprocate,  with  which  we  remain. 

"Yours  ... 
"By  Order,  J.  Nevins,  Secretary." 

3)  "January  30,  1660.  Laurerens  Andriessen  appearing  de- 
clares not  to  have  received  more  from  the  estate  left  by  Christian 
Barentsen  [Van  Hoorn],  deceased,  his  wife's  former  husband,  than 
574  Guilders  from  Solomon  Hanzen.     He  also  says  there  are  still 

290  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 

outstanding  at  the  South  River  about  13  or  14  Guilders  heavy 
money  at  the  rate  of  ten  heads  of  Wampum  for  one  Stiver,  and 
shows  an  account  of  the  estate  with  what  it  owes  and  what  is  due 
to  it.  The  Orphanmasters  reply  that  a  copy  of  the  account  shall 
be  made  by  the  secretary  Nevins  and  the  original  shall  be  returned 
to  him;  they  shall  further  order  him  to  bring  to  the  next  session, 
the  statement  and  inventory,  shown  to  the  Director-General  and 
Council,  with  their  marginal  order  thereon." 

As  we  have  seen,  Jannetje  did  not  remain  long  in  her  widow- 
hood. Laurens  Andriessen  married  her  six  months  after  the  death 
of  Barentsen  and  gave  her  such  social  advantages  as  she  did  not 
have  in  her  first  marriage  nor  could  have  had  as  a  widow  on  the 
estate  of  her  father. 

In  studying  the  genealogy  of  the  Van  Horn  family,  the  de- 
scendants of  Christian  Barentsen,  one  will  readily  see  that  this  fam- 
ily merits  the  predicate  of  distinguished.  To  it  belongs  e.  g.  Robert 
T.  van  Horn  (b.  1824)  who  founded,  and  for  forty  years,  edited  the 
"Kansas  City  Journal."  He  served  in  the  Civil  War  and  was 
member  of  Congress.  Another  distinguished  member  of  this 
family  was  Wm.  H.  Carbusier,  Lt.  Col.  U.  S.  Army,  who  also 
served  in  the  Civil  War.  A  third  member  is  Alfred  C.  Johnson, 
who  has  been  U.  S.  Consul  in  Germany. 



It  is  possible  that  the  following  persons  in  New   Netlierland 
were  Danes  (we  do  not  count  them  among  our  188  immigrants): 


Simon  Jansen  Asdalen,  who  in  1663  purchased  a  house  and 
lot  in  New  Amsterdam,  was,  if  we  can  depend  on  the  reading 
"Asdalen,"  either  from  Norway  or  Denmark.     There  is  an  Asdal 


in  Nedenes  Amt,  Norway.  It  is  spelled  Aasdal  in  1610,  Asdahl 
in  1670,  Asdal  now.  (Norway  has  also  an  Asdol)  The  ending 
"en"  is  the  definite  article.  Asdalen  thus  means :  the  bowery  at 
Asdal.     ( Rygh,  Norske  Gaardnavne.  VIII.,  p.  112). 

There  is  also  an  Asdal  (parish)  in  Denmark.  In  a  niche  above 
the  main  entrance  to  the  leading  manor  building  in  this  Asdal, 
one  can  see  "Karl  Poises  Flask,"  a  shrunken  ham-bone,  which  is 
referred  to  the  legend  about  Karl  Poise  of  Asdal,  who  had  a  con- 
troversy with  the  lord  of  the  manor  of  Odden.  The  two  men, 
in  order  to  settle  the  controversy,  parted  a  hog.  One  part  was 
hung  up  at  Odden,  the  other  at  Asdal.  He  whose  half-hog  first 
decayed,  was  to  stand  confessed  as  the  wronging  party.  Odden 
proved  to  be  guilty,  for  Asdal's  part  of  the  hog  is  still  on  exhibition. 
Hence  the  saying:  "Odden  hin  olde,  Asdal  hit  bolde." 


John  Ascou,  who  in  1661  hired  a  canoe  from  the  Dane  Pieter 
Kock,  which  he  was  sued  for  by  Kock's  widow,  may  have  been 
from  Askov,  Denmark. 


Jan  Snedingh  (Snedinck,  Smedingh,  Snediger)  a  tavernkeeper 
in  New  Amsterdam  (1648),  magistrate  of  the  Midwout  (1654), 
was  possibly  from  the  manor  of  Snedige,  Denmark,  that  had  been 
owned  by  families  like  the  Grubbes  and  Trolles.  He  was  married. 
When  Nicolaes  de  Meyer  sued  him,  1658,  for  about  350  guilders, 
the  wife  of  Snedingh  appeared  for  her  sick  husband,  who  claimed 
he  could  not  pay  before  the  corn  would  be  ripe.  It  was  told  in 
court  that  Mrs.  Snediger,  when  requested  to  pay  the  plaintiff,  had 
said,   "Where   there   is   nothing,    Caesar  has   lost   his   right."     In 

1659  Snedigh  sued  Matthys  Boon   for  "fl.   10.,  balance  of  fl.   14, 
one  pair  of  stockings,  one  pair  of  shoes  for  his  son's  wages."     In 

1660  he    sued    the  Swede  (or  Finn)    Moenes  Pietersen.     He  had 

292  DANISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

hired  a  house  from  the  defendant  for  twenty-four  gl.  a  year. 
After  six  months  he  moved  out.  He  paid  thirteen  guilders  to  Pieter- 
sen,  who  seized  eleven  guilders  with  Jan  van  der  Bilt,  Snedingh's 
money ;  he  also  let  a  new  party  move  into  the  house.  The  court 
decided  that  Snedingh  had  a  right  to  the  eleven  guilders.  — 
Snedingh  sold  timber  and  kept  boarders  in  1660^ — 1661.  In  1663 
he  was  sued  for  taking  away  bricks  from  the  strand  and  removing 
them  to  his  house.  The  Schout  demanded  that  he  "shall  be  con- 
demned to  go  to  prison  and  there  to  remain  on  bread  and  water 
for  the  term  of  one  month  or  to  redeem  the  same  with  a  sum  of 
100  guilders  with  costs."  Snedingh  answered,  he  was  innocent  of 
having  so  done,  as  the  bricks  were  not  in  a  heap,  but  lay  scattered 
around  and  that  he  saw  some  boys  also  there  picking  up  bricks. 
He  claimed  therefore  that  he  could  not  be  fined.  The  court  thought 
differently,  and  fined  him  twenty-five  guilders. 


Herry  (Harry  or  Hendrick)  Albertse  "van  londen",  who 
came  over  in  1639  and  worked  in  Rensselaerswyck,  is  regarded  by 
the  editor  of  "Bowier  Manuscripts"  (pp.  609,  822)  as  being  from 
London,  England.  But  may  not  "van  londen"  signify  "from 
Londenis,"  or  still  better,  from  "Londen"  (south  of  Husum), 
places  in  Denmark  and  found  on  the  map  of  Denmark  in  "Theatri 
Europ^ei.     Pars  V."     (1647)? 


Hendrick  Hendricksen  Obe,  often  mentioned  in  the  Records 
of  New  Amsterdam  1653—1674,  may  have  been  from  Oby  in  Den- 
mark. (See  map  in  Theatri  Europaei.  Pars  V.")  He  was  city 
constable  in  1665,  a  juryman  in  1667,  collector  of  Excise  in  the 
same  year. 



Jan  Volckarsen  Oly,  Notary  in  New  Amsterdam  in  1664,  was 
probably  from  Oby  in  Denmark.  "Oly"  being,  I  conjecture,  in- 
tended  for  "Oby." 

Also  the  following  names  of  persons  in  New  Netherland  lend 
themselves  to  favorable  consideration  by  such  as  are  desirous  of 
increasing  the  list  of  Danish  immigrants  in  early  New  York : 

Hans  Nicholaeszen,  who  had  a  child  (Laurens),  baptized  in 
1642,  in  New  Amsterdam.  The  sponsors  appear  to  have  been 

One  of  these  sponsors  was  Hans  Fredericksen,  a  soldier, 
whose  name  seems  to  be  Norwegian  or  Danish. 

Another  sponsor  was  Christina  Vynen.  It  has  been  said  that 
she  was  English,  and  that  her  real  surname  was  "Fine."  In  the 
baptismal  record  (see  under:  Nicholaeszen,  1642),  the  word 
"engelsman"  is  appended  to  her  name.  No  doubt  "engelsman" 
here  does  not  stand  for  "Englishman"  but  for  Engel  Mans,  who 
was  a  Swedish  woman,  and  sponsor  at  the  same  baptism. 

Vynen  —  I  take  it  —  means  the  island  of  Fyen  (or  Fihien), 
Denmark.  Christina  often  appeared  as  sponsor  in  New  Amster- 

Rachel  Vynen  (1641)  was  likely  her  sister.  Capt.  Francois  Fyn, 
(Ffyn),  it  would  appear,  was  another  relative  of  hers.  He  ac- 
quired land  (Hog  Island)  near  Hellegat,  1651;  and  26  morgens  at 
Long  Island,  1656.     He  had  a  family.* 

Of  other  persons  with  Scandinavian  names  in  New  Nether- 
land, mention  may  be  made  of  Peter  Hanse  and  Ferick  Janscn. 

"Fyhu, "  ''Pyen,''  "Pine''  are  names  not  infrequently  met  with  in  Danish 
and  Norwegian  genealogy.  It  is  therefore  not  necessary  to  connect  "Vynen'"  with 
the  place-name  in  Denmark.  However,  as  Guillaume  Vigne,  who  had  immigrated 
from  Valenciennes,  Prance,  had  two  daughters  called  Christine  (wife  of  Dirck  Hol- 
gersen)  and  Rachel,  it  is  possible  that  "Vynen"  or  "Fyn"  is  a  corruption  of 
"Vigne."      In   that   case   these   names   are   French. 

294  DANISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,   1630-1674. 

Hanse  gave  Jansen  power  of  Attorney    to    receive    moneys    due 
him  by  the  West  India  Company  for  service  at  Curacao   (1649). 

Jan  Christiansen  Andersen  (1660)  appears  to  be  another 

Laurens  Hansen  and  Knut  Mauritz,  who  served  as  soldiers 
in  New  Netherland,  resp.  1654  and  1660  (Esopus),  and  were,  1662 
and  1674,  in  New  Amsterdam,  immigrated,  it  would  seem,  from 
Norway,  Sweden,  or  Denmark. 

Elling  Morgen  who  about  this  time  stood  sponsor  at  a  baptism 
is  likely  a  Dane  or  a  Norwegian. 






Andries  Andriessen  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  1655. 
He  married,  on  October  17,  1655,  in  New  Amsterdam,  "Weiske" 
or  Niesje  Huytes,  from  "Coulum"  in  Friesland.  The  marriage 
record  states  that  Andriessen  was  from  Vesteras,  in  Sweden. 

Only  two  days  before  his  marriage,  he  was  assessed  six 
guilders  at  the  house  of  J.  V.  Couwenhoven,  where,  it  would  ap- 
pear, he  was  lodging.'''*'^  Couwenhoven  and  his  wife  were  sponsors 
at  the  baptism  of  Andriessen's  first  child,  November  19,  1656. 
In  the  beginning  of  1657,  Andriessen  and  Couwenhoven  were  prob- 
ably not  so  friendly  as  at  the  baptismal  festivities.  For  Andriessen 
brought,  in  January,  suit  against  Couwenhoven.  We  know  nothing 
as  to  the  particulars  of  the  litigation. 

In  September,  1655,  Andriessen  bought  a  plantation  and  a 
house  on  Long  Island,  adjoining  Hellgate.  Perhaps  he  moved 
thither  after  his  marriage. 

The  deed  he  received  reads  as  follows :  '^^- 

"Before  me,  Cornells  van  Ruyven,  Secretary,  in  New  Nether- 
land  in  the  service  of  the  General  Priv.  West  India  Company  and 
before  the  undernamed  witnesses,  appeared  the  worthy  Lieve  Jan- 
sen  of  the  one  part,  and  Andries  Andriesen  from  Vesteras  in 
Sweden,  of  the   other  part. 

"The  abovenamed  Lieve  Jansen  declared,  that  he  has  sold, 
and  Andries  Andriesen,  that  he  has  purchased  a  certain  plantation 
belonging  to  the  vendor,  situate  on  Long  Island,  beyond  the  Hell- 
gate,  extending  on  the  east  side  along  Simon  Josten's  land, 
and  on  the  west  side  abutting  Juriaen  Fradel's  land,  as  large  and 
small  as  appears  by  the  groundbrief  thereof,  together  with  the 
house  standing  thereon,  and  all  that  is  thereon  constructed,  built. 

701  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    I.,    p.    374. 

702  New   York    Colonial    Documents.    XIV^,    p.    332. 

298  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

set  off  or  planted,  and  13  hogs  old  and  young,  as  seen  by  the 
purchaser.  For  which  plantation  and  what  is  abovementioned,  the 
purchaser  promises  to  pay  the  sum  of  four  hundred  and  ten  guilders 
right  down,  to  wit :  100  guilders  in  merchantable  beavers  and  130 
guilders  in  good  current  wampum.  The  purchaser  shall  also  pay 
all  costs,  which  attend  the  sale  and  conveyance  as  well  as  those 
parties  respectively  pledge  their  persons  and  properties,  present 
and  future,  submitting  the  same  to  all  courts  and  judges. 

"In  testimony  whereof  this  is  signed  by  parties  with  the 
witnesses  at  Amsterdam  in  New  Netherland  the  10th  of  September 
Anno   1655. 

"Lieve  Jansen. 

"This  is  the   mark    ^t^     made  by  Andries  Andriessen  himself. 

Signature   of    Andries    Andriessen. 

"By  me,  Stoffel  Michielsen,  as  witness. 
"In  my  presence,  Cornelis  Van  Ruyven,  Secretary." 

Andriessen  had  several  children.  Andries,  whom  we  have 
mentioned,  was  baptized  November  19,  1656;  Jacob,  May  11,  1659; 
Tietie,  March  31,  1662;  Marritje,  October  22,  1664;  Huybert, 
November  20,  1667;  Tietje,  February  20,  1669;  Huybert,  Decem- 
ber 28,  1672.703 

He  was  deceased  before  February  23,  1682,  when  his  widow 
was  married  to  Jan  Vinge,  the  widower  of  "Emmerens  Van  Nieu- 

There  were  several  persons  having  the  name  of  Andries 
Andriessen,  in  New  York,  in  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century. 
This  makes  it  very  difficult  to  trace  the  history  of  any  one  of  these 
persons  in  particular.  One  was  a  mason  (Metselaer),  but  he  is 
not  mentioned  as  such  in  the  Records  of  New  Amsterdam  before 
1666.  One  was  a  ship  carpenter,  who  in  1660  married  Anneke 
Salomon.  Another  was  a  skipper;  still  another  a  weighhouse 
laborer.  We  can  not,  therefore,  state  what  was  the  trade  of 
Andriessen  of  Vesteras,  or  Andries  the  Swede,  as  he    was    called 

703  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society.    II. 

704  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    25. 


in  December  1655,  when  Jan  Rutgersen  brought  suit  against  him, 
as  to  the  nature  of  which  nothing  is  said  in  the  court  minutes. 
Perhaps  he  worked  in  the  weigh-house. 


Andries  Barentsen  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  1666. 
But  nothing  can  be  related  of  him  beyond  his  marrying,  on  January 
24,  1666,  in  New  Amsterdam,  "Grietje  Cregires."  The  marriage 
record  says,  he  was  from  Stockholm,  and  his  wife  from  Amster- 

There  was  an  Andrew  Barentsen  in  Bushwyck  in  March, 
1662  -J^^  another,  or  perhaps  the  same  one.  in  Kingston,  in  1662. 
The   latter  was   the   husband   of   Hilletje   Hendricks. '^^'^ 


Dirck  Bensingh  (Benson)  was  a  Swede  who,  after  he  had 
left  Sweden,  resided  for  some  time  in  Groeningen  and  in  Amster- 
dam, and  thence  sailed  to  New  Netherland.  On  August  2,  1649, 
he  bought  a  lot  "situate  northeast  of  the  bastion"  of  Fort  Am- 
sterdam.'''*'^     In  the  next  year  he  bought  another  lot,  on  Broadway. 

On  June  21,  1651,  he  gave  a  mortgage  to  Fiscal  Van  Dyck, 
"of  his  house  and  lot  on  the  east  side  of  the  Great  Highway,  Man- 
hattan." 709 

In  1654,  he  went  to  Fort  Orange.  On  June  29,  1654,  he  re- 
ceived a  permit  "to  return  up  the  river  and  attend  to  his  busi- 

He  secured  a  lot  in  Fort  Orange,  upon  which  he  built  a  house. 

705  Collections   of   the    New   York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,      I., 
p.  31. 

706  New   York    Colonial   Documents,    XIV.,    p.    511. 

707  R.   R.   Hoes,   Baptismal   and   Marriage   Registers   of   the   Old  Dutch    Church 
of  Kingston,   p.  2. 

708  Calendar  of  Historical   Manuscripts,   I.,   p.   47. 

709  Ibid.,   I.,   p.    86. 

710  Ibid.,   I.,   p.    139. 

300  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

He  was  a  carpenter  by  trade,  and  worked  on  the  new  church  in 
Fort  Orange,  built  in  1656.  In  August,  in  the  same  year,  he  con- 
veyed a  parcel  of  land  to  the  Reformed  pastor,  Johann  Megapolen- 
sis :  it  was  lying  on  the  present  west  side  of  Broadway  opposite 
Bowling  Green.'^i^ 

He  must  have  made  several  journeys  between  Fort  Orange 
and  New  Amsterdam.  In  November,  1655,  he  was  to  have  ap- 
peared as  defendant  in  a  suit  before  the  court  of  New  Amsterdam. 
The  court  minutes,  however,  contain  nothing  specific  about  the 
suit,  and  merely  state  that  "the  defendant  had  departed  in  spite  of 
arrest."     John  Kip  was  the  plaintiff.'^^^ 

In  1658,  Bensingh  loaned  the  deacons  in  Fort  Orange  100 

He  died  February  12,  1659. 

The  wife  of  Bensingh  was  Catarina  Berck  (Berg).  After 
the  death  of  Bensingh,  she  was  married  to   Harman  Thomassen. 

Of  Bensingh's  children,  Dirck  was  born  in  1650.  He  became 
a  skipper  on  the  Hudson,  and  lived  in  Albany.  Samson  was  born 
in  1652.  He  set  up  a  pottery  in  Albany,  and  was  known  as 
"Pottebacker."  Johannes  was  born  on  February  8,  1655.  He 
chose  the  vocation  of  innkeeper  and  went  to  Harlem.  Catarina 
was  born  1657.  She  married  a  physician,  Reyner  Schaets,  and, 
later,  Jonathan   Brodhurst.     Maria  was  born   in    1659. 


Hage  Bruynsen  (Brynson)  was  in  New  Netherland  as  early 
as  1646,  when  he  entered  the  service  of  Burger  Joris,  a  blacksmith 
at  the  Smith's  Fly  and  owner  of  a  grist  mill  at  Dutch  Kills.'^^' 
Burger  Joris  was  from  Silesia,  and  his  wife  from  Sweden.  The 
church  record  says,  she  came  from  "Coinxte,"  in  Sweden.  Per- 
haps Hage  was  a  relative  of  hers.  Possibly  they  both  came 
from  the  same  place.     Coinxte  may  be  a  corrupt  reading   (as  is 

711  D.  T.  Valentine,    Manual   of  the   .   .   .    City   of  New  York,    1861,   p.   581. 

712  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,  1653-1674,  I.,  p.  400.  See  also  J. 
Riker,  Harlem,  Its  Origin  and  Earlv  Annals,  p.  426.  Munsell,  Collections  of  the 
History  of  Albany,    FV.,   pp.   97,   278,' 322. 

713  J.    Riker,    Harlem,    Its    Origin    and    Early    Annals,    p.   236. 

302  SWEDISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

also  Weische)  of  \'exi6,  the  place  from  which  Hage  Bruynsen 

On  March  23,  1653,  Hage  Bruynsen,  from  "Weische,  in  Smaa- 
land,  Sweden"  married  Anneke  Jans  of  Holstein.  (See  article 
"Anneke  Jans,  of  Holstein,"  Part  H.)^" 

In  1653  he  bought  a  house  in  New  Amsterdam,  apparently 
upon  the  site  of  No.  255  Pearl  Street.  This  house  is  of  some 
interest  as  the  lodging  place,  in  1679,  of  the  Labbadist  mission- 
aries, Danker  and  Sluyter.  In  October,  of  the  same  year,  Bruyn- 
sen bought  a  house  and  lot  in  Beverwyck.'^^^  His  wife  was 
desirous  of  moving  to  this  place,  but  a  suit  that  she  had  brought 
against  a  Mrs.  Abraham  Genes,  who  she  supposed  had  taken  some 
napkins  from  her,  detained  her  in  New  Amsterdam.  For  the  Court 
did  not  allow  her  to  go  before  she  had  settled  with  Mrs.  Genes 
or  prosecuted  her  suit  against  her. 

By  Anneke,  Bruynsen  had  a  son,  Hage,  who  was  baptized 
November  29,  1654,  and  married  Geesie  Schurman  of  New  York, 
in  1681. 

After  Anneke's  death  Bruynsen  married,  on  April  7,  1661, 
Egbertie  Hendricks  of  Meppel,  the  sister  of  the  wife  of  Cornelius 
Matthyszen,  a  Swede.  By  his  second  wife.  Bruynsen  had  a  son, 
Hermanns,  who  was  baptized  on  January  24,  1662. 

On  February  16,  1654,  Dirck  Holgersen,  a  Norwegian,  sued 
Bruynsen  for  payment  of  a  certain  lot.  As  Holgersen  had  not 
given  the  deed  to  Bruynsen,  the  Court  ordered  that  the"plaintiff 
shall  deliver  the  deed,  and  defendant  shall  then  pay."  '^^^ 

On  August  17,  1654,  Bruynsen  brought  suit  against  William 
Harck,  requesting  that  he  might  get  back  a  canoe  which  Harck 
had  taken  away  from  him.  This  canoe  Bruynsen  had  bought  of 
the  Indians  "for  a  cloth  coat,  that  cost  him  one  beaver  and  one 
guilder,  making  in  all  nine  guilders."  Harck  explained  that  he 
bought  the  same  canoe  of  Indians,  in  presence  of  Govert  Loocker- 
mans  and  that  he  gave  fl.  11 :10  for  it,  which  canoe  Harck's  mate 
found,  and  took  away  as  if  it  were  his  own."  Harck  offered  to 
pay    the   half    of   what    Hage    Bruynsen   gave    for    it.      After   the 

714  New   York   Genealogical   and   Biographical   Report,    VI.,    p.    82.      The   famous 
singer,   Christine  Nilsson,   was  born  near  Vexio. 

715  E.   B.    O'Callaghan,    History   of   New   Netherland,    II.,    p.    588. 

716  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,   I.,    p.    161. 


parties  had  been  heard,  the  Court  decided  that  Harck  should  be 
bound  to  restore  the  canoe  to  Bruynsen.'^i''^ 

When  the  city  of  New  Amsterdam,  in  1655,  requested  a  volun- 
tary contribution  from  its  citizens,  to  defray  the  expenses  of 
strengthening  the  fort  around  the  city,  Hage  Bruynsen  offered  to 
work  "three  days  at  the  city  works. "'^^^ 

On  October  23,  1655,  he  sued  the  Skipper  of  the  "Spotted 
Cow"  for  taking  away  certain  stones  which  he  drew  and  had  before 
his  door,  to  repair  the  street.  He  requested  the  payment  of  fl.  6, 
as  "he  had  worked  for  them  two  days."  The  skipper  replied  that 
he  asked  for  the  stones  and  was  allowed  to  take  them  away  with- 
out any  payment  being  asked  for  them,  being  about  %.  ballast  for 
a  boat.  The  Court,  after  hearing  both  parties,  condemned  the 
skipper  to  pay  to  Bruynsen  fl.  4  for  the  stone.'^^ 

On  March  8,  1658.  Bruynsen  began  a  suit  against  Simon 
Joosten.  He  demanded  the  payment  of  the  sum  of  fl.  88.,  the 
balance  of  an  obligation  of  the  year  1655  "exhibited  in  court 
proceeding  from  three  ankers  of  brandy  sold  him,  defendant,  with 
interest  thereon  and  costs  of  suit."  Joosten  admitted  the  debt, 
and  said  that  he  had  offered  Bruynsen  tobacco  in  payment,  but 
that  he  would  not  accept  it.  Bruynsen  explained  that  the  tobacco 
was  not  good.  The  Court  after  hearing  the  parties,  decided  that 
Simon  Joosten  should  pay  Bruynsen  according  to  obligation,  with 
costs  of   suit.'^2o 

On  March  28,  1658,  Bruynsen  and  Dirck  Holgersen  appeared 
in  court  and  said  that  Bruynsen  requested  his  lot  to  be  "set  off." 
The  magistrates  answered  that  the  surveyor  should  be  ordered  to 
"measure  off  their  share  for  parties  and  to  satisfy  parties." 

In  April  Bruynsen  sued  Holgersen.  He  demanded  that  he 
might  set  off  his  place,  which  he  had  bought  of  Holgersen.  The 
burgomasters  informed  the  Court  concerning  the  inspection  taken 
by  them  of  the  ground  in  question,  also  concerning  the  contract 
made  thereof  and  that  "Holgersen  cannot  fulfill  it."  The  Court 
therefore  allowed  Bruynsen  to  set  off  his  ground  as  Holgersen  had 
no  ground  to  make  a  common  passage.'^^i 

On  November  4,  1659.  Bruynsen  was  sued  by  Jan  vSnedigh. 

717  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   227. 

718  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    370. 

719  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    386. 

720  Ibid.,   II.,   p.   351. 

721  Ibid..   II.,    pp.    366.    368. 

From  r»uii 

jp^jNORil  ABOUT   1600. 
1  urhm,   iv. 

306  SWEDISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

who  said  that  Bruynsen  had  seized  his  money,  three  guilders,  in 
the  hands  of  a  farmer,  on  Jacob  Hayens  (Hey)  land.  Bruynsen 
said  that  if  Snedigh  had  paid  what  he  owed  him,  this  would  not 
have  happened.  Snedigh  replied  by  stating  that  the  claim  of 
Bruynsen  against  him  concerned  also  his  comrade,  and  he  had 
paid  for  him.  Bruynsen  rejoined  that  "he  agreed  for  it  with  the 
plaintiff."     After  the  Court  had  heard  both  sides,  it  ordered  "the 

plaintiff  and  his  comrade  to  give  the  defendant  each  thirty  stiv- 


On  June  1,  1660,  Govert  Lookermans  sued  Bruynsen  for  cut- 
ting sod  from  the  best  of  his  land.  He  demanded  an  indemnifica- 
tion of  fifty  guilders.  The  Officer,  as  guardian  accordingly  de- 
manded "the  fine  according  to  placard."  Bruynsen  replied  that  he 
did  not  know  whose  land  it  was.  A  week  later,  however,  he  was 
condemned  by  the  Court  to  pay  the  fine  according  to  the  Placard 
"at  the  discretion  of  the  officer.""^^ 

On  September  19,  1662,  James  Davidts  brought  suit  against 
Bruynsen  for  demanding  too  much  for  wages.  Bruynsen  had 
fastened  a  "piece  of  a  mizzen  mast  and  half  a  hatch"  and  was  not 
content  with  a  rix  dollar,  the  sum  Davidts  had  offered  him.  The 
Court  then  asked  Bruynsen  how  much  he  demanded.  He  replied, 
a  pair  of  cargo-shoes  or  ten  guilders  in  seawan.  The  Court  then 
ordered  Davidts  to  pay  Bruynsen,  "for  wages,  six  guilders  in  sea- 
wan;  wherewith  he  should  be  content."'^24 

On  July  3,  1664,  when  Bruynsen's  son  by  his  first  wife  was 
about  ten  years  old,  Bruynsen  himself  and  Dirck  Jansen,  who  was 
the  brother  of  Bruynsen's  wife,  appeared  before  the  orphan 
masters'  court,  in  regard  to  the  boy.  Dirck  Jansen  said  he  would 
take  care  of  the  boy  without  charge.  Dirck  was  one  of  the 
guardians  of  young  Hage.  The  other  guardian,  Cornelis  Janszen 
Clopper,  consented  to  this  arrangement."-'' 

On  September  22,  1668,  the  Court  at  New  York  made  pro- 
visions for  the  administration  of  the  estate  of  Bruynsen,  deceased. 
The  records  state :  "On  petition  of  Dirck  Jans,  Jan  Adams  and 
Cornelis  Mattysen,  next  of  kin  of  the  deceased  Hage  Brynsen,  re- 
questing in  substance  that  they  the  petitioners  may  be  authorized 
with  a  fourth  person,  to  take  the  estate  left  by  the  abovenamed 

722  Ibid..   III.,   p.   72. 

723  Ibid.,    III.,    p.    173. 

724  Ibid.,   IV.,   p.   136. 

725  Year  Book   of   the  Holland    Society  of   New   York.    1900,    p.    126. 


Hage  Brynsen  and  to  administer  it  for  the  advantage  of  the  in- 
terested ;  is  apostilled  as  follows : —  In  case  no  administrator  has 
been  appointed  by  the  will  of  the  deceased,  the  petitioners  with 
Sieur  Jacob  Kipp  are  authorized  as  curators,  to  administer  the 
estate  left  by  the  late  Hage  Brynsen  for  the  advantage  and  greatest 
profit  of  the  interested,  provided  they  shall  render  to  the  orphan 
court  of  the  city  due  account  and  explanation ;  and  those  of  the 
Haerlem  court  are  ordered  to  hand  over  the  goods  of  the  deceased 
to  said  curators."  '^^'^ 

In  January,  1669,  the  curators  sued  Martin  Hoffman,  a  Swede, 
for  fl.  735  seawan  arising  from  an  unpaid  bill  of  exchange  of 
fl.  200  Hol*^^  according  to  an  agreement  with  Bruynsen.  Hoff- 
man was  condemned  to  pay  the  bill  and  costsJ-" 


Jan  Cornelissen,  of  Goteborg,  in  Sweden,  was  in  New  Nether- 
land  as  early  as  1668.  On  May  11,  1668,  he  married,  at  Kingston, 
Willemtje  Jacobs,  widow  of  Albert  Gerritsen.^^s  He  was  deceased 
before  December  24,  1679,  when  Willemtje  was  married  to  Jan 
Broersen  Decker,  widower  of  Heltje  Jacobs.'''-^  The  marriage 
register  says  that  Cornelissen  and  his  wife  were  "married  by  the 
Honorable  Justice." 


Jan  Davidsen  appears  to  have  been  in  New  Netherland  as 
early  as  1663,  serving  in  the  "second  Esopus  war"  at  Kingston. "^*^ 
He  had  some  experience  as  an  Indian  interpreter.  On  June  18, 
1676,  he  married,  in   New  Amsterdam,  Jannetje  Jans.     The  mar- 

726  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam.    1653-1674,    VI.,    p.    148. 

727  Ibid.,    VI.,    pp.    153,    167.      See    articles    "Cornelis    Matthysen, ' '    Part    III; 
"Dirck  Jansen,"   Part  II. 

728  R.   R.   Hoes,   Baptismal   and   Marriage   Registers  of   the   Old   Dutch    Church 
of   Kingston,    p.    502. 

729  Gustave   Anjou,    Ulster   County   Wills,    I.,    p.    30.      See    article    "Jan    Broer- 
sen."   Part   II. 

730  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    IV.,    p.    51. 

308  SWEDISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

riage  record  states  that  he  was  from  Sweden.  Jannetje  was  the 
daughter  of  Jacob  Loper,  a  Swede.  (See  article  "J^^ob  Loper," 
Part  III.) 

After  his  marriage,  Davidsen  seems  to  have  resided  in  New 
Amsterdam,  where  all  his  children  were  baptized :  Marie  was 
baptized  May  2,  1677;  Jan,  May  29,  1680;  Margariet,  November 
5,  1681;  David,  March  31,  1683;  Pieter,  February  3,  1686. 

On  January  9,  1679,  Davidsen  and  his  wife  were  sponsors  at 
the  baptism  of  Lucretia,  daughter  of  Jan  Corneliszen  and  Helena 
Hendricx.  They  were  sponsors  in  1681  also ;  and  in  1697,  at  the 
baptism  of  Jacob,  son  of  Dominicus  Poulse  and  Dorothe  Wil 


Evertje  Dircx  was  in  New  Amsterdam  sometime  before  1656. 
She  may  have  immigrated  to  New  Sweden,  and  thence  to  the  Man- 
hattans. All  we  know  about  her  is  gleaned  from  an  entry  dated 
October  26,  1656: 

"As  complaints  have  been  made  against  Evertje  Dircx,  a 
Swedish  woman  .  .  .  that  she  has  been  in  bad  repute  tor  a  long 
time  already,  therefore  in  order  not  to  involve  her  in  a  public 
scandal,  she  was  told  to  transport  herself  within  eight  days  from 
the  Manhattans  either  to  Long  Island  or  to  the  South  River, 
wherever  it  might  suit  her  best,  without  delay.""^^ 


Roelof  Dirxsz  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  in  165'9.  He  was 
from  Sweden.  He  came  over  in  "de  Otter,"  which  sailed  on 
February  17,  1659.  One  Sweris  Dirxsz  (Severus  Dircksen)  from 
Sweden  was  on  board  the  same  ship.     Perhaps  they  were  related. ^^^ 

731  Collections  of  the  New  York  G-enealogical   and   Biographical   Society,   I.,  II- 
Year  Book  of  the  Holland   Society  of  New  York,    1904,   p.   49. 

732  New   York   Colonial   Documents,   XII.,   p.    131.     Cfr.    Calendar   of  Historical 
Manuscripts,   I.,   p.   176. 

733  Year   Book   of   the   Holland    Society    of    New   York,    1902. 

EVERSEN.  309 


Sweris  Dirxsz  came  to  New  Netherland  in  1659.  He  was 
from  Sweden.  He  came  over  in  "de  Otter"  which  sailed  on 
February  17,  1659.'^^^  In  the  court  records  of  New  Amsterdam 
he  is  called  Severus  Dirckszen.  With  two  others  he  appeared,  on 
March  28,  1662,  as  witnesses  for  a  Geertje  Teunis,  who  had  been 
accused  of  tapping  on  the  day  of  General  Fast,  March  15.  Dirck- 
szen and  his  companions  testified  that  she  did  not  tap  on  the 
day  of  General  Fast  when  they  were  at  her  place.  After  hearing 
the  parties  concerned,  the  Court  dismissed  the  case,  but  ordered 
that  a  negro  who  had  falsely  accused  Greetje  Teunis  should  be 


Barnt  Eversen  was  in  New  Netherland  as  early  as  1658.  He 
was  from  Stockholm,  Sweden.  All  we  know  about  him  is  found 
in  the  court  minuets  of  New  Amsterdam,  where  we  have  the 
following  statement,  dated  September  17,  1658. 

"Jan  Rutgerzen,  pltf.  vs.  Mr.  Allerton,  deft.  Pltf.  again 
demands  from  deft,  payment  of  the  sum  of  fl.  121.6  for  two  obliga- 
tions executed  by  Pieter  Janzen  of  Frederickstatt  and  Barent  Ever- 
sen of  Stockholm,  for  which  the  deft,  has  signed  as  bail  to  pay 
him.  Deft,  says,  he  will  prove,  that  the  abovenamed  Pieter  Janzen 
of  Frederickstatt  and  Barent  Evertsen  of  Stockholm  had  de- 
termined to  run  away  from  the  ship ;  maintaining  therefore  he  is 
not  bound  to  pay.  The  Court  orders  the  deft,  to  give  security  for 
the  monies,  and  to  prove  within  three  weeks  that  the  abovenamed 
Pieter  Jansen  of  Frederickstatt  and  Barent  Eversen  of  Stockholm 
were  willing  to  run  away  from  the  ship."  '^^^ 

734  rbid.,    1902,   p.   10. 

735  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam.    1653-1674,    IV..    p.    56. 

736  Ibid.,    p.    10. 




FORBUS.  311 


Jan  Forbus  (Forbis,  Forbish)  was  in  New  Netherland  as 
early  as  1638.  The  marriage  record  of  the  Dutch  Reformed 
Church  in  New  Amsterdam  states  that  he  was  from  Vesteras,  in 
Sweden.  He  married,  December  7,  1642.  in  New  Amsterdam, 
Margaret  Frankens,  who  was  from  "Loster"  (Leicester?),  in  Eng- 
land^^^  About  1644  he  acquired  a  parcel  of  land  on  Long  Island. 
It  lay  close  to  the  land  that  Claes  Carstensen,  a  Norwegian,  which 
he  acquired  shortly  afterwards  or  perhaps  already  possessed.  In 
1644  he  gave  Claes  Carstensen  a  note  of  150  guilders  purchase 
money,  "balance  due  on  plantation." 

On  May  15,  1647,  he  obtained  a  patent  for  sixty-five  morgens, 
on  Long  Island,  on  East  river.'^^s 

In  1649  he  sold  seventy  five  morgens  to  a  Norwegian,  Pieter 
Jansen  Noorman.  This  land  was  formerly  occupied  by  Claes  Car- 
stensen, David  Andriesen  and  George  Baxter. 

He  had  not  formally  conveyed  it  to  Jansen  as  late  as  1658. 
Jansen,  on  the  other  hand,  had  not  paid  him.  A  litigation  about 
some  other  matter  caused  this  negligence  to  be  discussed  in  court. 
The  Court  accordingly  sent  a  letter  to  Forbus,  February  7,  1660, 
ordering  him  to  convey  the  land  in  question  to  Pieter  Jansen  "and 
in  default  thereof  to  bear  all  costs  that  may  accrue  thereto."^^^ 

After  1680  Forbus  took  up  about  400  acres  on  the  Raritan, 
about  twenty  miles  above  Amboy.'^" 

Under  date  of  July  19,  1662,  we  find  Forbus  and  his  wife 
acting  as  sponsors  at  the  baptism  of  a  child  belonging  to  William 
Solby  (Salby). 

On  May  20,  1666,  Forbus  made  his  will:  "I,  John  Forbus,  of 
Flushing,  do  make  my  wife  Margaret  Forbes,  my  sole  heir  and 
executor  of  my  estate.     To  be  for  her  sole  use  and  for  heirs." 

On  August  28,  1682,  "Letters  of  administration  on  the  estate 

of  John   Forbus  of    Flushing    were    granted    to    his    wife   Mar- 

737  New  York   Genealogical   and   Biographical   Record,    VI.,    p.    35. 

738  New   York   Colonial   Documents,    XIV.,   p.    69. 

739  See  articles   "Claes   Carstensen,"    "Pieter  Jansen  Noorman." 

740  Teunis   G.   Bergen,    Register   ...    of   the  Early   Settlers   of   King's   County, 
p.   113. 

741  Collections    of    the    New    York    Historical    Society:    Abstract    of    W^ills,    I., 
pp.   469,    119. 

312  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 


William  Goffo  arrived  at  New  Amsterdam  in  1663.  He  came 
over  in  the  ship  "de  Bonte  Koe,"  which  sailed  on  April  16,  1663, 
for  New  Amsterdam.  In  the  list  of  passengers  on  board  this  ship, 
his  name  is  given  as  "Guilliam  Goffo  [in  credit  account:  Gouffon], 
from   Sweden. ""■*- 


Andries  Hansen,  or  Andries  Hansen  van  Schweden  [Sweden], 
was  in  New  Netherland  as  early  as  1660.  We  find  him  at  Fort 
Orange  in  that  year,  when  he  and  another  Swede,  Dirck  Hendrick- 
sen,  signed  a  document.  His  surname  is  sometimes  given  as 
Scherf,  Sharp,  Scharf  (also  Barheit).  His  name  appears  in  a 
list  of  soldiers  at  Esopus,  March  28,  1660. 

On  January  28,  1663,  Jan  Andriesen  and  Andries  Hansen 
offered  themselves  as  "sureties  and  principals  for  the  presence  of 
Rutger  Jacobsen,"  the  husband  of  Tryntie  Jans,  a  Danish  woman. 
Hansen  put  his  mark  to  the  document. '''^^ 


Signature    of    Andries   Hansen. 

Andries  Hansen  was  married  to  Gerretie,  daughter  of  Teunis 
Teunissen  Metselaer.     He  made  his  will  in   1685. 

He  had  two  sons,  Johann  and  Gysbert,  who  settled  at  Kinder- 
hook  and  had  large  families. 

In  1683  Andries  Hansen  was  a  member  of  the  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  at  New  Albany.'''^^ 

742  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York,    1902,   p.   25. 

743  Documentary   History   of   New   York,    XIII.,    p.    153.     Pearson,    Early   Rec- 
ords of  Albany  .   .   .,   p.   281. 

744  Ibid.,    p.   44.      Year  Book  of  the  Holland   Society  of  New  York,    1904. 



Dirck  Hendricksen  [Bye]  (alias  De  Sweedt)  seems  to  have  been 
from  Goteborg,  in  Sweden."^^  In  1660  he  was  a  member  of  the 
company  of  soldiers  staying  at  Esopus."^^  Under  date  of  August 
27,  1660,  we  have  a  document  to  which  he  and  Andries  Hansen 
affixed  their  names  as  witnesses.'^^^ 

Dirck  Hendricksen  Bye  made  Esopus  or  Wiltwyck  his  per- 
manent home.  He  was  one  of  the  burghers  at  that  place  who 
signed  a  document,  April  28,  1667,  stating  that  he  and  other 
burghers  had  been  in  arms  during  the  Brodhead  mutiny.  Captain 
Brodhead  had  threatened  to  burn  up  the  village.'''^^  The  document 
was  presented  to  a  court  held  at  Esopus  to  investigate  the  troubles 
caused  by  and  on  account  of  Brodhead.  Among  other  matters 
it  was  revealed  that  George  Porter,  a  soldier,  "coming  in  the 
barn  of  Pieter  Hillebrandt's  and  finding  there  Dirck  Hendrix,  took 
his  sword  and  thrust  the  same  through  the  said  Dirck  Hendrixe's 
breeches."  '^'*^ 

On  May  31,  1671,  Dirck  Hendricksen  is  mentioned  in  a  docu- 
ment as  the  possessor  of  land  in  the  neighborhood  of  another 
Swede,  Andries  Hansen   ( Sharp). '^^o 

A  document  of  1676  states  that  the  wife  of  Dirck  Hendrick- 
sen was  Sarah  Verhaele.  By  this  document  Hendricksen  conveyed 
a  lot  to  Pieter  Du  Moree.     The  wording  was  as  follows :  '^^'^ 

"Appeared  before  me,  Robert  Livingston,  secretary,  etc.,  and 
in  the  presence  of  the  honorable  commissaries,  etc.,  Mr.  Philip 
Schuyler,  and  Pieter  Winne,  Dirk  Henderickse  Sweedt,  who  de- 
clared that  he  in  true  rights  free  ownership,  has  granted,  conveyed 
and  transferred  by  these  presents,  to  and  for  the  behoof  of 
Pieter  Du  Moree,  for  a  certain  lot  of  land  lying  behind  the  Kin- 
derhoeck;  to  the  west  of  the  kil,  to  the  south  of  Jan  Martensen, 
to  the  east  of  Jan  Martensen,  and  that  free  and  unencumbered, 
with  no  claim  standing  or  issuing  against  it,  excepting  the  Lord's 

745  Mnnsell,   Collections  on   the  History   of  Albany,    rV.,   p.    87. 

746  New   York   Colonial   Documents,   XIII.,    p.    153. 

747  Pearson,    Early    Records    of   Albany    .    .,    p.    281. 

748  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    XIII..    p.    414. 

749  Ibid.,   VIII.,   p.   407. 

750  Pearson,    Early  Records  of  Albany,   p.    484. 

751  Ibid.,    p.    123f. 

314  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

right,  without  the  grantors  having  the  least  claim  any  more  upon 
the  same,  and  acknowledging  himself  fully  satisfied  and  paid 
therefor,  the  first  penny  with  the  last,  giving  therefore  plenam 
actionen  cessam,  and  full  power  to  the  aforesaid  Pieter  Du  Moree, 
his  heirs  and  successors  or  those  who  may  hereafter  acquire  title 
from  him,  to  do  with  and  dispose  of  the  aforesaid  lot  as  he  might 
do  with  his  patrimonial  estate  and  effects;  promising  to  defend  the 
same  against  claims  and  charges,  which  may  hereafter  arise  and 
are  lawful,  and  further,  never  more  to  do  or  allow  anything  to 
be  done  against  the  same,  either  with  or  without  law,  in  any 
manner  whatsoever,  under  obligations  as  provided  therfor  by  law. 

"Done  in  Albany,  the  7th  of  March  1676. 

"This  is  the  mark  of  Sarah  +  Verhaele,  wife  of  Dirk  Hen- 

"Philip  Schuyler, 

"Pieter  Winne, 

"In  my  presence, 

"Ro.  Liviningston,  Seer." 


Jan  Hendricksen  was  a  Swede,  whom  we  find  as  party  in  a 
suit  noted  in  the  court  minutes  of  New  Amsterdam  under  date  of 
November  29,  1655.  Isaac  Hansen  brought  this  suit  against  him. 
But  both  were  in  default."^^-  Jan  Hendricksen  may  be  the  same 
person  as  John  De  Sweet,  of  Flushing,  whom  John  Kip,  on  Octo- 
ber 20,  1661,  sued  for  the  recovery  of  a  canoe.^^^ 


Martin  Hoffman  (Martin  Hermansen  Hoffman)  was  in  New 
Netherland  as  early  as  1657.     We  find  him  in  Esopus,  where  he  in 

752  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,   1653-1674,    I.,   p. 410. 

753  Calendar   of    Historical    Manuscripts,    I.,    p.    230. 

HOFFMAN.  315 

1658  joined  with  other  residents  in  warfare  against  the  Indians. 
In  1659  he  was  a  member  of  a  company  of  soldiers.  The  Ensign 
of  the  Fort  reported,  September  29,  1659,  to  Director  Stuyvesant 
that  'on  the  twentieth  Marten  Hoffman  and  other  alarmed"  him 
and  the  guard,  whereupon  he  sent  out  nine  or  ten  men  to  see  what 
was  to  be  done.'''^^ 

Hoffman  was  born  about  1625  at  Reval,  in  Esthonia,  which 
from  1561  to  1710  belonged  to  Sweden.  Hoffman,  no  doubt  was 
a  Swede,  though  the  name  is  also  German.  He  was  interested  in 
getting  aid  from  the  Swedes  on  the  Delaware:  In  1672  he  made 
a  journey  from  Albany  to  the  Swedish  settlement  in  Delaware 
to  collect  money  for  the  Lutheran  church  in  Albany.  Racial  rather 
than    creedal    affinity   likely    determined    this    action. 

He  was  a  saddler  by  trade.  He  spent  some  of  his  time  in 
New  Amsterdam,  some  in  and  about  Albany.  In  1660  he  stood 
sponsor  in  New  Amsterdam  at  the  baptism  of  a  child  belonging 
to  Jan  Woutersen  and  Arentje  Arets.  In  1661,  his  name  occurs 
in  the  Directory  of  New  Amsterdam,  which  states  that  he  was 
living  in  De  Heere  Straat.     He  was  paying  taxes  on  his  house. 

In  1662  we  find  him  living  in  Beverwyck.  He  occupied  at 
the  beginning  of  that  year  a  house  belonging  to  Jan  Lambertsen  of 

In  1663  he  was  again  at  New  Amsterdam.  His  house  on  De 
Heere  Straat  was,  in  1665,  assessed  for  one  guilder. '^^^ 

He  sold  it  in  1669  to  John  Manning. '^^7  After  1670  or  1672 
he  seems  to  have  lived  in  Albany,  following  his  occupation  as 
a  saddler  though  he  was  no  mean  adept  at  auctioneering. 

He  contracted  two  marriages.  His  first  wife  was  Lysbeth 
Hermans  of  Oertmarsen  in  Overyssel,  whom  he  married  in  Brook- 
lyn, April  22,  1663.'''-^^     His  second  wife,  whom  he  married,  May 

16,  1665,  in  New  Amsterdam,  was  Emmerentje  DeWitt  of  "Esens 
in  Embderlandt."'^59 

By  his  first  wife  he  had  no  children. 

p.  28. 

754  New   York   Colonial   Documents,   XIII.,   p.    115. 

755  Pearson,    Early    Records    of    Albany,    p.    299. 

756  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    V.,   y.   221. 

757  Ibid.,   XI.,   p.    190.      Pearson,   Early   Records   of   Albany,    p.    127. 

758  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    I., 

759  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    30. 



By  his  second  wife  he  had  five:  Annetje,  baptized  March  1, 
1665;  Marritje,  baptized  December  12,  1666.  The  date  of  the 
birth  or  baptism  of  his  other  three  children  is  not  given.  Their 
names  were  Zecharias,  Nicolaes  ,Taatje. 

In  January,  1665,  a  Freryck  Gysberzen  van  den  Bergh  pro- 
secuted a  suit  in  the  Court  of  New  Amsterdam  against  Hoffman. 
He  demanded  of  him  forty  four  guilders  "balance  per  account  for 
rent  and  consumed  drink."  Hoffman  replied  that  the  plaintiff  took 
no  cognizance  that  one  Claes  Pietersen  occupied  the  house  with 
him.     He  oft'ered  to  pay  his  share.     The  court  decided  that  Hoff- 

REVAL,    ABOUT    1600. 

man  should  pay  the  plaintiff"  half  the  rent  "and  the  remaining  two 
guilders  for  the  wine  he  drank."'^^^ 

On  September  19,  1665,  Hoffman  brought  suit  against  Jan 
Hendricksen  van  Gunst  for  having  done  damage  to  his  boat,  which 
he  had  hired  to  him  on  the  express  condition  that  it  should  be 
returned  uninjured.  Hendricksen  claimed,  however,  that  the 
"rigging  belonging  to  the  boat  was  rotten  and  worn."  The  Court 
ordered  that   Hendricksen   should   repair  the  boat,   and  that  arbi- 

760  The   Records   of    New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    V.,    p.    17' 

HOFFMAN.  317 

trators   should   see   what   damage   it   suffered   during  the  time   the 

defendant  had  it,  and  if  possible  reconcile  the  parties/^^ 

Hoft"man  had  also  some  dealings  with  his  countryman  Hage 

Bruynsen,  whom  he  owed  735  florins  at  the   death  of  the  latter 

In  1669  he  was  sued  by  Arent  Jansen  Moesman  because  he 
had  sold  his  house  to  Captain  Manning,  without  regard  to  the 
mortgage,  dated  November  19,  1664,  which  Moesman  had  in  it. 
The  Court  accordingly  condemned  Hoffman  to  pay  the  debt  to 
Moesman,  within  three  months'  time,  with  costs. '^^^  Captain  Man- 
ning later  brought  another  suit  against  Hoffman. 

On  December  18,  1670,  the  wife  of  Hoffman  appeared  in 
court  in  a  suit  which  William  Merit  had  brought  against  him, 
charging  him  for  freight  on  goods  brought  from  Delaware.  She 
asked  that  hearing  might  be  postponed  until  the  return  of  her 
husband  from  Albany.'^^'* 

In  1671  Hoffman  was  sued  by  a  Lutheran  pastor  in  New  Am- 
sterdam, Jacob  Fabritius,  for  defamation.  Fabritius  had  very  little 
of  character.  There  was  no  end  to  his  quarrels.  The  Court  ruled 
in  this  case,  as  it  did  in  two  other  suits,  which  Fabritius  had 
brought  against  other  persons :  "The  difference  being  about  de- 
famation, the  court  ordered  these  causes  to  be  thrown  out  of 
court,  they  being  found  only  vexations." 

In  the  same  year  Hoffman  sued  Jan  Roelofsen  "Seubringh" 
for  the  payment  of  a  debt  of  one  hundred  guilders  sewan  and 
400  lbs.  of  tobacco.  He  had  warned  the  plaintiff  three  times  to 
come  to  New  Amsterdam  from  Flatbush  to  pay  what  he  owed. 
Hoffman  won  the  suit.'^^^ 

In  January,  1672,  Hoffman,  who  was  a  Lutheran,  got  a  pass 
from  the  governor  of  New  York,  to  go  to  Delaware  to  collect 
money  towards  erecting  a  church  for  the  Lutherans  in  Albany. 
In  Delaware  there  were  many  Lutherans,  especially  in  the  Swedish 
settlement.  Hoffman,  being  a  Swede,  no  doubt  was  well  qualified 
to   solicit    funds   among   his   countrymen. '''^^ 

In  1672  he  bought  a  lot  in  Albany,  which  he,  on  December, 

761  Ibid.,    v.,    p.    292. 

762  Ibid.,    VI.,    p.    153. 

763  Ibid.,    VI.,    p.    190. 

764  Ibid.,    VI.,    p.   264. 

765  Ibid.,   VI.,   pp.    313,    318. 

766  Ecclesiastical   Records  of   the   State   of  New   York,   I.,   p.   622. 

318  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

1676,   sold,   with   house   on    it,    to    Cornelis    Cornelisen    van   der 

Hoffman  was  still  in  Albany  in  1678. 

Of  Hoffman's  children,  Annetje  married.  January  4,  1702, 
Hendrik  Pruyn. 

Zacharias,  married,  1706,  in  the  Reformed  Dutch  Church  at 
Kingston,  N.  Y.,  Hester,  a  daughter  of  Jacobus  Bruyn,  from  Nor- 
way, and  Gertruy  Esselstein.  He  lived  at  the  old  homestead  at 
Shawangunk  until  1744,  when  he  died.  He  had  several  children: 
Zacharias,  Jacob,  Geertruyd,  Ida,  Janneke  (who  married  William 
Rosenkrans),  Margaret. 

In  1716  he  was  captain  of  a  Company  of  Militia  in  Ulster 

The  third  of  Hoffman's  children  to  marry,  was  Nicolaes.  He 
married  Jannetje  Crispel,  a  Huguenot,  born  1686.  He  acquired, 
like  his  brother,  Zacharias,  much  property.  He,  too,  commanded 
as  captain  a  company  of  the  Ulster  County  Regiment  at  Kingston 
in  1717.  He  was  trustee  of  the  town  of  Kingston,  and  deacon 
of  the  Reformed  church.  Nine  children  were  born  in  this  mar- 

The  last  of  Hoffman's  children  was  Tjaatje  who.  1697,  mar- 
ried, at  Kingston,  Everhardus  Bogardus.  He  was  born  1660. 
They  had  six  children. 

The  Hoffman  family  numbers  preachers  and  lawyers,  states- 
men, authors,  college  presidents.  One  of  the  family  was  engaged 
to  marry  Washington  Irving,  but  died  in  her  eighteenth  year. 
Another,  The  Hon.  John  Thompson  Hoft'man,  was  Governor  of 
the  State  of  New  York. 

Members  of  the  family  are  found  intermarried  with  families 
of  Benson,  Livingston,  Brinckerhoff,  Du  Bois,  Ogden,  Vreden- 
burgh,  Verplanck,  Beekman,  Schuyler,  Provoost,  Storm,  Van 
Cortlandt.  Some  of  the  Roosevelt  and  the  Rosenkrans  families 
are  related  to  the  Hoffmans. 

The  "Genealogy  of  the  Hoffman  Family :  Descendants  of 
Martin  Hoffman"  was  published  in  1899,  —  a  book  of  almost  550 
pages.  It  contains  the  arms  of  the  family,  many  portraits,  includ- 
ing the  portrait  of  Martin  Hoffman  himself. 

767  Pearson,    Early   Records   of    Albany,    p.    148. 

JANS.  319 


Catrine  Jans,  of  Helsingborg,  in  Sweden,  was  in  New  Nether 
land  as  early  as  1656.  She  seems  to  have  been  a  resident  in  the 
Swedish  colony  on  the  Delaware,  which  at  about  this  time  was  an- 
nexed to  New  Netherland.  We  mention  her  here,  because  she 
figures  in  a  marriage  contract.  It  might  be  compared  with  the 
marriage  contract  in  which  a  Norwegian  woman,  Eva  Albertse 
was  a  party,  or  with  that  of  the  Danish  woman  Marritje  Pieters, 
the  earliest  recorded  instance  of  a  marriage  contract  in  New 
Netherland.  (See  Part  I.,  article  "Albert  Andriessen" ;  Part  II., 
article  "Marritje  Pieters."). 

"To-day,  date  as  below,  appeared  before  me,  A.  Hudde,  Secre- 
tary at  Fort  Casimir  on  the  South-River,  appointed  by  the  Hon&/e 
Mr.  Peter  Stuyvesant  and  High  Council,  residing  at  the  Manhat- 
tans, in  presence  of  the  undersigned  witnesses,  the  worthy  Jan 
Picolet,  a  native  of  Bruylet  in  France  with  the  maiden  Catrine 
Jans,  born  in  Elsenborgh  in  Sweden.  Together  and  each  for  him 
or  herself  they  have  made,  of  their  free,  preconsidered  and  un- 
biased will  and  deliberate  opinion  a  promise  of  marriage,  under 
the  condition  that  on  account  of  special  reasons  the  marriage 
solemnization  should  be  delayed,  until  a  preacher  came  here.  And 
Jan  Picolet  promises  faithfully  to  Catrine  Jans  to  keep  the  afore- 
said engagement  unbroken,  likewise  Catrine  Jans  promises  in  the 
same  manner  to  adhere  steadily,  firmly  and  inviolably  to  the 
promise  of  marriage  made  to  Jan  Picolet,  to  which  end  we,  the 
engaged,  submit  ourselves,  each  individually,  to  such  punishment, 
as  is  ordered  by  law  for  convicted  adulterers,  if  one  of  us  or 
both  should  retract  the  foregoing  promise  or  violate  or  break  it. 
We  bind  us,  for  the  vindication  and  satisfaction  of  justice,  to 
keep  ourselves  pure  and  undefiled  in  our  engagement,  until  the 
complete  consummation  of  the  marriage,  as  decency  and  the  laws 
of  our  magistrates  require  it.  We  declare  by  signing  this,  that  we, 
for  further  confirmation  of  this  our  foregoing  promise,  place  our 
persons,  goods,  movable  and  immovable,  now  belonging  or  here- 
after coming  to  us,  all  under  the  control  of  the  pertinent  laws. 
In  attestation  of  the  truth  we  have  signed  this  without  reservation 
or  deceit. 

320  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

"Done  at  Fort  Casimir,  this  24th  of  February  of  this  Year 
1656  on  the  South  River  of  New  Netherland. 

"Jan  Picolet 

"Catrine  +  Jans." 


Mr.  VVilHam  Nelson,  editor  of  New  Jersey  Archives,  First 
Series,  Vol.  XXII,  comments  upon  this  document  after  this 
fashion : 

"On  the  24th  of  the  following  May  the  contracted  couple  ap- 
pear before  the  Council,  when  Jan  requests  in  writing  and  verbally, 
that  he  might  be  discharged  from  his  promise  of  marriage,  made 
to  the  aforesaid  Catrine  Jans  on  January  [  ?]  24,  1656,  and  that 
the  same  be  declared  null  and  void.  He  had  asked  her,  he  said, 
'with  serious  intention,  upon  honor  and  faith,  to  be  his  wife,  and 
that  he  did  not  know  else,  but  that  she  was  a  virtuous  girl.'  About 
a  month  after,  to  his  direct  question,  she  assured  him  to  that  ef- 
fect, and  'they  would  have  been  married  if  a  preacher  had  been 
at  hand.'  It  subsequently  became  evident  that  she  was  not  as  she 
pretended  to  be.  Catrine  then  confessed  to  the  Council  that  in  the 
fall  of  1655  she  had  been  engaged  to  a  soldier.  .  .  The  Commissaries 
adjudged  that  she  had  gone  'outside  of  her  first  betrothal,  from 
which  she  had  not  been  released,  neither  by  the  death  of  the  bride- 
groom nor  by  other  lawful  reasons,  and  had  by  her  second  be- 
trothal deceived  the  plaintiff,  contrary  to  the  written  law,'  and 
they  gave  judgment  that  the  aforesaid  Picolet  be  released  from  his 
betrothal  and  marriage  contract  and  they  declared  the  same  null, 
ineffectual,  of  no  value  and  as  if  the  same  had  never  been  made, 
passed,  written  nor  signed.'  They  moreover  condemned  Catrine 
to  appear  in  Fort  Casimir,  and  there,  before  the  Council,  to  release 
the  plaintiff  and  with  bent  knees  to  ask  the  pardon  of  God  and 
justice  and  promise  henceforth  to  behave  as  a  virtuous  woman. 
On  June  16th  the  couple  once  more  appeared  before  the  Council, 
and  having  heard  the  above  [given]  judgment,  'the  parties  giving 
each  other  the  right  hand,  discharged  one  the  other  legally  before 
the  Council  of  the  promise  of  marriage.'  " 

Catrine  shortly  afterward,  on  December  24,  1656,  was  mar- 

JANSEN.  321 

ried  to  Lauritz  Pietersen,  from  Leyden,  aged  twenty-three  years, 
she  being  only  nineteen. "^^ 


Barent  Jansen,  or  Barent  Jansen  Blom,  from  Sweden,  was 
one  of  the  early  settlers  in  New  Netherland.  He  was  born  in  1611 
in  Stockholm,  and  not,  as  Riker  says,  at  Ockholm  (in  Schleswig). 
The  marriage  record  of  the  Dutch  church  in  New  Amsterdam 
states  that  both  he  and  his  wife,  Styntie  Pieters,  whom  he  married 
September   15,   1641,   were   from   StockholmJ^^ 

He  was  for  some  time  overseer  of  Van  Twiller's  farm  on 
Ward's  Island.  He  was  known  as  "Groot  Barent,"  the  Barent  of 
huge  proportions.  He  removed  to  Brooklyn  in  1652,  after  van 
Twiller  was  discharged  by  the  government. 

On  January  23,  1652,  Barent  bought  of  Peter  Linde  twenty 
morgens  of  land  on  the  shores  of  Long  Island,  between  the  lands 
of  Andries  Hudde  and  Claes  Jansen  Ruyter,'^'^*^  near  the  Wallabout, 
where  he  lived  till  he  died. 

Two  islands  were  named  after  him,  Great  Barent's  Island, 
and  a  smaller  adjacent  one,  Little  Barent's  Island.'^'^^ 

Barent  Jansen  died  June  5,  1665,  from  a  stab  wound  in  the 
side  given  by  Albert  Cornelis  Wantenaer,  and  at  once  fatal.  Riker 
says  that  as  Albert  set  up  the  plea  of  self-defense,  the  Court  of 
Assize,  at  his  trial,  October  2,  convicted  him  only  of  manslaughter. 
He  was  "then  and  there  burnt  in  the  hand  according  to  law" ;  the 
further  penalties,  which  were  the  loss  of  his  property  and  a  year's 
imprisonment,  being  remitted  by  the  government. 

By  his  wife,  Barent  had  two  sons,  Jan,  born  1644  and  Claes 
(Nicolaes),  born  1650;  likewise  two  daughters,  Engeltje,  born 
1652,  and  Tutie,  born  1654. 

Engeltje  was  married  to  Adam  Vrooman,  of  Schenectady. 
Tutie  was  married  to  Lembert  Jansen  Van  Dyck. 

768  New    Jersey    Archives.     First    Series,    vol.    XXII.,    p.     xxxi;      New     York 
Colonial  Documents,  XII.,  pp.   154,   156. 

769  New   York    Genealogical    and    Biographical   Record,    VI.,    p.    34. 

770  Calendar  of  Manuscripts,  I.,  p.   100. 

771  J.  Riker,   Harlem,   Its   Origin   and   Early   Annals,   p.    127. 

322  SWEDISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YOEK,  1630-1674. 

Jan,  surnamed  Barentsen  Blom,  became  a  farmer  at  Flatbush. 
He  married  Mary,  a  daughter  of  Simon  Hansen. 

Claes  married,  1685,  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Paulus  Dircksen 
and  widow  of  Paulus  Michielse  Van  der  Vort.'^'^- 

Regarding  the  wife  of  Barent  Jansen,  we  can  add  only  this: 
On  March  11,  1646  ,she  was  sponsor  at  the  baptism  of  Annetje, 
daughter  of  Jochem  Kalder.    (See  article  Jochem  Kalder.  Part  I.) 


Jan  Jansen,  of  Goteborg,  Sweden,  was  in  New  Amsterdam 
as  early  as  1651.  On  September  9,  in  that  year,  he  got  a  mortgage 
in  the  house  of  the  Norwegian  Roelof  Jansen  Haes.  On  May  11, 
1654,  he  brought  suit  against  Claes  Jansen  Ruyter  and  Harmen 
Douwesen.  But  both  he  and  the  defendants  were  in  default.  On 
October  12,  1654,  the  case  was  tried.  Jan  Jansen  demanded  fl.  329, 
balance  of  a  note  signed  by  Claes  Jansen  Ruyter  and  Harmen 
Douwesen,  dated  September  4,  1651,  with  interest  on  it  from  August 
1,  1652,  to  the  time  of  payment.  The  payment  should  be  made 
"in  beavers,"  according  to  the  obligation.  Ruyter  acknowledged 
the  debt,  but  said  that  Jan  of  Goteborg  "was  satisfied  with  tobacco," 
which  he,  Ruyter,  had  promised  to  deliver  on  first  opportunity. 
The  Court,  after  hearing  the  evidence,  disposed  of  the  case  by 
condemning  Ruyter  to  pay  the  obligation  "in  beavers."  ''"^^ 

On  July  16,  1654,  Jan  Jansen  of  Goteborg,  mate  of  the  ship 
"Conick  Salomon,"  about  to  return  to  Holland,  "conferred  powers 
of  attorney  upon  Dirck  Van  Schelluyne,  to  collect  for  him  certain 
money  owing  to  him  by  parties  in  this  country."''"''^ 

Jan  Jansen  may  have  returned  to  Europe ;  if  so  he  came  back 
again ;  for  he  was  a  resident  of  New  Amsterdam  as  late  as  1667. 
On  July  2,  1667,  Johannes  d'Wit  brought  suit  against  him,  but  he 
was  in  default.  The  Court  then  ordered  that  the  "defendant  shall 
within  the  term  of  twenty-four  hours  give  security  for  his  ap- 
pearance at  the  next  court  day."'"^ 

772  Ibid.,    p.   128. 

773  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    16531674,    I.,    pp.    196,    251. 

774  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  N"ew  York,   1900,  p.   174. 

775  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,   VI.,    p.    81f. 

324  SWEDISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 


Pieter  Jansen,  from  Stockholm,  in  Sweden,  was  in  New 
Netherland  as  early  as  1658."'^*'  He  appears  to  have  lived  in 


Cornelis  Jurriaensen  appears  to  have  been  a  Swedish  soldier 
from  Winseren  (Vintjern?),  in  Sweden.  In  the  New  York  Colo- 
nial Documents  (II.,  p.  64)  it  is  stated  that  he  had  fled  from 
Fort  New  Amstel  to  Maryland,  in  the  year  1659.  Another  Swede, 
Hans  Roeloflf,  seems  to  have  been  his  companion  in  the  flight.  The 
Vice-Director  Alrich  informed  Governor  Fendal,  of  Maryland, 
about  this  flight,  and  requested  that  Jurriaensen  and  his  companion 
be  sent  back. 


Jacob  Loper  was  a  Swede,  from  Stockholm,  who  settled  in 
New  Amsterdam  about  the  year  1647.  For  some  time  he  had 
held  a  naval  appointment  in  the  Dutch  service.  He  had  been 
captain  lieutenant  at  Curacao.''"^^ 

On  June  30,  1647,  he  married,  in  New  Amsterdam,  Cornelia 
Melyn,  the  eldest  daughter  of  Cornelius  Melyn.  Melyn  was  one 
of  the  leading  men  in  New  Amsterdam,  a  friend  of  the  Dane 
Captain  Jochem  Pietersen  Kuyter,  and,  like  him,  an  outspoken 
critic  of  Director  Kieft's  administration.  We  have  related  about 
Melyn's  being  deported  from  New  Netherland,  in  company  with 
Kuyter,  and  that  he  returned.  (See  article  "Jochem  Pietersen 
Kuyter,"  Part  II.)  But  Melyn's  entire  family  suffered  for  many 
years  on  account  of  the  malignant  disposition  of  the  officers  of 
the  West  India  Company  towards  him.     Loper,  his  son-in  law,  felt 

776  Munsell,    Collections  on   the  History  of  Albany,   IV.,   p.    89. 

777  New    York    Colonial    Documents,    I.,    p.    358. 

LOPER.  325 

it  only  too  keenly.  On  June  14,  1649,  he  presented  a  petition  to 
proceed  to  the  South  River  of  New  Netherland  and  sail  there  with 
a  chartered  sloop  and  goods.  He  was  refused,  however,  to  trade 
on  South  River.  The  Council  resolved,  "Whereas  said  Loper  has 
married  the  daughter  of  Cornelis  Melyn  and  having  regard  to  the 
dispatch  of  the  Lord  Mayors,  dated  January  27,  1649,  the  request 
cannot  be  granted."  To  this  resolution  the  following  is  appended 
in  the  minutes  of  the  Council :  "Mr.  Duncklage  is  of  the  opinion 
that  Loper's  petition  can  be  granted,  provided  he  do  nothing  to  the 
prejudice  of  the  Company.  La  Montague  has  scruples  in  the  case, 
in  consequence  of  the  dispatch  of  the  Lord  Mayors.  Bryan  Nuton 
idem."  "^"^s 

Melyn  had  made,  July  11,  1647,  a  deed  of  his  house  in  Broad 
street  to  his  daughter  Cornelia.  According  to  J.  H.  Innes,  it  ap- 
pears to  have  been  a  two-story  house  of  small  size,  in  all  probability 
built  of  brick.  It  seems  to  have  been  situated  in  the  easterly  half 
of  the  present  Broad  Street,  midway  between  Pearl  and  Stone 
streets.     Here  Loper  and  his  wife  lived. 

They  had  two  children,  Jacob,  who  was  baptized  in  the  Dutch 
Church,  October  25,  1648,  and  Janneken,  who  was  baptized  Octo 
ber  30,  1650.  Jochem  Pietersen  Kuyter  was  one  of  the  sponsors 
of  Janneken.  Loper  himself  was  sponsor,  September  15,  1650,  of 
Jacobus,  a  son  of  Jan  Martyn.'^'''^ 

Loper  was  deceased  before  April  7,  1653,  when  his  widow 
was  married  to  Jacobus  Schellingen  of  Amsterdam. 

In  regard  to  the  inheritance  of  Loper's  children,  the  follow- 
ing documents  may  give  us  an  insight  into  the  administrative 
minutes  of  New  Amsterdam. 

"In  Amsterdam  in  N :  Netherland  the  22d  January  1658. 

"Whereas  the  contract  made  between  the  Burgomasters  and 
the  Orphan  Masters  relative  to  the  house  and  lot  of  the  children  of 
Jacob  Looper,  deceased,  situate  on  the  Heeren  Graght,  which  was 
written  by  the  former  Secretary  Timotheus  de  Gabry,  is  lost,  the 
Burgomasters  therefore  resolved  to  order  a  certificate  of  said 
contract  and  to  write  a  letter  concerning  it  to  the  late  Secretary ;  but 
the  order  for  the  certificate  is  deferred  and  the  letter  reads  as 
follows : — 

778  Ibid.,    XII.,    p.    50f. 

779  Collections   of   the   New   York   Genealogical   and    Biographical    Society,    I. 

326  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

"To  Sieur  Timotheus  Gabry. 

"A^  1658,  this  25.  January  in  Amsterdam  in  N  :  Netherland. 

"Hon^'*^  Discreet  and  good  Friend,  Health. 

"These  serve  to  let  your  Hon*'  know,  that  the  Burgomasters 
of  this  City  have  enquired  through  me  their  Secretary  for  the 
contract  made  with  the  Orphan  Masters  of  this  City,  respecting 
the  house  and  lot  of  the  children  left  by  N.  Looper,  deceased, 
which  stood  by  the  Hecren  Graght  next  to  the  house  and  lot  of 
Jochim  Pietersen  Cuyter,  deceased,  which  was  written  by  you ; 
and  whereas  the  abovenamed  have  need  of  the  aforesaid  contract, 
and  do  not  find  it  either  among  the  papers  lying  at  the  City  Hall, 
nor  at  the  Secretary's,  nor  is  it  registered,  which  seems  strange 
to  their  Worship's ;  they,  therefore,  request,  should  the  above- 
mentioned  contract  be  accidentally  among  your  papers,  that  you 
would  please  to  send  it  over  by  first  opportunity ;  or  should  it 
not  be  among  your  papers  to  advise  us,  where  it  may,  to  the  best 
of  your  recollection,  be  found,  as  much  is  depending  on  it.  Which 
expecting  we  commend  you  as  well  as  friends  in  general  to  the 
merciful  protection  of  the  Most  High.     Your  sincere  friend 

"Joannes  Nevius. 

"By  order  of  the  Burgomasters  of  the  City  aforesaid. "'^^'^ 

The  son  of  Captain  Jacob  Loper,  Jacob,  did  not  possess  the 
comforts  of  his  rich  married  sister.  For  in  the  beginning  of  1677. 
he  had  a  dwelling  house  that  lacked  chimneys.  It  is  mischievously 
said,  that  there  is  a  state  in  the  United  States  where  house-chimneys 
are  such  luxuries  that  every  man  possesing  a  house  with  two 
chimneys  is  called  "colonel."  If  New  York  had  resembled  this 
state  in  the  seventeenth  century,  it  would  have  been  difficult  for 
Loper's  son  to  perpetuate  the  title  his  father  had.  For  the  son's 
name  is  found  in  the  following  curiously  spelled  document,  written 
under  English  rule.  It  shows  he  had  a  house  without  a  chimney, 
and  reads : 

780  The   Records  of  New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674.   VII.,    p.    168f. 


W  B 

3  1 


^'  "-^ 

^  i  1 



2   ^ 


t-4'*:^^^  fT^ 



>     Aldermen 

LOPER.  327 

City  off 
New  Yorke 

ATT  a  meetinge  att  AI^'  Mayo'"*  house  the 
28*^  day  of  ffebruary   1676  [-7]* 
Before     Nicho  Demyer  Mayo^ 

M'"  Thomas  Gibbs  deputy  Mayo'" 
M""  Stephanus  Van  Courtland 
M''  Johannes  De  Peister 
M^  ffrancis   Rumbolt 
M^  Thomas  Snawsell 
Persons  that  haue  no  Chimneys  or  not  fitt  to  keepe  fire  in 
Claus  Ditlos  noe  Chimney 
Adam  Miller  the  Like 
Cobus  de  Looper  the  Like 
John  Penacooke  the  Like 
Peter  Powell  the  Like 
ffredrick  the   Shoemaker  the  Like 
Jacob  the  Jew  the  Like 
Sibrant  Jansen  the  Like 
Clem*  Salmon  the  Like 
Isack  Molyne  not  fitt  to  keepe  fire  in 
John  the  Glass  maker  noe  Chimney 
Arien  hee  not  fitt  to  keepe  fire  in 
Beinge  Returned  as  aboue  by  Rob*  W'hitte  Constable 
JTT  IS  ORDERED  that  all  and  Euery  the  r^son  &  T^er.^ons 
aboue  menconed   shall   build   or  Repayre   his   or  their  seu'ali    and 

*  Minutes  of  the  Common  Council  of  the  City  of  New  York,  1675-1776.  I., 
pp.   42f. 

In  new  style  the  date  would  be  February  18.  1677.  Protestant  Netherlands 
ended  the  old  style  Friday,  Dec.  21,  1582.  It  began  the  new  style  next  day,  Satur- 
day, Jan.  1,  1583.  The  Records  of  the  Dutch  in  New  York  accordingly  follow  the 
new  style,  which  we,  as  much  as  possible,  haxc  followed  in  the  present  volume. 
Norway  and  Denmark  introduced  the  new  style  in  1700.  Sweden  sradunlly  adopted 
the  new  style  after  1696.  by  making  no  leap-year  after  1696  until  1744,  by  which 
plan  11  days  were  dropped.  England  ended  the  old  style  on  Wednesday,  Sept,  2, 
1752,  beginning  the  new  on  the  following  Thursday,  Sept.  14,  1752.  Columbus  dis- 
covered America  on  Friday,  Oct.  12,  1492.  O.  S.  By  N.  S.  this  event  happened  Oct. 
21.  George  Washington  was  born  Friday,  Feb.  11,  1732.  We  celebrate  his  anni- 
versary Feb.   22.   omitting  eleven   days. 

In  changing  Old  Style  to  New  Style  nine  days  must  be  omitted  for  the  period 
beginning  M:\rch  1,  A.  D.  1400.  and  ending  March  1,  1500.  Ten  days  must  be 
omitted  for  the  period  March  1,  1500,  to  March  1,  1700;  eleven  davs  for  the  period 
March    1.    1700   to    Sept.    2,    1752. 

The  first  of  January  is  the  beginning  of  the  historical  year.  But  for  many 
centuries  the  Ecclesiastical,  or  Legal,  og  Civil  year  obtained,  beginning  March  25. 
March  would  thus  be  the  first  month  in  the  year.  September  t>'e  seventh  (septem); 
October,  the  eighth  (oeto)  ;  November,  the  ninth  (novem)  ;  December  the  tenth 
(decern);    .January,    the    eleventh;    Februarj',    the    twelfth. 

The  observance  of  the  historical  and  civil  year  caused  doubledating  to  be 
resorted  to,   as  e.  g.  in  the  New  York  document  given  above. 

328  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

Respectiue  Chimneys  in  his  and  their  houses  w*^in  the  Time  or 
Space  of  Three  months  next  after  the  date  hereof  Vpon  paine 
that  hee  or  they  that  shall  neglect  Soe  to  doe  shall  depart  their 
houses  and  not  bee  suffered  to  Liue  in  the  same  they  not  only 
Endangeringe  their  owne  houses  but  alsoe  their  Neighbours  to  be 
burnt  by  fire  &c. 

Jannetje,  the  daughter  of  Loper,  was  married,  1676,  to  Jan 
Davidsen,  a  Swede,  residing  in  Albany.  (See  article  Jan  Davidsen, 
Part  III.) 

After  the  death  of  Davidsen,  she  married,  on  June  5,  1681, 
Hendrick  Beekman,  first  son  of  Wilhelmus  Beekman.  Hendrick 
Beekman's  grandmother  was  a  Slagboom,  probably  Danish.  (See 
article  Teuntje  Jeurians.     Part  II.) 

Hendrick,  became  Justice  of  the  Peace,  of  Ulster  County, 
N.  Y.,  1684. 

By  Jannetje  (Joanna  Lopers)  he  had  three  children :  William, 
who  died  in  Holland;  Catharine,  born  1683,  married  three  times, 
died  1745,  leaving  no  children;  Cornelia,  born  1696,  married  Gil- 
bert Livingston. 

Gilbert's  father,  Robert  Livingston,  was  the  founder  of  the 
distinguished  Livingston  family  in  America.  Robert  Livingston 
was  wealthy.  In  1685  he  purchased  about  160,000  acres  of  land, 
extending  along  the  eastern  shore  of  the  Hudson  for  about  twelve 
miles.     He  became  known  as  first  Lord  of  Livingston  Manor. 

For  genealogical  data  see  Wiliam  B.  Aitkin,  "Distinguished 
Families  in  America  descended  from  Wilhelmus  Beekman  and  Jan 
Thomasse  Van  Dyke."   (1912). 


Jonas  Magnus,  from  Sweden,  was  in  New  Amsterdam  about 
1660.  In  November,  of  that  year,  he  brought  suit  against  Mons 
Pietersen,  also  a  Swede  or  a  Finn.  But  both  were  in  default. 
Nothing  is  said  as  to  the  nature  of  the  suit.'^^^ 

781   The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,   III.,  p.   289. 

MANS.  329 

On  January  31,  1665,  Cornelius  van  Ruyven  sued  Jonas  Mag- 
nus. He  demanded  an  attachment  to  Ije  declared  valid,  and  that 
the  "officer  be  authorized  to  put  the  defendant  in  prison,  whenever 
he  comes  hither."  The  Court  finally  declared  the  attachment  valid, 
"authorizing-  the  Officer  to  imprison  the  defendant  on  his  coming 
to  New  Amsterdam. "'^^ 

A  Jan  the  Swede,  mentioned  in  a  court  transaction  in  Decem- 
ber, 1653,  is  likely  another  person. '^^^ 


Engeltje  Mans  was  one  of  the  early  residents  in  New  Am- 
sterdam, where  she  was  married,  December  18,  1639,  to  Burger 
Joris.  In  the  marriage  record  it  is  stated  that  she  was  from 
"Coinxte,"  in  Sweden. '^^  Can  this  mean  "Vexio,"  from  which 
Hage  Bruynsen   (a  Swede,  who  worked  for  Joris)    came? 

l^^'K.    U<P    ^xcto 


An  entry  in  the  Church  Book  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church  in  New  Amsterdam,  1639. 

Burger  Joris  was  in  New  Amsterdam  in  1637  and  was  secured 
as  smith  in  the  colony  of  Rensselaerswyck,  where  he  worked  until 
sometime  in  August,  1639,  when  he  moved  to  Manhattan.  His 
original  home  was  in  Hirschberg,  in  Silesia. '''^^ 

In  1641  he  built  one  of  the  first  dwelling  houses,  if  not  the 
very  first,  in  New  Amsterdam,  east  of  the  present  Broad  Street 
upon  Hoogh  Straet.  He  sold  it,  December  17,  1644,  to  Cornelis 
Melyn.  It  was  situated  on  a  plot  of  about  135  English  feet 
frontage. '^^^ 

782  Ibid.,    V.    p.    179. 

783  Ibid.,    I.,    p.    143. 

784  New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Record,    VI.,    p.    33. 

785  Van    Rensselaer    Bowier    Manuscripts,    p.    815. 

786  J.    H.    Innes,    New    Amsterdam    and    Its    People,    pp.    104,    128. 

330  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

On  April  28,  1643,  he  received  a  groundbrief  for  sixty  acres 
of  land  on  Mespath  KillJ^'''  The  deed  reads,  according  to  Collec- 
tions of  the  N.  Y.  Historical  Society,  XLVL,  p.  lOOf. : 

"We,  Willem  Kieft  Director  General  and  Councillors  for  the 
High  Mighty  Lords  States  General  of  the  United  Netherlands, 
his  Highness  of  Orange  and  the  Hon.  Heeren  Managers  of  the 
privileged  West  India  Company,  residing  in  New  Netherland, 
Make  known  and  declare  by  these  presents  that  on  this  under- 
written date  we  have  granted  to  Burger  Joorissen  a  lot  situated  ok 
the  bank  of  the  East  River  on  the  Island  Manhatans  to  the  East 
of  the  Fort,  extending  to  the  East  eleven  rods  and  to  the  North  ten 
rods,  being  an  uneven  square  amounting  to  one  hundred  and  ten 
rods  of  land ;  with  express  conditions  and  stipulations  that  he, 
Borger  Joorisen,  or  those  acquiring  by  virtue  of  this  present  his 
right,  shall  acknowledge  the  aforesaid  Heeren  Managers  as  his 
Lords  and  Patroons  under  the  Sovereignty  of  the  High  Mighty 
Lords  States  General,  and  here  their  Director  and  Councillors  to 
obey  in  everything  as  good  inhabitants  are  bound  to  do ;  and  pro- 
vided he,  Burger  Joorisen  further  submits  to  all  such  charges  and 
duties  as  have  already  been  imposed  or  shall  yet  be  imposed  by 
the  Hon.  Heeren.  It  is  also  stipulated  that  Burger  Joorissen,  in 
one  or  two  years  time,  on  the  said  lot  on  the  strand  shall  yet  cause 
to  be  built  a  good  house.  Therefore  conferring  upon  said  Burger 
Jorissen,  or  those  entering  upon  his  right  in  our  stead  real  and 
actual  ownership  of  said  lot,  granting  him  by  these  presents  abso- 
lute and  irrevocable  power  and  authority  and  special  order  to  build 
on,  inhabit,  and  use  said  lot,  as  he  might  do  with  other  his  patri- 
monial lands  and  possessions,  without  we  grantors,  in  our  afore- 
stated  quality,  having,  reserving  or  retaining  any  the  least  share, 
ownership  or  authority  in  the  same,  but  in  behalf  of  as  above 
from  now  on  and  forever  renouncing  everything,  promising  further 
firmly,  irrevocably,  and  unbreakably  to  observe  and  carry  out  this 
their  Conveyance,  all  under  pledge  as  expressed  by  law ;  without 
guile  or  craft  this  has  been  subscribed  by  us  and  confirmed  with 
our  seal  in  red  wax,  in  Fort  Amsterdam  April  28,  1643,  New  Style. 
Was  signed  Willem  Kieft. 

787  E.    B.    O'Callaghan,    History    of    New    Amsterdam,    II.,    p.    582. 

A.  House  belonging  to  Cornells  van  Tienhoven.  B.  House  belonging  to 
Adriaen  Vincent.  C.  The  old  Bark  Mill.  D.  House  of  Caret  Van  Brugge.  E.  House 
of  Wessel  Evertsen.  F.  House  of  Rutger  Jaeobsen,  who  married  Tryntie  Jans,  a 
Danish  woman.  G.  House  belonging  to  Richard  Smith.  H.  House  belonging  to  Bur- 
ger  Joris,    who   married   Engeltje   Mans,    a    Swedish   woman. 

MANS.  331 

"By  order  of  the  Hon.  Heeren  Directors  and  Councillors  of 
New  Netherland. 

"Cornelis  Van  Tienhoven 
"Lib  A.  fo.  58. 
"A  true  Copy. 
"David  Jamison 
"Endorsed  in  Dutch 
"Grant  of  Burger  Jorison,  of  the  28th  April  1643." 

On  January  20,  1644,  he  bought  a  lot  in  New  Amsterdam  ;'^^^ 
likewise  in  September,  the  same  year,  a  "house,  garden  and  brew- 
ery," which  had  been  the  property  of   Hendrick  Jansen.'^^^ 

As  intimated,  Joris  was  a  smith  (hoefsmid)  by  occupation, 
but  being  a  thrifty  man  he  was  soon  in  position  to  engage  in  other 

He  was  the  owner  of  a  sloop,  with  which  he  occasionally 
made  a  trading  voyage  up  the  Hudson  river. 

He  often  appeared  in  Court.  He  was  independent,  and 
wanted  everything  his  own  way.  In  1664  when  the  English  con- 
quered New  Netherland  he  raised  such  an  uproar  —  he  was  a 
great  "swearer"  —  about  the  ears  of  the  timid  spirits,  that  the 
surrender  to  the  English  was  delayed  for  several  hours. 

We  meet  his  wife  quite  often  as  sponsor,  for  instance  as  early 
as  1642,  for  a  child  of  John  Suycker  and  for  one  of  Hans  Nicho- 
laeszen.  In  the  baptismal  record,  giving  the  name  of  the  sponsors 
at  the  baptism  of  Nicholaeszen's  son,  her  name  is  apt  to  be  over- 
looked. The  record  says  "engelsman,"  which  some  have  taken  for 
"Englishman,"  and  for  being  in  apposition  with  the  name  of  Chris- 
tina Vynen,  another  sponsor,  who  thus  has  been  erroneously  con- 
sidered as  English.  (See  Excursus,  "Unclassified  Names,  B.  in 
Part  II).     No  doubt  "engelsman"  here  refers  to  Engeltje  Mans. 

D.  T.  Valentine,  who  speaks  of  the  boisterous  way  of  Burger 
Joris,  regards  Engeltje  as  one  of  the  "notable  women  of  olden 
times."  ''^^  A  statement  of  J.  H.  Innes  would  indicate  that  she 
was  not  unequally  yoked  with  her  husband : 

788  Ibid.,    II.,    p.    583.     Year    Book    of    the    Holland    Society    of    New    York, 
1902,    p.    124. 

789  Calendar   of  Historical   Manuscripts,   I.,   p.   29. 

790  D.  T.  Valentine,   Manual  of  .  .  .  the  City  of  New  York,   1855,   p.   521. 

332  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

"Engeltje  appears  to  have  been  a  vigorous  old  lady  of  some- 
what masculine  disposition.  She  was  frequently,  as  witness  or 
litigant,  before  the  Court  at  the  Stadt  Huys,  where  she  was  much 
dreaded  on  account  of  her  loquacity,  the  magistrates  being  forced 
to  protest  against  her  upon  their  minutes,  as  being  addicted  to, 
'an  outpouring  of  many  words'. "^^^ 

She  appeared  in  court  on  January  24,  1656,  producing  a  de- 
claration of  what  was  left  on  her  husband's  bowery.  Thomas 
Griddy,  who  had  lived  there,  was  the  cause  of  her  presence 
in  court.     He  brought  the  suit  against  Joris.'^- 

In  November,  the  same  year,  she  appeared  again  in  court  for 
her  husband,  who  had  sued  Cornelis  Van  Tienhoven  ;^^^  likewise  in 
December,  when  a  case  between  her  husband  and  another  German, 
Hans  Vos,  was  to  be  tried.'^^^ 

On  January  29,  1657,  she  sued  Geertie  Jacobsen,  wife  of 
Geurt  Coerten  ,for  having  circulated  a  false  report  about  her. 
She  demanded  proof  of  any  dishonor  or  "in  default  thereof, 
that  deft,  be  punished  therefor  as  an  example  to  others,  as  the 
Court  deems  proper."  Geertie  explained  that  she  did  not  disgrace 
Engeltje  with  what  she  had  said,  declaring  she  knew  no  dishonor 
of  the  plaintiff.  "The  Schout  as  guardian  of  the  pltf.  concludes 
that  deft,  be  condemned  to  ask  pardon  of  God,  Justice,  and  the 
wronged  party  in  Court,  and  be  moreover  amerced  in  a  fine  at  the 
discretion  of  the  Court."  The  Court  now  declared  that  Geertie 
"shall  demand  pardon  of  God,  Justice,  and  the  wronged  party  and 
further  declare  that  she  knows  no  dishonor  of  her,  and  moreover 
be  fined  ten  guilders  for  the  Honble.  Schout."  Geertie  complied 
with  this  verdict,  and  added  that  she  "is  thankful  for  impartial 

Under  the  same  date  the  court  records  relate  the  following  in 
regard  to  a  suit  instituted  against  Engeltje  by  Jacob  Strycker: 

"Pltf.  says  that  they  (pltf  and  deft.)  disagree  about  a  beast; 
and  whereas  the  deft,  says  that  he,  pltf.  asserted,  she  and 
the  Honble.  Silla  acted  and  complotted  together,  demands  that 
she,    deft,     shall    acknowledge   the  same   or    deny   having   said   so. 

791  J.   H.   Innes,    New  Amsterdam   and  Its   People,    p.    234. 

792  The   Records   of  New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674.   II.,   pp.    13,    23. 

793  Ibid.,    II.,    p.    222. 

794  Ibid.,    III.,    p.   94. 

MANS.  333 

Deft,  answers,  that  pltf.  has  said,  that  she  and  Honble  Silla  acted 
together.  Honble.  Silla  being  present,  standing  up.  declares  himself 
a  party,  and  says  if  the  Deacons  can  prove,  that  it  is  their  beast, 
that  the  same  falls  to  the  Church.  Deft.  Engeltje  says,  that  the 
beast  in  question  was  last  Thursday  taken  from  her  stall.  The 
Deacons  answer,  they  are  ignorant  of  it.  And  whereas  the  Honble. 
Silla,  as  party,  being  asked  for  proof,  that  it  is  the  beast  of  the 
Poor,  says  he  can  give  no  other  proof,  than  that  John  Snediger's 
wife  should  have  said,  the  beasts,  belonging  to  the  Poor,  should 
have  a  cut  like  a  half  moon  on  the  ear.  Parties  being  heard,  and 
the  court  having  examined  the  proofs,  produced  by  the  Deacons, 
of  those,  who  had  raised  the  cow  from  a  calf  and  also,  who 
wintered  it  last  year,  decide  that  said  proof  is  sufficient  and  that, 
consequently,  the  cow  in  question  belongs  to  the  Poor  and  there- 
fore commission  the  Hon :  Willem  Beeckman  and  Jan  Vinge  to 
tax  the  costs  incurred  by  deft,  and  if  parties  think  they  have  any 
particular  difference,  they  may  institute  their  action  therefor." 

Burger  Joris  received,  in  1658.  a  distinction  that  was  given  to 
very  few  in  New  Amsterdam,  that  of  the  great  Burgher's  right,  in 
spite  of  his  having  violated  various  ordinances  of  the  city.      He 

Signature    of    Burger   .Joris,    1659,    husband    of    Engeltje    Mans. 

had  e.  g.  recived  from  a  Hendrick  Jansen  a  brew-house,  and  began 
to  sell  beer  without  paying  excise  tax.  He  was  prosecuted  for 
this  in  1646.  He  denied  the  general  charge,  but  admitted  that  three 
half-barrels  were  drunk  in  his  house  "with  some  company"!  He 
was  provoked  at  the  ado  made  about  the  matter  and  threatened  to 
"cut  a  slice"  of  the  fiscal.  The  aggrieved  fiscal  brought  suit  against 
him,  whereupon  he  appeared  before  the  Council  and  begged  pardon 
of  the  officer.  But  the  fiscal  insisted  that  Joris  should  be  fined. 
Arbitrators  were  appointed.  However,  their  work  proved  to  be  in 
vain.  They  reported  to  the  Council  that  Joris  "made  game  of 
them."  The  Council  finally  took  the  afifair  in  hand,  and  fined 
Joris  60  guilders.     Upon  his  addressing  that  body  in  a  derogatory 

334  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

manner,    it    ordered   him    "to    remain    four    and    twenty    hours   in 

In  1654  Joris  estabHshed  a  mill  upon  his  bowery,  for  a  long 
time  it  was  called  the  "Burger's  Mill."  In  the  same  year,  when  it 
was  planned  that  new  streets  should  be  made  in  New  Amsterdam, 
and  that  one  street  must  pass  through  the  garden  of  Joris,  he  de- 
termined to  sell  the  house  in  which  he  had  been  living  for  fourteen 
years.  He  sold  it  1655.  The  street  was  laid  out  the  next  year 
and  received  the  name  Smith  Street  (Smee  Straat)  from  the 
blacksmith  (Joris).  whose  land  it  ran  through.  Later  it  was  named 
William   Street. 

About  1660  Joris  sold  off  in  small  parcels  all  of  his  land  re- 
maining upon  the  west  side  of  this  street.  His  later  house,  the 
site  of  which  is  covered  by  New  Cotton  Exchange  was  at  the 
eastern  corner  of  William  and  Stone  streets,  and  here  he  resided 
during  the  remainder  of  his  stay  in  New  Amsterdam. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  eighteenth  century,  this  house 
became  of  interest  as  being  the  residence  and  place  of  business  of 
William  Bradford,  the  first  established  printer  in  New  York ;  here, 
in  1725,  is  supposed  to  have  been  issued  the  first  number  of  the 
'New  York  Gazette,'  the  pioneer  newspaper  of  the  City.'"^^^ 

Joris  left  New  Amsterdam  about  1664  and  took  up  his  re 
sidence  upon  his  Long  Island  bowery.  Here,  too,  he  proved  him- 
self a  man  of  considerable  prominence.  He  was  one  of  the 
patentees  named  in  the  Nicol  Patent  (Cfr.  Collections  of  the  New 
York  Historical  Society  XLVL,  p.  80f.)  of  the  town  of  Newton, 
and  one  of  the  several  commissioners  appointed  in  1670  to  lay  out 
and  regulate  roads  in  that  town. 

Joris  and  his  wife  had  many  children.  Catharyn  was  bap- 
tized December  16,  1640;  Maryken,  December  14,  1642;  Joris, 
July  28,  1647;  Janneken,  January  30,  1650;  Hermanus,  March 
3,  1652;  Elsje,  December  7,  1653;  Claes,  June  17,  1657;  Lysbeth, 

795  J.  H.   Innes,   New   Amsterdam  and  Its  People,   p.   231. 

796  Ibid.,    p.    234.      Valentine.    Manual    of    .    .    .    City    of    New    York.    1865,    pp. 
665,    t)66. 


May   18,    1659;    Johannes,    February     16,    1661;     Elias,    April    2, 

The  sons  took  the  patronymic  Burger.  They  were  repeatedly 
called  to  assist  the  civil  government  in  the  township  in  which  they 

Burger  Joris  died  in  1671,  at  his  farm  on  the  Dutch  Kills. 

In  1674,  his  widow  lived  in  New  Amsterdam  in  her  house 
rated  as  "second  class"  and  valued  at  $1,500,  on  the  present  Old 
Slip,  between  Stone  and  Pearl  St.,  then  a  part  of  the  street  called 
Waterside.  Sometime  before  1683,  she  purchased  the  house  of 
Richard  Smith  upon  Hoogh  Straet  (now  No.  56  Stone  Street). 
Here  she  resided  for  many  years,  with  her  sons  Hermanus  and 
Johannes.  They  appear  as  members  of  the  Dutch  Church  in  the 
list  of  1686.  Both  Engeltje  and  her  husband  had  joined  this 
Church  before  1660. 

Engeltje  Mans  attained  a  great  age.  She  was  still  living  in 


Cornelis  Martensen,  from  Sweden,  was  in  New  Netherland  in 
1655.  A  notice  in  the  Calendar  of  Historical  Manuscripts  states 
that  "Dirck  Michielsen,  a  Finn,  and  Cornelis  Martensen,  a  Swede, 
were,  on  July  31,  1656,  ordered  discharged  from  confinement  on 
a  charge  og  giving  beer  to  Indians."  Their  plea  was  ignorance  of 
the  law. 

In  New  Amsterdam  such  pleas  were  listened  to.  September 
21,  1656.  Martensen  petitioned  for  the  "restitution  of  wine  seized 
by  the  Fiscal  in  1655."  It  would  appear  that  the  order  of  July  31 
gave  Martensen  the  courage  of  asking  for  "restitution."  of  his  con- 
fiscated liquor.'^^^ 

Cornelis  Martensen  must  not  be  confounded  with  Cor- 
nelis Martensen  of  Steenwyck,  likewise  residing  in  New  Amster 

797  Collections    of   the   New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society.    11., 
pp.   11,   14,  22,  27,   31,  36,  46,   53,   60,   72. 

798  Calendar  of  Historical   Manuscripts,   I.,   pp.    171,    174. 

STOCKHOLM,   SEE1,'HJ_.  „„ 
From  Brij!j|;i, 

yOUl^i  ABOUT   1600 
urbita,  iv. 

338  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 


Cornelius  Matthysen,  or  Nels  (Nelis)  Matthysen,  was  from 
Stockholm,  in  SwedenJ^**  He  must  not  be  taken  for  his  con- 
temporary countryman  in  Delaware,  Nils  Matson. 

Cornelius  Matthysen  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  1658. 
Under  date  of  August  12,  1658,  he  brought  suit  against  Cornelius 
Janzen,  a  woodsawyer,  demanding  "the  sum  of  fl.  128.4  balance  as 
appears  by  account  exhibited  in  Court."  Janzen  was  angered  and 
denied  that  he  owed  so  much.  He  accused  Matthysen  of  being 
"a  thief,  saying  he  stole  a  crow-bar  from  the  General  and  sold  it 
to  little  Abramje;  moreover,  advised  him  to  steal  his  timber  from 
the  General  and  sell  it ;  offering  to  prove  it."  No  decision  was 
given  then ;  and  in  September  Matthysen  requested  that  the  ac- 
count between  him  and  Janzen  might  be  taken  up  by  arbitrators. 
On  November  7,  the  same  year,  Matthysen  obtained  judgment 
against  Janzen.^***^ 

On  February  26„  1661,  Cornells  Matthysen  and  Barentje 
Dircks  of  Meppel  were  married  in  New  Amsterdam. 

He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  Harlem  (1661),  where  he  was 
well  esteemed.  "By  occupation  a  carpenter  and  timber-hewer,  he 
was  the  first  tenant  of  the  land  first  known  as  the  Church  farm, 
from  which  he  cut  and  cleared  the  primeval  forest  trees."  His 
lease  on  this  property  expired  in  1668,  when  he  left  the  town  and 
bought  a  small  place  at  Hellgate  Neck,  Newtown. 

The  Court  minutes  of  New  Amsterdam  have  on  record  several 
cases  which  are  suggestive  of  the  troubles  of  a  pioneer  timber- 
hewer  in  New  Netherland  when  it  was  a  question  of  delivering 
timber  "at  its  proper  time"  and  "of  the  right  measure."  We  have 
mentioned  one  case,  where  Matthysen  was  a  litigant,  we  shall  men 
tion  another: 

In  November,  1664,  Matthysen  started  suit  against  Denys 
Isaacksen,  claiming  that  he  bargained  with  him  for  some  timber 
for  the  sum  of  fifty-five  guilders.  He  demanded  the  half  of  this. 
Isaacksen,  however,  claimed  that  he  had  bargained  for  the  timber 

799  New  York  Genealogical   and  Biographical  Records,  VI.,   p.   143. 

800  The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    II.,    pp.    418,    422;    III.,    pp. 
4,    19;    v.,    p.    245. 


for  skipper  Claas  Gangelofzen  Visser,  and  had  spoken  to  him  about 
it,  further  that  Matthysen  had  not  delivered  the  timber  either  at 
its  proper  time  nor  of  the  right  measure.  The  Court,  after  having 
heard    the   parties,    appointed    two    men    to    arbitrate    the    case.^**^ 

On  June  12,  1666,  Matthysen  was  elected  by  the  Court  of 
New  York  as  one  of  the  Overseers  of  New  Haerlem.  He  had 
been  nominated  by  the  inhabitants  of  New  Haerlem.  His  office 
was  for  one  year.     It  had  jurisdiction  in  all  cases  up  to  fl.  200. 

Matthysen's  oath  was  as  follows:  "You  solemnly  swear  in 
the  presence  of  almighty  God,  that  to  the  best  of  your  knowledge 
and  with  a  clear  conscience,  according  to  the  laws  of  this  govern- 
ment and  without  regard  to  person,  you  will  in  all  cases  up  to 
200  fl.,  brought  before  you,  maintain  law  and  justice;  you  will  as 
much  as  possible,  endeavor  to  further  the  welfare  of  your  village 
and  inhabitants.     So  help  you  God."^^^ 

Matthysen,  it  appears,  was  a  relative  of  Hage  Bruynsen. 
For  in  a  petition,  September  22,  1668,  he  and  two  other  men  re- 
quested the  Court  that  it  would  appoint  the  petitioners,  who  were 
"next  of  kin  of  the  deceased,"  and  a  fourth  person  to  take  the 
estate  left  by  Hage  Bruynsen,  of  Sweden.  The  petition  was 
granted. ^''^ 

In  1673  Matthysen  and  Christina  Lourens  requested  by  peti- 
tion that  they  might  be  granted  the  proprietorship  of  a  "piece  of 
land  called  Pattry's  Hook,  situated  between  Lewis  Morris's  land 
and  the  Two  Brothers."  The  government,  in  acting  upon  this 
petition,  ordered  that  it  "be  for  the  present  declined."  ^^^ 

Matthysen  sold  his  property  at  Hellgate  to  Thomas  Lawrence, 
and  obtained  a  grant  of  sixty  acres  at  Turtle  Bay,  in  1676.  This 
he  sold  to  Joh.  Pietersen.  He  perhaps  went  to  Hackensack  (as 
did  his  family)  after  1681. 

He  had  children :  Mathys,  Hendrick,  Anna,  Maria,  Catherine, 
Sarah,  and  Rachel. 

Mathys  was  baptized  December  18,  1665 :  Hendrick,  Decem- 

801  Ibid.,    v.,    p.    152f. 

802  Ibid.,    VI.,    pp.    15,    21. 

803  Ibid.,    VI.,    p.    147. 

804  New  York   Colonial  Documents,   II.,   p.   643. 

340  SWEDISH  IMMIGEANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

ber  5,   1669;  Catharine,  February  19,    1676;    Sarah    and  Rachel, 
twins,  December  23,  1681;  Anna  ?  Maria  ? 

Sarah  was  married  to  Jacob  Matthews,  Maria  to  Samuel 
Hendricksen,  both   of   Hackensack. 

Mathys  (surname:  Cornehssen)  married  Tryntie  Hendricks, 
1692.  He  died  at  Hackensack,  1743 — 8.  His  descendants  re- 
tained the  name  of  Cornelissen.**^ 


Hendrick  Ollofsen  (de  Sweet  —  the  Swede)  was  in  New  Am- 
sterdam about  1655.  On  March  8,  of  that  year,  he  was  sued  by 
WilHam  Hallett,  who  demanded  payment  of  fl.  177.  A  week  later 
Ollofsen  replied  in  court  that  Hallett's  claim  and  account  were  not 
correct.  He  requested  proof  from  Hallett,  and  would  pay  the  sum 
if  proof  was  forthcoming.  On  the  other  hand,  he  demanded 
damage  for  what  Hallett's  cattle  had  done  to  his  plantation  in 
turnips,  pumpkins,  tobacco,  maize,  etc..  the  extent  of  the  damage 
to  be  determined  by  the  Court.  The  Court  ordered  the  parties  to 
settle  their  claims  before  arbitrators.  Ollofsen  chose  Jan  van 
Leyden  to  arbitrate.  The  court  minutes  state  that  Ollofsen  was  a 
Swede,  but  convey  no  information  as  to  which  part  of  Sweden  he 
came  from.^*^^ 


Briete  Olofs  (Brielle  Oule),  from  Goteborg,  Sweden,  was  in 
New  Amsterdam  as  early  as  1656.  She  may  have  immigrated  to 
New  Sweden  and  thence  to  New  Amsterdam.  On  August  5,  1656, 
she  was  married  in  New  Amsterdam  to  Pieter  Corneliszen  of  Var- 
berg  in  Sconia,  a  Dane.  He  was  later  —  perhaps  on  account  of 
his  wife  —  known  as  Pieter  Corneliszen  the  Swede.     (See  article 

805  J.   Riker,    Harlem,    Its   Historj-   and   Early   Annals,   p.    229.      Hnrvey,    Genea- 
logical History   of  Hudson   and   Bergen    Counties,   p.   45. 

806  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674.    I.,    p.    1!96. 


'  Pieter  Cornelissen,"  Part  II.)  A  daughter.  Margariet,  was  Ijorn 
to  them  in  1657.  She  was  baptized  April  15,  in  the  same  year.'**'" 
Pieter  was  deceased  before  December  1666,  when  Jan  Jacob- 
sen,  a  Frieslander,  informed  the  orphan  masters  that  it  was  his 
intention  "to  marry  Briete  Olofs,  widow  of  the  deceased  Pieter 
CorneHssen  Sweet."  Focke  Janzs  and  Cornehs  Aerts  were  ap- 
pointed guardians.  Jan  Jacobsen  married  Briete.  December  4. 

Upon  becoming  widow  for  the  second  time,  Briete  was  mar- 
ried to  a  German,  Gabriel  Carbosie.  who  was  born  in  Lauflfen 
near  Manheim  and  was  widower  of  Teuntie  Straelsman.  whom 
he  had  married  in  1657.^"^ 

Briete  Olofs  must  not  be  taken  for  Helena  Olofs  who.  like 
Briete,  was  married  to  a  Jan  Jacobsen. 


Styntie  Pieters,  from  Stockholm,  wife  of  Barent  Jansen 
Blom,  also  from  Stockholm,  was  in  New  Amsterdam  as  early  as 
1641  or  before.     (See  article  "Barent  Jansen,"  Part  III.) 


Mons  Pietersen  (Mons  Pietersen  Staeck)  was  either  a  Swede, 
or  a  Finn,  from  Abo,  Finland.  He  was  one  of  the  founders  of 
Harlem.  He  owned  a  house  in  New  Amsterdam  in  1660,  as  is 
shown  in  a  notice  in  the  court  minutes.  Under  date  of  April  13, 
1660,  the  minutes  report :  "Jan  Snedingh.  pltf .  vs.  Moenes  Pieter- 
sen, deft.  Pltf.  says  he  hired  a  small  house  from  deft,  for  24  gl. 
the  year  and  has  occupied  it  half  a  year;  is  on  a  bowery,  where  he 
is  going  to  live  the  half  year  and  that  others  reside  in  the  house ; 

807  Collections    of    the    New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Society,    II., 
p.   45. 

808  Year    Book    of   the   Holland    Society    of    New   York,    1900,    p.    128. 

809  .J.    Riker,    Harlem,    Its    Origin    and    Early    Annals,    p.    376. 

342  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

and  he  paid  the  defendant  thirteen  guilders  and  that  the  defendant 
has  seized  eleven  guilders  with  Jan  van  der  Bilt;  asks  v^^hy  he 
has  done  so?  Answers,  for  the  remaining  rent.  Defendant  is 
asked,  if  the  others  have  gone  to  dwell  in  the  house  with  his 
consent?  Answers,  Yes.  Burgomasters  and  Schepens  having 
heard  parties  decree,  as  the  defendant  allowed  others  to  reside  in 
the  house,  that,  in  that  case  he  has  no  claim  on  the  plaintiff.  There- 
fore the  plaintiff  may  receive  the  money  from  Jan  van  der  Bilt.''^^^' 
In  November,  1660,  "Jonas  de  Sweet"  (Jonas  the  Swede) 
brought  suit  against  "Moens  de  Sweet"  (the  Swede).  But  the 
defendant,  who  can  be  no  other  than  Mons  Pietersen,  was  in  de- 
fault.    Nothing  is  said  as  to  what  was  the  nature  of  the  suit.^^^ 

On  January  24,  1663,  Mons  Pietersen  married,  in  Brooklyn, 
Magdalentje  Van  Tellickhuysen.  She  was  widow  of  Adam  Dirck- 
sen  from  "Colen"  of  New  Haerlem,  and  was  sometimes  called 
Magdaleentje  Lamberts;  she  had  come  from  Steinfurt,  Ger- 

Pietersen  had  taken  part  in  laying  out  the  village  of  Harlem. 
At  first  he  rented  a  house  and  a  bowery.  He  soon  disposed  of 
these  and  entered  into  a  "three  years'  partnership,  January  17, 
1662,  with  Jan  Cogu,  from  whom  he  received  the  half  of  his  allot- 
n.ent  of  land  with  house,  barn,  etc.,  for  125  guilders  and  the 
balance  in  cash  .  .  .  With  farm  and  lime  kiln,  with  a  canoe  valued  at 
fifteen  guilders,  and  the  herding  to  attend  to,  they  also  engaged, 
August  22,  1662,  to  work  Tourner's  land,  already  under  the 
plough."  Cogu  died  about  the  time  the  partnership  expired, 
February  1,  1665. 

Mons  Pietersen  held  minor  offices  in  the  town  of  Harlem. 
He  was  an  unlettered  man,  but  by  nature  gifted.  Riker  says, 
"Much  reliance  was  placed  upon  his  judgment ;  yet  strong  drink 
often  made  him  abusive  and  violent  and  this  failing  marred  his 
whole  life." 

In  1665  heavy  penalties  were  imposed  on  Pietersen  by  the  court 
in  Harlem.     This  may  have  caused  him  to  leave  Harlem.     He  re- 

810  The   Records   of   New   Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    III.,    p.    153.      The   marriage 
register    states   that    Pietersen   was    from    "Arbon    in    Sweden." 

811  Ibid.,   III.,   p.   239. 

812  New    York    Genealogical    and    Biographical    Record,    VI.,      p.      145.     Year 
Book   of   the   Holland    Society   of   New   York,    1897,    p.    140. 


moved  to  Elizabethtown,  New  Jersey,  "taking  his  lumber  thither 
in  a  canoe,  aided  by  Gillis  Boudewyns."  Here  Mons  took  the  oath 
of  allegiance,  on   February  19,   1666. 

We  shall  let  the  court  minutes  of  New  Amsterdam  speak  in 
regard  to  his  standing  in  court : 
[October  3,  1665] 

"Jan  Montague,  Moenes  Pietersen  and  N.  Verneltje,  pltfs. 
vs.  Daniel  Terneur.  Pltfs.  communicate  in  form  of  complaint, 
that  a  dispute  arose  a  while  ago  between  them  and  the  defendant 
(all  inhabitants  of  N.  Harlem)  on  account  of  deft.'s  dog  having 
bitten  one  of  the  pltf.'s  Montague's  pigs;  concerning  which  the 
deft,  summoned  them  before  the  constable  and  Commissaries  of 
N.  Haerlem,  who  condemned  the  pltfs  severally  on  the  28th  Sep- 
tember last  in  a  fine  of  one  pound  Flemish  for  the  benefit  of  the 
poor.  Deft,  delivers  in  copy  of  aforesaid  judgment  and  main- 
tains that  the  same  was  justly  pronounced  and  delivered.  He  re- 
quests therefore  that  the  same  be  approved  of.  The  Mayor  and 
Aldermen  having  heard  parties'  verbal  debates,  and  the  produced 
judgment  being  examined,  they  approve  and  ratify  the  same,  and 
for  reason  condemn  each  in  his  costs.^^^ 

This  case  was  of  little  account.  Far  more  serious  and,  as 
above  intimated,  likely  determinative  for  Pietersen's  leaving  Har- 
lem, was  his  beating  of  a  herdsman  and  threat  to  treat  the  town 
constable  in  a  similar  manner. 

The  version  of  the  Court  minutes  dealing  with  this  matter 
is  as  follows: 

"Resolveert  Waldron,'  Constable  at  N.  Haerlem,  pltf.  vs. 
Moenes  Pietersen,  deft.  Pltf.  says,  that  deft,  has  been  condemned 
by  the  Court  of  Haerlem  in  a  fine  of  one  hundred  guilders  for  and 
because  he  had  sorely  beaten  the  herdsman  of  said  village,  named 
Jacques,  according  to  the  declaration  thereon  being,  but  in  place  of 
satisfying  said  judgment  he  threatened  to  treat  the  Constable  in  a 
like  manner;  requesting  approval  of  said  judgment,  etc.  Deft. 
denies  that  he  beat  the  abovenamed  Jacques  the  herdsman  or 
threatened  the  Constable,  etc.  Jacques  the  herdsman  appearing 
in  person  declares,  that  the  defendant  struck  him,  because  he  had 
driven  the  deft.'s  oxen  with  the  young  cattle  of  the  whole  village 

813   The    Records    of    New    Amsterdam,    1653-1674,    V.,    p.    296f. 

344  SWEDISH  IMMIGKANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

away  from  the  milk  cows ;  proving  the  same  by  a  declaration  made 
to  this  effect  by  Joost  Oplines  (Oblinus).  The  Mayor  and  Alder- 
men having  heard  parties,  condemn  the  deft,  first  the  fl.  100  ac- 
cording to  the  previously  rendered  judgment  approving  the  same, 
and  further,  to  be  imprisoned  until  he  give  security  for  his  (good 
behavior)  and  to  demean  himself  as  becomes  an  honest  in- 

As  we  have  already  noticed,  Pietersen  was  a  resident  of 
Elizabethtown  in  1666.  "Within  ten  years  he  v.ent  to  the  Swedish 
Colony  at  Upland,  Penn..  and  got  land  at  Calkoen  Hook,  where 
he  was  yet  living  in  1693." 

"Too  often  mastered  by  his  bad  habit,  once  for  scolding  a 
magistrate,  he  was  fined  1000  guilders,  but  the  fine  was  remitted 
at  the  request  of  the  injured  party,  upon  Monis  asking  pardon  for 
his  abuse,  and  pleading  that  he  said  it  'in  his  drink.'  His  native 
frankness  and  good  sense  disarmed  resentment,  and,  despite  his 
weakness,  won  respect.  His  sons,  Peter,  Matthew,  and  Israel  are 
understood  to  have  been  the  ancestors  of  the  Stuck   family."  ^^^ 


Simon  de  Sweedt  was  in  New  Amsterdam  about  1661.  As 
the  name  indicates,  he  was  from  Sweden.  What  we  know  about 
him  is  due  to  the  following  notice  in  the  court  minutes  of  New 
Amsterdam : 

[January  25,  1661].  Jan  Janzen  van  de  Langh  Straat,  pltf. 
vs.  Simon  de  Sweedt,  deft.  Pltf.  demands  from  deft,  twenty  five 
guilders  balance  of  a  piece  of  land  sold  him  for  ninety  guilders. 
Deft,  says,  that  pltf.  cannot  deliver  him  the  land.  Pltf.  replies, 
that  he  sold  the  deft,  the  land  as  he  bought  it  and  that  deft,  had 
sold  the  piece  of  land  back  to  the  man,  from  whom  he  bought  it. 
Deft,  rejoins,  that  the  pltf.  had  promised  him  a  ground  brief,  which 
pltf.  denies.  The  Court  refer  the  matter  in  dispute  to  Cornelis 
Aarsen  and  Peter  Stoutenburgh  to  reconcile  parties  if  possible  as 

814  Ibid.,    v.,    p.    297. 

815  J.  Riker,   Harlem,   Its   Origin  and  Early   Annals. 

DE   SWEET.  345 

regards  the  piece  of  land  in  question,  if  not  to  report  their  pro- 
ceedings to  the  Court."  ^^^ 


Hans  Roeloff,  from  Stockholm,  was  a  soldier,  in  service  of 
New  Netherland,  who  fled  from  Fort  New  Amstel  to  Maryland  in 
the  year  1659,  as  per  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  H.,  p.  64. 
Another  Swede,  Cornelius  Jurriaensen  (See  article  "Cornelius 
Jurriaesen."  Part  HI.)  seems  to  have  been  his  companion  in  the 
flight.  In  the  years  1659-1662  a  "Roelof  Swenske"  (Roelof 
Swede)  is  listed  among  the  soldiers  receiving  pay  in  the  military 
service  at  Fort  Amstel  in  New  Netherland.  (Ibid.,  II.,  p.  179.) 
Whether  he  is  the  same  person  as  Hans  Roeloff  can  not  be 
definitely  stated. 


Claes  de  Sweet  (the  Swede)  was  in  New  Amsterdam  about 
1655.  The  words  "de  Sweet"  indicate  that  he  was  from  Sweden. 
We  know  nothing  of  him  beyond  what  can  be  inferred  from  the 
court  minutes  of  New  Amsterdam : 

On  June  14,  1665,  Marritie  Jorisen  prosecuted  a  suit  against 
Andries  de  Haes,  and  said  that  de  Haes  had  scolded  her  as  a 
whore,  and  her  husband  as  a  rogue,  in  the  presence  of  Claes 
Michelsen  and  Claes  de  Sweet. 

July  5,  1655,  she  "sustained  by  these  two  witnesses  that  de 
Haes  had  used  abusive  language  against  her  and  her  husband." 
Andries  de  Haes  objected,  that  the  two  witnesses  were  servants  of 
Marritie  Joris.  She  replied  that  they  were  not  her  servants.  De 
Haes  acknowledged  that  as  she  said  she  was  not  indebted  to  him, 
—  he  replied,  "Whores  and  knaves  act  so."  He  now  declared  be- 
fore the  court  that  he  knew  the  plaintiff  and  her  husband  as  honest 

816  The  Records  of  New  Amsterdam,  1653-1674,  III.,  p.  251.  Is  he  the  same 
person   as  Simon  Hansen? 

346  SWEDISH  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW  YORK,  1630-1674. 

and  decent  man  and  wife,  and  that  the  words  had  been  expressed 
in  haste.  The  Court  condemned  de  Haes  for  his  calumnies  in  a 
fine  of  six  guilders  for  the  behoof  of  the  deaconry  of  New  Am 
sterdam,  and  dismissed  the  plaintiff's  claim.^^'^ 


Roeloff  Teunissen  was  a  seacaptain  from  Goteborg,  in 
Sweden,  who  settled  in  New  Amsterdam  about  1651.  In  1651  he 
had  found  employment  in  the  Dutch  service,  and  was  then  "Master 
of  the  ship  the  Emperor  Charles".  In  New  Amsterdam  he  was  a 
neighbor  of  Dirck  Holgersen,  a  Norwegian.  He  bought,  on 
September  18,  1651,  Holgersen's  original  house  on  a  parcel  of 
ground  in  Smit's  Vly.  This  house  had  been  built  by  Holgersen 
about  the  year  1649.  It  must  have  stood  upon  the  whole  or  a  part 
of  the  site  of  the  modern  building,  No.  259  Pearl  Street.  Roeloff 
Teunissen  resided  there  till  1657,  when  he  sold  the  premises  to 
Jan  Hendricks  Steelman  (J.  F.  Innes,  New  Amsterdam  and  Its 
People,  p.  323f.).  Teunissen  and  Steelman  must  have  had  busi- 
ness transactions  with  each  other  before.  For,  on  March  8,  1655, 
jan  Hendricksen  Steelman  was  sued  by  Jacobus  Bakker  on  account 
of  some  property.  But  Steelman  answered  "in  writing,  showing 
by  letter  from  Roeloff  Teunissen  to  Sieur  Schrick  (a  German), 
and  bill  of  sale,  dated  July  4,  that  he  lawfully  bought"  the 
property  in  question. ^^^ 

817  Ibid.,    I.,    p.   322. 

818  Ibid.,   I.,   p.   296. 

Note:  The  early  records  of  New  Netlierland  probably  present  less  difficul- 
ties for  tracing  Swedish  names  than  the  Danish  or  Norwegian.  In  the  preface  we 
have  mentioned  ,Tan  Swaen.  whom  a  Scandinavian  would  take  to  be  Swedish,  iis  a 
negro.  He  is  sometimes  called  Swaen  .Tanse.  According  to  Bergen's  "Knrly  Spt- 
tlers  of  Kings  County,"  he  came  from  Lnane,  to  this  country  in  1654.  When  Cor- 
nelius B.  Harvey's  "Genealogical  History  of  Hudson  and  Bergen  Counties,  New 
Jersey,''  states  that  Jan  Swaen  was  a  Swede,  this  depends  on  reading  ''Stockholm" 
for  ''Stockem"  (?).  In  the  church  register  of  New  Amsterdam,  it  is  stated  tlmt 
Jan  Swaen  was  "van  Stockem  in  landt  van  Luyck"  ( — Liege  or  Luttich).  This 
was    another   person. 

Kldert  Engelbertszen.  who  in  1656  married  Sara  Walker,  of  Boston,  is  men- 
tioned   by    Riker   as   a    Swede.      He    came,    however,    from    Eland    in    East    Friesland. 


More  than  a  century  has  passed  since  an  American  man  of 
letters,  Washington  Irving,  whose  parents  were  immigrants  from 
Great  Britain,  wrote  what  is  known  as  the  Knickerbocker  History 
of  New  York.  This  burlesque  was  produced  not  long  after  he 
had  recovered  from  his  depressed  state  of  mind,  caused  by  the 
death   of  a  young  lady  he  was  to  marry,   Mathilde   Hofmann,  a 

;    descendant  of  a  Swedish  immigrant  Martin  Hoffman,  whom  v;e 

'    have  treated   in  this  volume.  Washington   Irving  never  married. 
He  remained  true  to  the  memory  of  his  early  attachment. 

Had  he  been  equally  faithful  in  writing  the  history  of  New 
York,  we  should  not  have  had  the  Washington  Irving  school  of 
writers  which  has  done  sorry  work  in  distorting  the  history  of 
the  Empire  State.  This  school,  says  Mr.  J.  H.  Innes.  "has  done 
so  much  to  propagate  false  and  unworthy  notions  of  New  Nether- 
land  History.'"  It  is  to  be  lauded  that  Mrs.  Van  Rensselaer 
shows,  in  her  large  work  on  New  Amsterdam,  an  undisguised  and 
proper  contempt  for  these  notions ;  but  it  is  to  be  deplored  that 
they  are  almost  daily  propagated  by  teachers  of  literature  who 
in  all  seriousness  recommend  "Diedrich  Knickerbocker"  as  a  guide 
in  colonial  history.  Any  one  familiar  with  the  authentic  records 
of  New  Netherland  will,  upon  taking  Irving's  farcical  "History"  in 
hand,  immediately  see  how  utterly  fantastic,  even  anachronistic, 
his  descriptions  are,  and  how  willingly  the  author  yielded  to  a 
bias  that  might  be  looked  for  in  older  English  descriptions  of  the 
nearest  Teuton   neighbor   across   the   channel   or  his   offspring  on 

,    this  side  of  the  Atlantic. 

j  Washington   Irving  was  born    in    New    York.  He    was    an 

American  by  virtue  of  his  birth  on  American  soil,  not  by  virtue 
of  having  English  speaking  parents.  He  would  have  been  no  less 
American  if  his  parents  had  come  from  Holland,  or  if  he  had 
been  born  in  Sweden,  or  if  he  had  come  over  to  our  country  as 

;    a  "foreigner"  and  naturalized  as  a  citizen. 

348        SCANDINAVIAN   IMMIGRANTS   IN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

It  is  not  pedigree  that  makes  a  man  an  American.  Politically 
he  may  be  an  American,  but  in  other  respects  something  else.  But 
politics  is  not  everything.  Philip  Schaff  used  to  say  that  he  was 
a  Swiss  by  birth,  a  German  by  education,  an  American  by  choice. 
But  that  does  not  mean  that  he  renounced  his  German  education 
in  favor  of  the  American.  For  he  considered  the  former  quite 
superior.  It  is  conceivable  that  a  person  may  be  politically  an 
American,  though  biologically  a  Greek,  intellectually  a  German, 
religiously  a  Russian,  aesthetically  an  Italian,  and  recreatively  an 

Nor  is  it  language  that  makes  a  person  an  American.  A  free 
country  like  Switzerland  does  not  discriminate  against  its  citizens 
because  they  speak  French  and  not  German,  or  German  and  not 

Nor  do  customs  make  a  man  a  citizen.  The  Bavarian  does 
not  regard  the  Mecklenburger  as  un-German  or  unpatriotic,  though 
he  has  some  different  customs. 

It  is  not  easy  to  define  an  American.  He  is  not  an  Anglo- 
American  in  the  sense  that  he  discriminates  against  the  Dutch- 
American  or  the  German-American  or  the  Scandinavian-American. 
Biologically,  or  racially,  he  may  be  a  hyphenated  American,  and 
as  such  make  use  of  the  hyphen,  prefixing  Irish,  Danish,  Swedish, 
English,  etc.,  to  his  "American."  But  the  biological  factor,  as  an 
authority  on  Sociology  proper,  Dr.  J.  H.  W.  Stuckenberg,  says,  is 
not  one  of  the  social  forces  that  go  to  make  up  society.  The 
American  is  above  all  a  cosmopolitan ;  that  is  he  is,  or  should  be. 
removed  from  the  clannishness  that  regards  the  naturalized  citizen 
as  an  inferior  because  he  speaks  another  tongue  or  has  antecedent 
spouses  who  were  born  under  another  flag  than  the  stars  and 
stripes.  The  true  American  shows  the  same  kind  of  consideration 
for  the  immigrants  of  the  twentieth  century  as  Mr.  Theodore 
Roosevelt  and  Rev.  Dr.  David  Burrell  do  in  their  speeches  on  the 
Dutch  immigrants,  before  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York. 
This  society,  founded  in  1885  for  historical  and  social  purposes, 
includes  only  direct  descendants  in  male  line  of  the  Netherlanders 
by  birth  or  adoption  who  immigrated  before  the  final  establish- 
ment of  English  dominion  1674 — 75.  As  many  of  the  Scandi- 
navians treated  in  the  present  volume  must  have  been  Nether- 
landers by  adoption  before  they  came  to  America,  not  a  few  of 


their  descendants  are  eligible  to  membership  in  this  organization. 

At  its  banquet  in  1903,  Dr.  Burrell,  in  speaking  of  the  Dutch 
fathers  of  early  New  York,  said : 

"...  Our  Dutch  fathers  were  not  aliens ;  they  were  not 
refugees ;  they  were  never  foreigners  in  any  sense ;  they  came  here 
to  be  Americans,  and  they  were  Americans  from  the  first  moment 
when  they  set  foot  on  the  soil  of  the  New  World.  They  were 
never  hyphenated  Americans,  and  they  are  not  hyphenated  to  this 
day.  I  remember  when  Romulus  founded  Rome  he  had  a  lot 
of  heterogeneous  people  gathered  around  him,  and  they  were  very 
much  like  the  population  that  comes  to  us  from  every  quarter 
of  the  world  to-day  in  the  steerage  of  all  the  ships.  He  gathered 
them  around  him,  and,  as  he  dug  the  foundation  of  the  ancient 
city,  he  required  every  man  among  them  to  take  from  his  neck 
a  little  bag  of  earth  which  he  had  fondly  brought  from  his  own 
fatherland,  and  empty  the  bag  of  earth  and  say,  'civis  romanus 
sum.'  That  is  the  only  qualification  for  American  citizenship, 
and  our  forefathers  set  the  example." 

Practically  the  same  thought  was  expressed  seven  years  be- 
fore by  Mr.  Roosevelt,  who,  like  Dr.  Burrell,  is  of  Dutch 
ancestry.      Mr.  Roosevelt  addressed  the  Society  as  follows: 

"...  I  am  glad  to  answer  to  the  toast,  "The  Hollander  as 
an  American."  The  Hollander  was  a  good  American,  because 
the  Hollander  was  fitted  to  be  a  good  citizen.  There  are  two 
branches  of  government  which  must  be  kept  on  a  high  plane,  if 
any  nation  is  to  be  great.  A  nation  must  have  laws  that  are 
honestly  and  fearlessly  administered,  and  a  nation  must  be  ready, 
in  time  of  need,  to  fight,  and  we  men  of  Dutch  descent  have 
here  to-night  these  gentlemen  of  the  same  blood  as  ourselves  who 
represent  New  York  so  worthily  on  the  bench  and  a  Major- 
General  of  the  Army  of  the  United  States. 

"It  seems  to  me,  at  times,  that  the  Dutch  in  America  have 
one  or  two  lessons  to  teach.  We  want  to  teach  the  very  refined 
and  very  cultivated  men  who  believe  it  impossible  that  the  United 
States  can  ever  be  right  in  a  quarrel  with  another  nation  —  a  little 
of  the  elementary  virtue  of  patriotism.  And  we  also  wish  to  teach 
our  fellow  citizens  that  laws  are  put  on  the  statute  books  to  be 

350        SCANDINAVIAN  IMMIGRANTS  IN   NEW   YORK,   1630-1674. 

enforced ;  and  that  if  it  is  not  intended  they  shall  be  enforced, 
it  is  a  mistake  to  put  a  Dutchman  in  the  office  to  enforce  them. 
"The  lines  put  on  the  programme  underneath  my  toast  begin: 
'America!  half-brother  of  the  world!'  America,  half-brother  of 
the  world  and  all  Americans  full  brothers  one  to  the  other.  That 
is  the  way  that  the  line  should  be  concluded.  The  prime  virtue 
of  the  Hollander  here  in  America  and  the  way  in  which  he  has 
most  done  credit  to  his  stock  as  a  Hollander,  is  that  he  has  ceased 
to  be  a  Hollander,  and  has  become  an  American,  absolutely.  We 
are  not  Dutch-Americans.  We  are  not  "Americans"  with  a  hyphen 
before  it.  We  are  Americans  pure  and  simple,  and  we  have  a 
right  to  demand  that  the  other  people  whose  stocks  go  to  compose 
our  great  nation,  like  ourselves,  shall  cease  to  be  aught  else  and 
shall  become  Americans." 

We  shall  not  quote  the  entire  speech.  But  we  wish  to  quote 
what  the  American  press  often  has  overlooked  in  referring  to  this 
speech.  For  Mr.  Roosevelt  said  more  than  this.  We  put  it  in 
italics : 

"And  further  than  that,  zve  have  another  thing  to  demand, 
and  that  is  that  if  they  do  honestly  and  in  good  faith  become 
Americans,  those  shall  be  regarded  as  infamous  who  dare  to  dis- 
criminate against  them  because  of  creed  or  because  of  birthplace." 

He  adds:  "...  These,  then,  are  the  qualities  I  should  claim 
for  the  Hollander  as  an  American :  In  the  first  place  that  he  cast 
himself  without  reservation  into  the  current  of  American  life: 
that  he  is  an  American,  pure  and  simple,  and  nothing  else.  In  the 
next  place,  that  he  works  hand  in  hand  and  shoulder  to  shoulder 
with  his  fellow  Americans,  without  any  regard  to  differences  of 
creed  or  to  differences  of  race  and  religion,  if  only  they  are  good 
Americans.  ..."  (Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New 
York,  1896.)* 

The  words  of  these  two  descendants  of  Dutch  immigrants  — 
incidentally  Mr.  Roosevelt  styles  himself  a  Dutchman  —  also  ap- 
ply to  the  Scandinavian  immigrants  of  early  times.     They  were 

*  The  recent  discussion  about  the  hyphenated  Americans  (cfr.  Scotch-Irish, 
Canadian-French)  is  not  responsible  for  my  quoting  Burrell  and  Roosevelt.  Seven 
years  have  passed  since  I  transcribed  their  speeches  before  the  Holland  Society 
with    the   view   of   incorporating   them   in    the   present   volume. 


good  Americans  because  they  were  good  Scandinavians.  And  they 
had  something  to  their  credit  that  the  New  Netherland  government 
did  not  have.  They  were  tolerant  of  the  established  Dutch  Re- 
formed church,  and  still  maintained  that  they  had  a  right  to  as- 
semble for  worship  according  to  their  own  creed,  the  Lutheran. 
The  government  of  New  Netherland  was  intolerant  of  Lutherans, 
Quakers,  Independents,  Mennonites  and  Catholics.  The  Dutch  in 
early  New  York  were  not  quite  as  tolerant  as  Mr.  Roosevelt's 
speech  makes  them  appear.  This  part  of  his  speech  has  therefore 
been  criticised,  and  Mr.  Roosevelt  has  accepted  the  criticism  with 
good  grace,  stating  he  was  glad  that  we  were  now  enjoying  re- 
ligious liberty  in  a  broader  sense  than  that  which  obtained  in  early 
New  York. 

But,  in  order  to  be  just  to  the  Dutch,  how  much  toleration 
could  be  expected  of  any  people  of  the  seventeenth  century?  Hol- 
land (and  Turkey)  was  then  the  only  European  power  that 
sanctioned  the  toleration  which  now  prevails  in  nearly  all  modern 
states.  But  even  Holland  did  not  know  religious  liberty  and 
equality  as  we  know  it  to-day. 

Notwithstanding,  New  Netherland  was  more  democratic  than 
Virginia  or  New  England.  The  mixture  of  many  nationalities  — 
more  than  twenty  —  in  the  Dutch  province  broadened  the 
democracy  of  the  population,  in  strong  contrast  to  the  clannish- 
ness  of  the  neighbors  north  and  south.  New  England  paid  defer- 
ence to  blood,  education,  wealth,  social  distinction.  On  the  list 
of  Harvard  College  the  students  were  ranked  not  alphabetically 
but  according  to  their  social  standing,  a  system  that  persisted  until 
1773.  The  title  of  Mr.  is  prefixed  to  only  eight  names  out  of 
231  on  a  list  of  persons  that  took  the  freeman's  oath  in  Con- 
necticut in  1650—1660.* 

The  nobility  in  New  Netherland,  as  such,  played  no  role  in 
the  development  of  the  national  spirit.     "Only  three  or  four  scions 

*  The  conventional  usage  which  does  not  allow  that  the  honorific  prefix  "Rev- 
erend" by  immediately  followed  by  a  surname  (Rev.  Jones),  but  insists  that  it  should 
be  immediately  followed  by  a  Christian  name  (or  initials)  or  instead  by  a  title  (Rev. 
John  Jones,  Rev.  J.  Jones.  Rev.  Mr.  Jones),  is  rooted  in  the  class  distinction 
which  prevailed  in  the  17th  century  in  places  like  Connecticut,  where,  as  we  have 
seen,  only  eight  names  out  of  a  list  of  231  freemen  v.ere  entitled  to  the  prefix 
"Mr."  Naturally,  an  English  parson  was  Master  or  Mister  by  tacit  consent,  as 
"Mr."  (formerly  Sir)  was  a  translation  of  "dominus,"  a  title  that  the  par- 
sons in  England  had  used  for  a  long  time.  When  "Reverend"  came  to  be  ha_bit- 
ually  xised  of  the  parochial  clergy  of  the  Church  of  England — and  that  was  since 
the  end  of  the  17th  century — tlie  clergyman  became,  among  the  few  "Misters," 
the  "Reverend  Mister."  "Reverend  was  not  the  property  of  the  Anglican  clergy 
alone.     It   was   also   applied   to   the   priest    (Roman    Catholic)    and    the   minister    (Dis 

352         SCANDINAVIAN   IMMIGRANTS   IN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

of  the  old  Netherlands  aristocracy  ever  saw  its  shores ;"  and  only 
one  nobleman  from  Scandinavia,  a  Dane. 

It  is  true  that  the  records  of  ancient  Nev^  York  are  richly 
sprinkled  with  the  particles  "van"  and  "de".  But  "van"  was  not 
the  same  as  the  German  "von".  It  meant  of  or  from.  Thus, 
Vandeventer  meant  "from  Deventer."  "Van  Buskirk"  was  added 
to  the  name  of  Laurens  Andriessen,  a  Dane,  to  show  that  the 
Laurens  Andriessen  meant  was  the  one  living  by  the  church 
(kerk)  in  or  near  the  woods  (bosch).  Van  Hoorn  could  mean 
"from  the  city  of  Horn"  but  also  "from  or  at  the  corner."  Nor 
was  "de"  indicative  of  aristocracy.  It  was  nothing  but  the  article 
the.  Pieter  Andriessen  de  Schoornsteenveger,  a  Dane,  was  Pieter 
Andriessen  the  chimneysweep  (p.  156).  Dirck  de  Noorman  was 
Dirck  the  Norwegian  (p.  73).  Simon  de  Sweedt  was  Simon 
the  Swede.     Laurens  de  Drayer  was  Laurens  the  turner  (p.  153). 

The  feeling  of  the  New  Netherlanders  was  no  more  aristo- 
cratic than  the  blood.  Every  citizen  was  in  theory  at  least  a  "full 
brother"  to  every  other  citizen  irrespective  of  language  or  nation- 
ality.    The  Scandinavians  intermarried  among  the  Germans,  and 

senter),    though    an    attempt    was   made    in    the    English    court    to    prohibit    the    use    of 
"Reverend"    on    a    tombstone   of    a    Wesleyan    minister. 

To  speak  of  a  Scandinavian,  a  G-ermau,  or  a  Dutcli  Lutheran  pastor  of  the 
seventeenth  century  ;!S  a  "Reverend  Mister"  is  anachronistic.  For  the  Lutheran 
view  of  the  ministry,  as  then  held,  was  decidedly  democratic  as  compared  to  that 
of  the  Anglican  Churcli  or  to  that  of  the  Dissenters,  who  followed  Calvin  and  ad- 
hered more  or  less  to  the  English  class  distinction.  More  democratic  than  these 
were  the  Dutch  Reformed.  The  Dutch  Reformed  were  often  at  one  with  the 
Lutherans  in  putting  the  prefix  "Reverend,"  without  further  ado,  immediately 
before  the  clergyman's  surname.  The  "Ecclesiastical  Records  of  the  State  of 
New  York,"  (I-VI.,  1901ff.),  edited  by  Mr.  Hugh  Hastings,  State  Historian  of  New 
York,  use  "Rev.  So-and  So"  and  "Rev.  Mr.  So-and-So"  indiscriminately,  e.  g. : 
Rev.  Polhemius,  pp.  317,  326.  337:  Rev.  Wellius,  p.  376;  Rev.  Goetwater.  preface 
XX ;  Rev  Blom,  p.  464:  Rev.  Drisius.  Rev.  Schaats,  p.  605:  Rev.  Weeksteen,  p. 
764:  Rev.  Dellius.  pp.  845,  880.  893;  Rev.  Selyn,  p.  851;  Rev.  Varick.  p.  1067: 
Rev.  Voskuil,  Rev.  Klingant.  Rev.  Groenewegeu,  Rev.  Elias.  p.  1183;  Rev.  Freer- 
man,  p.  1140;  Rev.  Leydt,  p.  3862;  Rev.  Ritzema,  p.  3886;  Rev.  Kalkoen,  p.  4026; 
Rev.    Leadley,    p.    4049;    Rev.    Kuyper.    p.    4119;    etc. 

Those  who  condemn  this  use  of  "Reverend"  without  a  titular  appendix  as 
inconsistent  with  the  English  idiom,  should  register  their  grievances  with  the  State 
Historian   of  New   York. 

But  it  is  not  in  the  official  translation  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Documents 
alone,  that  "Reverend"  is  used  in  this  unceremonious  manner.  The  Minutes  ol 
the  Twelfth  Session  of  the  "Evangelical  Lutheran  Synod  of  West-Pennsylvania, 
Gettysburg,  1836,  register  ministers  like  Rev.  Helm,  Rev.  Heyer,  Rev.  Yenger. 
Rev.'  Stroh,  Rev.  Lochman.  Rev.  Martin,  Rev.  Oswald,  Rev.  Moser,  Rev.  Keyl, 
Rev.  Gottwald,  Rev.  Anspacb,  etc.  T)ie  Minutes  of  the  same  Synod  for  the  year 
1860   speak,    e.   g.   of  Rev.   Ide.    Revs.    Berry,   Gotwald,    and   Guss. 

This  conventional  latitude  of  the  New  York  Dutch  Reformed,  and  the  West 
Pennsylvania  Lutherans  also  appears  in  Rev.  .7.  C.  Jensson's  (now  Roseland) 
"American  Lutheran  Biographies,"  Milwaukee.  1890. — a  large  work  of  some  900 
pages:  Rev.  Albrecht,  p.  23;  Rev.  Andersen,  p.  35;  Rev.  Ansbach.  p.  39;  Rev. 
Dahl  p  153;  Rev.  Dietrichsen,  p.  163;  Rev.  Eberhardt.  p.  181;  Rev.  Eggen  p. 
184;'  Rev.  Goetwater,  p.  213;  Rev.  Haupt.  p.  309;  Rev.  Kuhl,  p.  439;  Rev^  Meoh 
ling  p  507;  Rev  Paulson,  p.  581;  Rev.  Preus,  p.  595;  Rev.  Reck,  p.  607:  Kev. 
Ruth,    p.    629;    Rev.    Telleen,    p.    798;    Rev.    Kildal,    p.    890:    Rev.    Lenker,    p.    891 

Finally  a  testimonv  from  the  official  weekly  paper  of  the  General  ^ynoa 
of    the    Evangelical    Lutheran    Church    in    the    United    States      of       .\raerica,  lUf 


the  French,  but  especially  among  the  Dutch.  A  Scandinavian 
intermarriage  with  the  English  belonged,  however,  to  the  excep- 

For  example,  Hans  Hansen,  from  Bergen,  Norway,  married 
the  daughter  of  a  Walloon  father  and  a  Parisian  mother.  The 
ancestor  of  the  American  Vanderbilts  married,  as  his  first  wife, 
Anneken  Hendricks,  also  from  Bergen,  Norway.  Laurens  Pieter- 
sen,  a  Norwegian,  married  a  lady  from  Germany.  Anneke  Jans, 
the  famous  Norwegian  lady  from  Marstrand  was  married,  as 
widow,  to  a  Hollander,  Rev.  Boghardus.  Engeltje  Mans,  of 
Sweden,  was  married  to  a  German.  Hage  Bruynsen,  of  Denmark, 
married  a  Swede.  That  a  Dane  married  a  Dane,  a  Norwegian  a 
Norwegian,  a  Swede  a  Swede,  was  rather  uncommon.  Intermar- 
riage was  the  rule.  And  remarriage  was  the  rule  among  widows 
and  widowers.  Many  married  for  the  third  time.  In  the  days 
of  Lovlace,  one  man,  a  German,  is  mentioned  as  being  the  fourth 
husband  of  his  first  wife,  and  the  third  husband  of  his  second 
wife  whose  forebears  had  been  a  Dane  and  a  Hollander.  Briete 
Olofs,  from  Sweden,  married  in  succession  a  Swede,  a  Frieslander, 

Lutheran  Church  Work  and  Observer"  (Harrisburg  and  Philadelphia),  in  the  last 
issue  of  the  year  1915.  This  paper  mentions  on  p.  2,  Rev.  Cannaday,  Rev.  Spang- 
ler,    Rev.    Dunkelbcrger ;    on    p.    15,    Rev.    Botsford;    on    p.    16,    Rev.    Richard. 

All  this  proves  conclusively  that  "Rev.  Mr."  is  not  universal  usage.  And 
as  shown,  it  owes  its  origin  to  a  social  classification,  which  obtains  no  longer.  We 
say  Bishop  Ball  and  Doctor  Hall,  Professor  Hart  and  Dean  Hort,  without  a  "Mr." 
either  prefixed  or  affixed.  Why,  then,  should  not  "Reverend  Jones"  be  treated 
in  the  same  way?  Some  may  object,  "Reverend"  is  an  adjective,  the  other 
prefixes  mentioned  are  nouns.  But  why  should  "Reverend"  perpetually  remain 
an  adjective  or  be  a  mere  appellative  petrifaction,  excluded  from  the  laws  of  evo- 
lution, since  it  is  used  as  a  noun  in  many  sections  of  our  country,  notwithstanding 
the  conservative  label  it  luis  been  given  by  the  dictionary.  To  illustrate,  the 
Greek  word  "Christos"  (anointed)  was  at  first  an  adjective.  Later  it  became 
also  a  proper  noun.  Now,  "Reverend"  as  a  honorific  prefix  has  gone  through  a 
similar  development.  It  is  well  known  that  "The"  as  a  sine  qua  non  prefix  to 
"Revei-end"  is  no  longer  insisted  upon  in  sections  where  provincial  standards 
have  given  way  to  broader  views.  And  what  is  there  to  hinder  the  "Mr."  from 
following  suit  as  a  conventional,  but  provincial  and  undemocratic  drag,  that  the 
doctor    and    professor   has    dismissed.      We    have    no    "Dr.    Mr."    and    no    "Prof.    Mr." 

Perhaps  it  would  be  well  to  dismiss  "Reverend"  entirely  as  the  stereotyped 
«tyle  for  clergy.  substituting  "Pastor"  or  another  equivalent.  Certain  Ministerial 
Associations  have  tabood  it.  And  they  have  been  wise  in  so  doing, — just  as  wise 
as   Sir   William   Ramsey,   who  has  dropped    "Saint"    as   the  prefix   to   the   apostle   Paul. 

Says  this  distinguished  English  professor  in  "The  Teaching  of  Paul  in 
Terms  of  the  Present  Day"  (1913):  "I  have  intentionally  avoided  using  the  hon- 
orific prefix  "St.".  vsiiich  places  Paul  on  a  conventional  pedestal,  and  obscures 
the  man,  the  missionary,  and  the  teacher.  It  has  in  English  lost  entirely  its 
original  force  in  Greek  usage.  In  Greek  we  use  ho  hagios  (the  holy)  with  the 
names  of  angels  and  archangels  and  the  spirit  of  God.  and  so  in  Latin  sanctus; 
but  in  English  the  convention  would  not  allow  St.  Raphael.  St.  Michael,  or  St. 

I.  too,  have  intentionally  avoided  using  in  the  present  work  "Rev.  Mr." 
as  prefix  to  the  surname  of  ministers.  At  best  "Rev.  Mr."  can  be  only  on  par 
with  "Rev."  The  address  "Rev.  .Tones,"  whether  English  or  not  English,  solves 
a  dilemma  when  one  does  not  know  if  "Rev.  .Jones"  (Christian  name  or  initials 
unknown)  is  a  man  or  a  woman  (there  are  several  hundred  ordained  lady  preach 
ers),  a  "Mr.",  a  "Mrs.",  or  a  "Miss."  (See  my  article  "Pastor  or  Min- 
ister?"   in    the    "Lutheran    Obseiwer."    Vol.    LXXVL.    No.    10.     (Philadelphia,     1908). 

354         SCANDINAVIAN   IMMIGRANTS   IN   NEW   YORK,   1630-1674. 

and  a  German.     Divorce  suits  were  few  in  number,  fewest  among 
the  Scandinavians. 

The  matrimonial  democracy  of  the  parents  was  perpetuated 
by  the  children,  and  these  were  many.  The  Norwegian-French  mar- 
riage of  Hans  Hansen,  of  Bergen,  gave  life  to  nine  children.  The 
Norwegian-Dutch  marriage  of  another  Norwegian  from  Bergen, 
Herman  Hendricksen,  resulted  in  ten  children.  The  German-Nor- 
wegian matrimonial  alliance  of  Dr.  Kierstede  and  Sara  Roelofs. 
from  Marstrand,  enriched  the  population  of  New  Amsterdam  by 
half  a  score.  The  marriage  of  Bording,  a  Dane,  with  a  Hollander 
increased  his  family  by  ten.  Thomas  Fredricksen,  a  Dane,  and 
his  wife,  from  Holland,  were  parents  of  eight  children.  Martin 
Hoffman,  a  Swede,  had  by  his  second  wife,  who  was  German  or 
Dutch,  five  children.  Burger  Joris,  a  German,  married  a  Swedish 
lady  and  had  ten  children. 

In  business  affairs,  racial  differences  were  as  little  in  evidence 
as  in  matrimony.  It  was  not  uncommon  for  Scandinavians  to 
be  in  partnership  with  Dutch  or  Germans. 

As  Dutch  was  spoken  by  the  majority,  this  language  played 
much  the  same  role  among  those  who  were  not  of  Dutch  blood 
as  English  plays  to-day  among  our  city  immigrants  from  foreign 
lands.  Those  who  did  not  speak  Dutch  belonged  to  the  exceptions. 
And  up  to  the  time  of  the  American  Revolution,  New  York  city 
remained  a  characteristically  Dutch-German-Scandinavian  city  in 
custom  and  feelings.  It  is  related  that  travelers  noticed  the  un- 
English  aspect  and  atmosphere  of  the  place.  Notwithstanding, 
New  York  was  distinctively  American.  And  taking  its  rank  as  a 
fullfledged  city  as  early  as  1653,  when  it  had  no  rival  in  the  English 
colonies,  it  is  the  oldest  of  American  cities,  as  well  as  the  greatest. 
As  the  Scandinavians  did  not  have  Scandinavian  churches,  schools, 
and  papers,  they  must  have  learnt  Dutch  more  rapidly  than  the 
immigrants  of  to-day  acquire  English. 

The  factors  at  work  in  retarding  the  learning  of  English  to- 
day in  various  rural  sections  of  our  country  were  much  the  same 
as  those  which  made  the  Dutch  in  New  York  and  the  Germans 
in  Pennsylvania  slow  in  turning  to  English.  They  were  in  no 
hurry  to  bid  adieu  to  the  continental  tongues. 

Says   Mrs.   Van  Rensselaer:   "For  two   or  three  generations 


even  a  colloquial  acquaintance  with  the  English  tongue  was  not 
universal  on  Manhattan;  and  all  through  colonial  times  the  English 
speech  of  its  people  was  very  corrupt,  for  a  large  proportion  of 
them  heard  only  Dutch  in  the  family,  the  church,  and  the  school. 
The  Reformed  church  permitted  no  English  sermons  to  be 
preached  from  its  pulpits  until  1764  and  did  not  abolish  Dutch 
sermons  until  the  end  of  the  century ;  no  master  taught  English 
in  its  school  until  1773  and  the  first  who  taught  it  exclusively 
took  charge  in  1791." 

The  Dutch  language  had  the  same  hold  on  the  population  of 
Manhattan  as  the  German  on  that  of  Pennsylvania.  As  late  as 
1783  a  motion  was  made  in  the  legislature  of  Pennsylvania  to 
the  effect  that  the  official  language  of  the  state  from  then  on 
should  be  Gennan.  The  motion  was  lost  by  a  majority  of  one 
vote,  and  this  vote  was  cast  by  a  German. 

There  is  indeed  nothing  particularly  commendable  in  an  ex- 
clusive adherence  to  the  language  of  one's  forefathers  when  ex- 
pediency demands  a  greater  command  of  the  tongue  that  is  spoken 
by  the  majority  of  the  land.  On  the  other  hand,  there  is  nothing 
supremely  heroic  in  renouncing,  perhaps  denouncing,  the  language 
of  parents  or  grandparents  to  the  exclusive  cultivation  of  the  of- 
ficial language  of  the  land.  Emerson's  rule  to  read  nothing  but 
English,  to  read  even  the  classics  of  foreign  nations  only  in 
English  translation,  is,  to  .say  the  least,  fully  as  much  at  fault  as 
was  the  attitude  of  the  older  Dutch  and  German  pioneers  towards 
English.  An  asset  of  the  Jew  is  his  linguistic  ability.  Even  a 
man  so  remote  from  commercial  motives  as  Paul  of  Tarsus  knew 
several  languages :  Hebrew,  Aramaic,  Greek,  and  probably  Latin. 
The  sudden  growth  of  Germany  as  a  commercial  power  at  a  time 
when  the  routes  and  markets  of  commerce  were  pretty  well  estab- 
lished, is,  in  no  mean  degree,  due  to  the  stress  which  that  country 
lays  on  the  study  of  languages.  The  educated  American  and  his 
insular  cousin  the  Englishman  are  linguistically  no  match  for  the 
cultured  Dane  or  Dutchman  of  Europe.  As  for  the  Dutch,  the 
Scandinavians,  and  the  Germans  in  our  country,  they  are  as  a  rule 
bilinguals.  As  such  they  can  appreciate  the  spirit  of  America's 
greatest  poet,  Longfellow,  who  after  finishing  college  spent  many 
years  in  studying  foreign  languages. 

But  —  to  give  our  digression  a  point.     American  citizenship 

356        SCANDINAVIAN   IMMIGRANTS   IN   NEW   YOEK,   1630-1674. 

is  not  inconsistent  with  paying  homage  to  a  tongue  that  is  not 
English.  For  otherwise  American  citizens  must  cease  blaming, 
for  example,  Germany  for  forcing  German  upon  the  Danes  of 
Schleswig-Holstein,  and  Russia  for  Russianizing  Finnland  and 
compelling  the  Poles  to  speak  Russian.  America,  the  new  home 
of  many  tongues,  should  be  fully  as  democratic  as  was  imperial 
Rome,  where  perhaps  almost  three  fourths  of  the  population  spoke 
Greek,  but  only  a  little  more  than  a  fourth  knew  Latin.  The 
Apostle  Paul,  one  of  the  greatest  organizers  that  history  knows, 
a  cosmopolitan  in  the  best  sense  of  the  word,  a  traveler  that  visited 
Spain  as  well  as  Eastern  Antioch,  —  separated  from  each  other 
by  the  distance  of  some  3000  miles  —  was  probably  better  at  home 
in  Greek  and  Hebrew  than  in  the  official  language  of  the  land  which 
had  bestowed  upon  him  the  rights  of  Roman  citizenship.  But  — 
to  come  nearer  to  our  age,  our  America  of  to-day  should  be  fully 
as  democratic  on  the  language  question  as  was  ancient  New  York. 

Respect  for  foreign  speech  is  a  twin  brother  of  respect  for 
colored  race.  And  here,  too.  New  Netherland  teaches  the  modern 
American  a  lesson,  especially  such  as  discriminate  against  negroes 
and  Indians. 

As  to  the  New  Netherlanders'  treatment  of  the  Indian,  Mrs. 
Van  Rensselaer  says :  "In  general  the  Dutchman  tried  to  treat  the 
Indians  well.  By  nature  they  were  more  gentle  than  the  Puritan 
Englishman ;  they  did  not  share  his  hatred  and  contempt  for  aliens 
and  heathen  :  and  they  were  more  strongly  inclined  by  their  social 
needs  to  a  friendly  policy.  ...  In  theory  at  least  the  Hollander 
considered  the  Indian  a  man  like  himself  with  analogous  rights." 

This  statement  applies  equally  well  to  the  Scandinavian  im- 
migrants. One  of  the  first  among  them  to  remonstrate  against 
Governor  Kieft  for  his  unfair  treatment  of  the  Indians,  was  the 
Dane  Jochem  Pietersen  Kuyter.  The  signing  of  a  treaty  of 
peace  between  the  government  and  an  Indian  tribe  took  place  at 
the  house  of  another  fairminded  and  democratic  Dane,  Jonas 
Bronck  (p.  179).  Leading  interpreters  of  Indian  in  New  Nether- 
land were  Claes  Carstensen  (p.  51)  and  Sara  Roelofs  (p.  106), 
both  Norwegians ;  and  Jan  Davidsen,  a  Swede. 

To  keep  or  sell  natives  of  the  soil  as  slaves  was  never  sanc- 
tioned in  New  Netherland  by  law,  by  custom,  or  by  public  opinion. 
But  a  few  Indian  slaves  were  introduced  from  foreign  parts,  and 


two  governors  saw  fit  to  export  a  few  captives  in  a  time  of  war. 
The  Norwegian  woman  Sara  Roelofs  (107)  mentions  in  a  will 
her  "Indian,  named  Ande,"  whom  she  gave  to  one  of  the  sons 
she  had  by  her  first  husband,  Dr.  Kierstede  from  Magdeburg.  But 
she,  the  excellent  Indian  interpreter,  may  have  proved  a  good 
mistress  for  Ande,  who  served  under  English  —  not  Dutch  — 

The  Indians  adopted  Teutonic  names,  for  example,  Hans. 
Hendrick.  Some  of  them  joined  towards  the  close  of  the  century 
the  Dutch  Reformed  church.  But  no  special  effort  was  made 
by  the  New  Netherlanders  to  carry  on  any  missionary  enterprise 
among  them,  such  as  the  Swedish  minister  John  Campanius 
planned  in  the  Swedish  settlement  at  the  Delaware.  Rev.  J.  Cam- 
panius, who  was  born  in  Stockholm  about  1601,  was  in  New  Swe- 
den from  1643  to  1648.  His  home  was  at  Tinicum  Island,  nine 
miles  south-west  of  Philadelphia.  He  translated  Luther's  Small 
Catechism  into  the  language  of  the  Delaware  Indians.  The  trans- 
lation antedates  that  of  Eliot's  Indian  Bible.*  It  was,  however, 
not  published  until  1696.  Its  pages  alternate  with  Swedish  and 
Indian.  (A  copy  of  it  is  found  in  the  archives  at  the  Theological 
Seminary,  Gettysburg,  Pa. ;  in  the  Library  of  Congress ;  and  in  one 
of  the  libraries  in  Philadelphia.) 

Commercially  the  red  men  were  outwitted  by  the  Europeans. 
It  suffices  to  point  to  the  negotiation  which  resulted  in  their  sale 
of  Manhattan,  24,000  acres,  for  $24.  or  $120  in  present  value. 
But  they  also  knew  how  to  strike  a  bargain  as  they  attempted  to 
do,  when  they  captured  Pieter  Andriessen,  a  Dane,  and  demanded 
a  high  ransom.  The  greatest  weakness  of  the  Indian  was  his  liking 
for  fire-water.  The  government  was  obliged  to  issue  several 
ordinances  prohibiting  the  sale  of  liquor  to  him. 

Less  deference  M'as  paid  to  the  negro.  The  blacks  were 
bought  and  sold  as  slaves.  But  slave-traffic  as  such  was  not  in- 
dulged in.  There  never  were  many  slaves  in  New  Netherland 
until  after  the  first  conquest  by  the  English.  The  first  that  came 
directly  from  Africa  arrived  in  1665,  about  a  century  after  the 
first   English   slave   ship   carried   off     from    Africa     its    cargo   of 

*  The  first  edition  of  the  entire  Bible  printed  in  the  New  World  in  a  Euro- 
pean language  was  the  German  Bible  of  1743,  from  Sauer's  press,  Germantown. 
Pennsylvania,  with  1272  pages,  quarto  form.  No  Bible  had  been  printed  in  the 
Kngliwh   language   in   the   colonies  before   the   German   Bible   of   1743. 

358        SCANDINAVIAN  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW   YORK,   1630-1674. 

vendible  natives.  Sir  John  Hawkins,  later  vice  admiral  of  the 
Armada,  owned  the  ship,  whose  name  of  "Jesus"  harmonized  but 
poorly  with  its  mission  to  Africa  in  1562. 

The  Netherlanders  employed  the  negroes  as  house  servants 
They  could  not  chastise  them  without  permission  of  the  magistrate. 
Manumission  was  an  easy  matter  and  quite  inexpensive.  The 
husband  of  Ciletje  Jans,  Danish,  united  with  two  other  men  to 
liberate  a  slave.  They  had  to  pay  ten  pounds  sterling.  Pieter 
Andriessen,  from  Denmark,  kept  negro  slaves,  one  of  whom  dis- 
played on  a  certain  occasion  that  well  known  but  unaccountable 
weakness  of  a  black  man  in  the  presence  of  chickens  which  often 
leads,  and  then  did  lead,  to  pleadings  in  the  court.  Pieter  Jansen, 
from  Norway,  seems  to  have  had  a  negro  slave.  And  Sara  Roe- 
loefs,  Norwegian,  owned  several  slaves.  She  mentions  them  in  her 
will :  a  negro  boy  Hans ;  "a  little  negress  called  Maria" ;  a  negro 
boy,  Peter ;  two  negresses  Susannah  and  Sarah.  Marritje  Janse, 
likewise  from  Norway,  owned  a  slave,  "a  negro  boy,"  whom  she 
bequeathed  to  her  son. 

In  those  days  it  was  not  considered  wrong  even  for  churches 
to  own  slaves.  One  of  the  Swedish  Lutheran  congregations  in 
the  settlement  at  the  Delaware  owned  a  negress  called  Peggy. 
She  was  servant  at  the  parsonage.  Ministers  could  come  and  go. 
But  she  had  to  remain.  However,  she  had  a  mind  of  her  own. 
She  got  so  stubborn  at  last  that  the  congregation  sold  her  for  $25. 
Some  of  the  negroes  in  New  Netherland  joined  the  church. 
A  negro  with  the  sonorous  sounding  name  of  Franciscus  Bastian- 
zen  joined  the  Dutch  Reformed  church  in  1674.  In  the  year  fol- 
lowing, also  his  wife  Barbara  Manuels,  "Negerinne,"  joined  it. 
Two  other  negroes  belonging  to  this  church  were  Claes  Emanuel? 
and  Jan  de  Vries.  Several  blacks  had  Teuton  names,  e.  g.  Swaen 
Janse,  Anna  Jans,  Emanuel  Pietersen,  Lucas  Pietersen,  Andries 
de  Neger.  Slaves  from  Africa  were  called  Angola  slaves.  They 
were  thievish  and  lazy.  African  nativity  was  sometimes  indicated 
by  names  like  Jan  Van  Angola  Neger,  Dorothea  Angola  Negerin- 
ne.  The  oft  repeated  statement  that  a  negro  was  the  official  hang- 
man of  New  Amsterdam  is  a  fiction. 

We  have  thus  far  considered  the  attitude  of  the  Dutch  and 
Scandinavians  in  their  matrimonial  and  business  relations  to  one 
another  and  in  their  general  relation  to  colored  races.   We  shall  now 


consider  to  what  extent  the  Dutch  were  willing  to  give  the  Scandi- 
navians a  share  in  the  administrative  affairs  of  the  colony.  Was 
democracy  as  evident  in  this  field  as  in  others? 

Now,  the  Scandinavians  had  not  left  their  native  or  adopted 
land  because  of  religious  or  political  discontent  or  for  the  lack  of 
industrial  opportunity.  They  came  to  New  Netherland  voluntarily, 
being  recruited  for  the  service  they  might  render  the  West  India 
Company.  Some  even  brought  their  wives  and  children  along, 
though  the  large  majority  married  in  the  New  World.  They  came 
by  way  of  Holland,  commonly  from  Texel.  Originally  they  may 
have  started  out  from  harbors  like  Bergen,  Copenhagen,  Goteborg. 
Their  sojourn  in  Holland  lasted  perhaps  for  a  few  weeks  or 
even  for  years.  They  were  their  own  masters.  Thus  being  more 
or  less  acquainted  with  Dutch  institutions,  it  was  not  difficult  for 
them  to  assimilate  with  the  Dutch  in  New  Netherland,  whose 
language,  closely  related  as  it  is  to  Danish,  Norwegian,  and 
Swedish,  they  easily  acquired.  Dutch  was  in  those  days  the 
language  of  commerce.  Even  the  instructions  on  the  Danish  men- 
of-war  were  printed  in  Dutch  for  some  time  during  this  period, 
not  because  the  Danish  fleet  was  manned  with  more  Dutchmen 
than  Danes,  but  because  Dutch  was  pre-eminently  the  language 
of  the  sailors,  and  there  were  a  good  many  sailors  of  foreign 
speech  in  the  Dano-Norwegian  navy,  as  there  likewise  were  many 
Danish  and  Norwegian  sailors  with  the  Dutch  fleet. 

New  Amsterdam  was  visited  quite  early  by  Scandinavian 
ships,  but  it  does  not  appear,  that  they  carried  immigrants  direct 
from  Scandinavian  harbors.  Holland's  harbors  were  then  for 
Scandinavian  immigrants  what  English  harbors  have  been  for  them 
in  the  nineteenth  century :  the  passengers  went  off  one  ship  in 
order  to  get  aboard  another.  This  accounts  for  the  fact  that 
Scandinavian  passengers,  as  the  rcords  show,  came  over  by  Dutch 
ships,  for  example,  "de  Eendracht,"  "Rinselaers  Wijck,"  "de 
Rooseboom,"  "de  Bruynvis,"  "de  Statyn,"  "de  Trouw,'  "de  Moes- 
man,"  "de  Bonte  Koe,"  "den  Houttuyn."  "de  Leide,"  "de  Vos," 
"de  vergulde  Bever,"  "de  Otter,"  "de  vergulde  Otter."  "De  Brant 
von  Trogen"  carried  Jonas  Bronck.  the  Dane,  to  our  shores.  It 
was  a  private  ship.  "Het  Wapen  van  Noorwegn"  (The  Arms  of 
Norway)  is  mentioned  several  times  in  the  records.  Jan  Jansen. 
a  Swedish  immigrant  was  mate  of  "de  Coninck  Salomon."  Roelof 
Teunissen,   another   Swedish    immigrant,   was   master   of   the   ship 

360         SCANDINAVIAN   IMMIGRANTS   IN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

''Emperor  Charles."     Skipper  Syvert  van  Bergen,  probably  Nor- 
wegian  (p.  145),  was  commander  of  "Broken  Heart." 

The  Scandinavians  were  always  eligible  to  public  oflices  in 
New  Netherland.  As  early  as  1632  two  Norwegians,  Roelof  Jan- 
sen  and  Laurens  Laurensen  were  schepens  in  the  region  about 
Albany.  The  Dane  Jochem  Kuyter  was,  as  we  have  shown 
elsewhere,  successively  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Twelve  men, 
Board  of  Eight  Men,  and  Board  of  Nine  Men.  And  in  1653, 
when  he  died,  he  was  schepen.  Though  the  West  India  Company 
stated  in  1653  that  the  officials  in  New  Netherland  ought  to  be 
"as  much  as  possible  of  the  Dutch  nation"  on  the  ground  that  they 
would  give  the  most  satisfaction  to  the  people  at  large,  yet  no 
discrimination  was  ever  made  against  Scandinavians.  They  con- 
tinued eligible  also  after  1653.  For  example,  Claes  Bording,  the 
Dane,  was  several  times  nominated  for  the  office  of  schepen. 
Matthys  Roelofs,  Danish,  served  as  constable.  Smeeman  and 
Laurens  Andriessen,  Danes,  were  magistrates  of  the  court  of 
Bergen.  The  Dane  Jan  Broersen  was  magistrate  of  Horly  and 
Marble  in  1674.  Dirck  Holgersen,  the  Norwegian,  was  magistrate 
of  Bushwyck  in  1681.  Matthysen,  the  Swede,  was  overseer  of  the 
court  at  Harlem,  and  Jan  Pietersen  Slot  was  magistrate  in  the 
same  village  from  1660  to   1665. 

Among  those  appointed  by  the  Governor  to  positions  of  trust 
was  Roelof  Jansen  Haes,  a  Norwegian.  He  was  Receiver-General 
of  Excises  in  1647  at  a  salary  of  fl.  480.  [The  Schout-fiscal  re- 
ceived fl.  920,  the  Secretary  fl.  632,  the  commisary  and  bookkeeper 
fl.  800,  the  preacher  fl.  1400.]  The  salary  that  Haes  got  was  con- 
sidered by  the  Company  as  an  evidence  of  Governor  Stuyvesant's 
"good  knowledge  of  his  (Haes')  honesty."  Some  of  the  Jansens, 
from  Bredstedt  in  Denmark,  were  inspectors  of  staves  or  fire- 
wardens. Also  Christian  Baerents,  probably  a  Dane,  was  fire- 
warden. Dirck  Holgersen,  from  Norway,  was  "city  carpenter.'' 
The  Scandinavians,  however,  did  not  acquire  the  political  influence 
of  their  German  cousins  who  came  from  the  commercial  centers 
of  what  the  Records  designate  as  the  "Kayserreich."  They  did 
not  ascend  to  the  top  of  the  political  ladder  as  Nicholas  de  Meyer, 
from  Hamburg,  who  was  mayor  of  New  York  city  in  1676;  or 
as  Jacob  Leisler,  from  Frankfurt  am  Main,  who  became  lieutenant- 
governor  of  the  entire  province.     On  the  other  hand,  the  Scandi- 


navian  women,  especially  the  Norwegian,  constituted  a  good  part 
of  the  New  Amsterdam  aristocracy. 

Before  considering  the  status  and  influence  of  the  women, 
a  word  might  be  said  in  regard  to  Scandinavians  as  soldiers.  The 
first  soldiers  came  to  New  York  in  1633.  But  the  professional 
soldiers  were  too  few  in  number  to  give  adequate  protection  to 
the  citizens,  who  therefore  organized  themselves  into  private 
military  companies.  Among  the  Danish  immigrants  serving  in 
military  capacity  were  Ensign  Nissen,  distinguished  for  his  "great 
diligence  and  vigilance" ;  John  Ranzow,  corporal ;  Sybrant  Corne- 
lissen,  barber  surgeon ;  also  Pieter  Laurenszen  Kock,  sergeant ; 
Jan  Laurens ;  Severyn  Laurensen ;  Hendrick  Martensen ;  Jan 
Pietersen ;  Hans  Rasmussen ;  Andries  Thomassen.  On  the  whole 
they  seem  to  have  had  a  good  record,  though  Thomassen  deserted; 
and  Severyn  Laurensen,  Lance  Corporal,  was  stripped  of  his  arms, 
publicly  flogged  and  branded  because  of  theft. 

Among  the  Norwegian  soldiers  were  Laurens  Andriessen, 
who  was  wounded  in  the  war  against  the  Indians,  and  whose  shoes 
during  his  state  of  helplessness  on  the  battlefield  were  pulled  ofl[ 
by  a  soldier  comrade  and  sold  for  whisky ;  also  Roelof  Jansen 
Haes,  who  fought  the  Indians  in  1643.  Andries  Pietersen  was 
another  soldier.  And  Dirck  Holgersen,  though  advanced  in  years, 
was  ensign  of  the  local  militia  at  Bushwyck  in  1689. 

Among  the  Swedish  soldiers  were  Dirck  Hendricksen  Bye 
and  Cornelius  Jeuriansen,  who  deserted.  Jacob  Loper,  from 
Sweden,  who  had  ben  captain  lieutenant  at  Curacao,  in  the  navy 
was  no  doubt  an  expert  in  military  as  well  as  in  naval  matters. 

The  enemy  that  these  Scandinavian  pioneers  had  to  encounter 
in  battle  was  the  Indian,  the  Englishman,  and  the  Frenchman.  The 
Indian  outbreaks  at  Manhattan,  the  massacres  at  Esopus  and 
Schenectady  bear  testimony  to  that. 

But  what  sheds  lustre  upon  the  Scandinavian  in  New  Am- 
sterdam was  less  the  martial  bravery  of  the  men  than  the  quiet 
influence  of  the  women. 

Tryn,  or  Catharine,  Jonas  from  Marstrand,  Norway,  was  the 
first  midwife  of  New  Netherland.  She  was  paid  from  the  public 
purse,  and  certainly  earned  what  she  got  by  her  patient  waiting 
upon  the  sick. 

362         SCANDINAVIAN  IMMIGRANTS   IN   NEW   YORK,   1630-1674. 

A  daughter  of  hers  was  Anneke  Jans,  of  New  York  fame, 
who  married  the  Dutch  pastor.  Rev.  Bogardus.  She  was  the  first 
woman  in  the  city  of  New  York  to  marry  a  minister.  By  her 
husband  she  inherited  land  that  to-day  is  rated  at  some  $300,- 
000,000,  being  in  the  very  heart  of  New  York  city.  The  de- 
scendants of  Anneke  Jans,  from  the  Norwegian  fishing-town  of 
Marstrand,  are  very  numerous  and  very  wealthy. 

A  daughter  of  Anneke  augmented  the  New  Amsterdam  aris- 
tocracy by  marrying  Dr.  Kierstede,  a  German  physician.  He  was 
the  first  permanent  physician  in  the  city  of  New  York.  The  first 
recorded  coroner's  inquest  ever  held  in  that  city  was  conducted  by 
Dr.  Kierstede  and  two  assistants. 

Another  daughter  of  Anneke,  Fyntie,  was  married  to  a 
magistrate  of  Albany,  an  expert  at  estimating  Indian  money. 

Her  third  daughter,  Katrina,  was  married,  first  to  the  Vice 
Director  of  Curacao ;  then,  as  a  widow,  to  a  wealthy  merchant, 
later  mayor  of  New  York.  Katrina's  daughter,  Elizabeth,  was 
married  to  the  son  of  Augustyn  Herrman,  from  Prague,  who 
became  the  owner  of  some  30,000  acres  of  land. 

But  midwife  Tryn  Jonas  had  also  another  daughter  and  an- 
other grandchild  who  became  the  wives  of  distinguished  men.  Her 
daughter  Marritje  was  married  first  to  the  leading  shipwright  of 
the  colony ;  and  later  to  Govert  Loockermans,  one  of  the  wealthiest 
men  in  the  province.  Marritje's  daughter,  Elsie,  was  first  married 
to  a  Dutchman,  a  schepen  of  New  Amsterdam ;  as  a  widow  she 
became  the  wife  of  Governor  Jacob  Leisler,  mentioned  in  the  text 
books  on  United  States  history  as  the  one  who  called  the  first 
colonial  Congress. 

Another  famous  woman  was  Engeltje  Mans,  from  Sweden, 
the  wife  of  Burger  Joris,  who  was  one  of  the  Great  Burghers  and 
a  schepen.  By  his  determined  attitude  he  delayed  by  several  hours 
the  surrender  of  New  York  to  the  English.  He  was  a  smith. 
But  this  "smith,  a  mighty  man  was  he."  Tryntie  Jans  of  Den- 
mark was  married  to  a  magistrate  of  Rensselaerswyck,  and  her 
sister  became  the  wife  of  a  capitalist.  Eva  Albertse,  Norwegian. 
was  married  to  Anthony  De  Hooges,  superintendent  of  the  colony 
of  Rensselaerswyck;  and  later  to  a  sheriff  of  Ulster  County.  Mar- 
ritje Pieters  of  Copenhagen  married  the  brother  of  the  Secretary 
of  the  colony.  Pier  marriage  contract  is  the  first  instanced  mar- 
riage contract  in  New  Netherland  (1639).  It  is  given  on  page  257 
in  this  work. 


Incidentally  it  might  be  mentioned  that  Hans  Hansen,  of 
Bergen,  married  the  first  girl  born  of  European  parentage  in  New 
Netherland;  and  that  Dirck  Holgersen,  another  Norwegian,  mar- 
ried the  sister  of  the  first  boy  born  of  white  people  on  the  same 
soil.  Holgersen  was  thus  the  brother-in-law  of  the  Secretary  of 
the  colony. 

These  marriages  went  far  to  strengthen  the  ties  already 
formed  between  Scandinavians  and  Dutch,  and  to  make  those 
characteristics  count  which  were  more  peculiar  to  the  pioneers 
from  Denmark,  Norway  and  Sweden  than  to  those  from  Holland. 

As  law-abiding  citizens,  the  immigrants  from  northern  Europe 
stood  in  the  front  ranks.  As  industrious  men  and  women  they 
were  excelled  by  none.  They  were  determined,  aggressive  in  their 
efforts  to  secure  religious  liberty,  fearless  in  defending  their  rights. 
But  they  were  also  mindful  of  their  duties,  and  reasonable  in  their 
dealings  with  other  nationalities  and  races.  Their  women  were 
active  in  commercial  life  as  shopkeepers,  as  farmers  and  even 
traders  in  the  wilderness.  Sarah  Roelof's  ability  to  speak  Indian 
was  not  acquired  by  living  in  a  town.  Like  their  Dutch  sisters, 
the  Scandinavian  women  pleaded  their  own  cases  in  court,  had 
power  of  attorney  in  their  husband's  absence.  They  were  thus 
more  emancipated  than  their  good  sisters  of  the  New  England 

Woman's  equality  in  court,  especially  in  matters  of  pleading, 
was  due  to  the  fact  that  Law  in  New  Netherland  was  inexpensive, 
for  it  was  common  sense.  There  were  no  lawyers  in  this  province, 
only  notaries  whose  assistance  was  invited  in  framing  legal  docu- 
ments. The  local  government  was  fashioned  after  that  of  the 
cities  of  Holland,  where  even  the  smallest  village  had  its  elected 
judiciary  of  five  or  seven  schepens.  The  schepens  in  the  villages 
of  New  Netherland  were  usually  four  in  number.  They  and  the 
burgomasters  formed  the  court.  The  schout  was  the  sheriff  or 
prosecuting  attorney.  When  not  acting  as  prosecutor,  he  could 
preside  over  the  court.  The  presiding  officer  was  to  see  that 
justice  was  done  to  the  litigants  concerned,  in  getting  at  the 
evidence  pro  and  con.  The  court  often  referred  the  litigants  to 
arbitrators.  The  cases  in  which  the  Scandinavians  figure  were 
mainly  civil  cases,  which  were  referred  to  arbitrators  or  settled  by 
mutual  agreement  or  by  the  wronging  party's  paying  a  small  fine. 

364         SCANDINAVIAN  IMMIGRANTS   IN   NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

begging  pardon  of  God  and  man  etc.  The  criminal  code  was 
lenient  as  compared  with  that  of  European  states.  One  of  the 
severest  verdicts  rendered  was  the  one  that  sentenced  the  Dane 
Laurents  Duyts  to  "have  a  rope  tied  around  his  neck,  and  then  to 
be  severely  flogged,  to  have  his  right  ear  cut  off,  and  to  be  banished 
for  fifty  years."  Mild  in  comparison  was  that  which  was  rendered 
against  Jacob  Eldersen,  also  a  Dane,  who,  more  by  accident 
than  by  intent,  caused  the  death  of  a  fellow  cooper.  He  was  con- 
demned to  pay  100  guilders  and  costs.  Amusing  indeed  was  the 
verdict  rendered  against  Hans  Hansen  from  Bergen,  who  was 
charged  with  having  aided  in  smuggling.  The  Court  considering 
that  he  had  been  "for  fourteen  years  a  respectable  resident  of  New 
Amsterdam"  dismissed  the  charge  "on  condition  that  he  beg 
pardon  of  God  and  the  Court." 

We  look  in  vain  for  any  hardened  criminals  among  the 
Scandinavians  in  New  Netherland.  When  the  lawsuits  to  which 
they  were  a  party,  did  not  concern  the  payment  of  debts,  fulfill- 
ment of  contracts,  they  commonly  dealt  with  sins  of  the  tongue. 
Mere  trifles  —  a  dog  biting  a  hog  —  were  sufficient  to  create  liti- 
gation. And  few  were  those  whose  names  never  figured  in  the 
courts.  Deference  was  paid  to  none.  The  Lutheran  pastor 
Fabritius,  likely  a  Pole,  had  his  actions  sifted  in  court  by  Marritje 
Jeurians,  Danish.  And  Hans  Pietersen,  a  Norwegian,  sued  the 
Swedish  Lutheran  pastor  Lars  Lock,  of  the  Swedish  settlement 
at  the  Delaware,  for  "the  recovery  of  a  mare." 

As  a  rule  it  was  differences  between  employer  and  employee, 
between  creditor  and  debtor  that  occasioned  most  of  the  suits.  And 
considering  the  various  vocations  of  the  litigants,  there  arose  from 
time  to  time  various  matters  that  called  for  adjustment  by  the 

What  were  these  vocations? 

We  have  first  the  fanners  who  had  let  a  part  of  their  land 
and  were  looking  for  stipulated  returns.  A  majority  of  the  in- 
habitants owned  farming  land  and  farmed,  though  they  had  learnt 
one  or  more  trades.  Some  of  them  w^orked  in  saw  mills  and  grist 
mills.  The  Norwegians,  especially,  proved  themselves  experienced 
hands  in  sawing  lumber.  The  forests  and  waterfalls  of  Norway 
had  offered  abundant  opportunity  for  those  millers  that  were  not 
used  to  the  windmills  of  Holland.   Laurens  Andriessen,  Norwegian, 


Operated  "two  large  sawmills,"  run  by  a  "powerful  waterfall." 
Another  Norwegian,  Laurens  Laurensen,  owned  a  saw  mill.  Jan 
Pietersen,  a  Dane,  was  a  woodsawyer.  Also  two  other  Danes, 
Pieter  Jacobsen  and  Volckert  Jansen,  operated  mills. 

Not  a  few  owned  yachts  and  boats,  and  were  engaged  in 
fishing,  freighting  lumber  and  other  merchandise  on  the  Hudson, 
or  the  Delaware.  Laurens  Laurensen,  Norwegian,  used  several 
yachts  for  timber  transport.  He  also  built  yachts  for  the  market. 
One  of  them  "Swarten  Arent"  (Black  Eagle)  was  valued  at 
fl.  1400.  Hans  Carlsen,  Norwegian,  sailed  a  large  boat  and  em- 
ployed hired  men  on  it.  Christian  Pietersen,  a  Dane,  plied  his 
boat  up  and  down  the  Hudson.  The  Swedes  Jan  Jansen  and  Roelof 
Teunissen  commanded  larger  ships.  Danes  like  Bording,  Kuyter, 
Bronck  were  experienced  navigators.  Norwegians  like  Albert  and 
Arent  Andriessen  were  used  to  the  seas.  The  great  ship  "New 
Netherland,"  built  at  Manhattan,  was  the  work  of  Scandinavian 
carpenters,  engaged  by  Pieter  Minuit.  It  was  of  600  to  800  tons 
burden,  fitted  to  carry  thirty  guns.  "It  was  one  of  the  largest 
merchantmen  afloat,  and  not  for  two  hundred  years  was  another 
as  large  launched  in  the  same  waters.  Sent  at  once  to  Holland 
and  employed  in  the  West  India  trade,  everywhere  it  excited 
wonder  by  its  size  and  by  the  excellence  and  variety  of  timber 
used  in  its  construction."  (Mrs.  Van  Rensselaer).  Among  the 
early  ship  carpenters  was  Hans  Hansen,  from  Bergen ;  and  Ty- 
men  Jansen,  husband  of  Marritje  Jans,  from  Marstrand. 

Among  the  general  carpenters,  mention  can  be  made  of  Dirck 
Holgersen,  a  Norwegian ;  Jan  Pietersen  Slot,  a  Dane ;  Dirk  Ben- 
singh,  a  Swede.  The  latter  worked  on  the  New  Church  at  Fort 
Orange.  A  number  of  houses  in  New  Amsterdam  were  built  by 
Scandinavian  carpenters.  Among  the  masons  were  Danes  like 
Marten  Harmensen  and  Claus  Paulson.  Laurens  Andriessen, 
Danish,  was  an  expert  at  the  lathe.  Pieter  Andriessen,  another 
Dane,  was  a  professional  chimney  sweep.  Hage  Bruynsen,  Swede, 
had  worked  as  a  smith.  Marcus  Pietersen,  Norwegian,  was  a 
cobbler.  But  he  quarrelled  with  his  master,  Jochem  Beckman, 
and  nicknamed  him  "black  pudding." 

Some  were  "jack-of-all-trades." 

Not  a  few  were  coopers,  brewers,  and  tavernkeepers.  Volck- 
ert Jansen,  a  Dane,  had  a  brewery.     The  Danes  Jacob  Eldersen 

366        SCANDINAVIAN  IMMIGEANT8  IN  NEW   YORK,   1630-1674. 

and  Thomas  Fredricksen  were  brewers  and  coopers.  The  Danes 
William  Adriaensz,  Jan  Jansen,  and  Frederick  Hendricksen  were 
coopers.  Claes  Claesen,  Norwegian,  was  versed  in  "brandy-mak- 
ing" and  "beer-brewing."  Pieter  Kock,  Pieter  Andriessen,  Seve- 
ryn  Laurensen,  Danes,  were  tavernkeepers. 

Apparently  the  Danes  were  more  concerned  about  liquor  than 
were  the  Swedes  or  Norwegians.  But  'it  would  not  be  fair  to 
stamp  them  as  worse  than  the  Dutch.  Drunkenness,  says  Mrs.  Van 
Rensselaer,  was  everywhere  the  great  sin  of  the  Dutch. 

Every  one  drank  beer,  wine,  and  whisky  at  this  period. 
Water  was  the  only  alternative.  Tea,  coffee,  and  chocolate  were 
all  unknown  until  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  century.  Beer  was 
served  at  every  meal.  This  explains  why  many  were  brewers. 
The  coopers  were  in  demand,  because  liquor  in  those  days  was 
not  bottled  but  kept  in  casks  and  kegs.  As  for  the  taverns,  they 
served  as  hotels,  restaurants,  clubhouses,  news-exchanges. 

Twelve  tavernkeepers  were  counted  in  New  Amsterdam  in 
March  1648.  But  only  one  of  them  was  a  Scandinavian,  Pieter 
Andriessen.  The  city  numbered  in  the  same  year  seventeen 
tapsters.  Rev.  J.  Backerus  wrote  regarding  them  in  a  letter  of 
September  2,  1648,  to  the  Classis  at  Amsterdam : 

"The  congregation  here  numbers  about  170  members.  Most 
of  them  are  very  ignorant  in  regard  to  true  religion,  and  very 
much  given  to  drink.  To  this  they  are  led  by  the  seventeen  tap- 
houses here.  What  bad  fruits  result  therefrom,  your  Reverences 
will  readily  understand.  ...  If  you  could  obtain  from  the  Hon. 
Directors  an  order  for  closing  these  places,  except  three  or  four, 
I  have  no  doubt,  the  source  of  much  evil  and  great  offense  would 
be  removed." 

Nine  years  later,  the  number  of  tapsters  in  New  Amsterdam 
had  increased  to  twenty-one.  But  none  of  them  were  Scandi- 

That  liquor  was  freely  indulged  in  on  festive  occasions,  may 
be  inferred  from  what  happened  at  the  German-Norwegian  wed- 
ding of  Dr.  Kierstede  and  Sara  Roelofs,  when  Governor  Kieft 
took  advantage  of  the  alcoholic  hilarity  of  the  guests  and  induced 
them  to  subscribe  toward  the  building  funds  of  the  church.  They 
competed  with  one  another  in  subscribing  sums  that  made  their 


hearts  ache  when  they  on  the  next  day  realized  how  generous  they 
had  been. 

Not  infrequently  quiet  gatherings  at  the  taverns  would  be 
subjected  to  the  same  treatment  as  that  which  an  Englishman, 
Captain  John  Underbill,  proferred  to  a  company  of  guests  who 
had  been  invited  for  a  social  time  at  the  chief  tavern  of  the  town. 
Five  of  the  leading  citizens  of  New  Amsterdam  and  their  wives, 
three  of  whom  were  Scandinavians,  were  being  entertained  one 
evening  by  the  host,  when  Captain  Underbill  rushed  in  and 
threatened  dire  destruction  if  he  did  not  have  things  his  own 
way  (p.  258).  The  guests  were  sober,  but  the  Captain  who  has  been 
called  one  of  "the  right  New  England  military  worthies"  failed 
sadly  in  this  respect,  and  therefore  broke  up  the  party.  His 
conduct,  it  seems,  was  on  par  with  his  spelling.  He  spelled  by 
ear.  It  has  been  pointed  out  that  in  his  letters  to  Winthrop  he 
invented  'favarabell,'  'considderachonse,'  'menchoned,'  and  'ling- 
grin,'  wrote  that  the  'last  chip'  which  had  'arifd'  from  England 
was  'but  nine  wicks  in  her  viagse,'  and  described  John  Browne 
as  a  'jentiele  young  man,  of  gud  abilliti,  of  a  louli  fetture  and  gud 

But  to  change  the  subject  from  tavern  to  church  (as  Governor 
Kieft  did  at  the  wedding),  it  must  be  stated  that  no  less  than 
five  of  those  who  signed  the  petition  of  the  Lutherans  at  New 
Amsterdam  in  1657  (requesting  that  Rev.  J.  Goetwater  might  re- 
main in  the  country  as  a  Lutheran  minister)  were  brewers.  There 
were  twenty-four  signers  in  all.  Five  of  them  were  Scandinavians. 
Of  these  five,  one  was  a  brewer,  Jacob  Eldersen.  As  for  the 
efifort  of  the  Lutherans  to  get  denominational  recognition  in  New 
Amsterdam  see  Appendix  IV.  Suffice  it  here  to  mention  that 
Laurens  Andriessen,  from  Norway,  defied  Governor  Stuyvesant 
by  giving  Rev.  Goetwater  lodging  at  his  house  for  an  entire  winter. 
In  denominational  matters  the  Scandinavians  co-operated  with 
the  Germans  more  than  with  the  Dutch. 

Turning  our  attention,  from  the  more  or  less  public  affairs, 
to  the  homes,  we  inquire,  How  did  the  homes  of  the  Scandinavian 
immigrants  look? 

The  present  volume  contains  several  views  conveying  an  idea 
of  the  houses  they  lived  in.     They  present  the  houses  of  Roelof 

368        SCANDINAVIAN  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW   YORK,   1630-1674. 

Jansen  Haes,  Sara  Roelofs,  Christina  Capoen  (wife  of  Jacob 
Haes),  Anneke  Jans,  Jochem  Kuyter,  Jacob  Loper,  Engeltje  Mans. 
The  views  date  from  1652,  when  New  Amsterdam  had  about  100 
houses.  The  dwellings  were  not  large.  Even  Secretary  Van  Tien- 
hoven  lived  in  one  not  larger  than  thirty  feet  long  and  twenty 
feet  wide. 

It  would  be  interesting  to  have  a  view  of  the  dwelling 
of  Jonas  Bronck.  It  was  a  stone  house,  covered  with  tiles. 
Among  other  things  it  contained  an  extension  table,  around  which 
such  people  dined  as  were  no  strangers  to  table  cloths  and 
napkins,  alabaster  plates  and  silverware.  It  contained  other 
articles  that  may  have  been  stored  in  different  rooms ;  for  ex- 
ample, a  Japanese  cutlass,  two  muskets  and  three  guns,  a  black 
cloth  mantle,  some  satin  suits,  four  tankards  with  silver  chains,  etc. 
Bronck's  library  collection  was  perhaps  the  most  interesting  object 
in  the  entire  house,  being  the  first  known  library  in  New  York. 
It  consisted  of  twenty  bound  volumes  in  Danish,  Dutch  and  Latin, 
including  a  Danish  Calendar,  a  Danish  Child's  book,  a  Danish  Law 
book,  a  Danish  Chronicle,  Luther's  whole  catechism,  a  Lutheran 
hymnal,  a  German  Bible,  Calvin's  Institutes ;  also  seventeen  books 
in  manuscript,  and  a  number  of  pictures.  This  library,  of  which 
the  inventory  was  taken  in  1642,  was  a  trifle  larger  than  those 
that -were  owned  by  Danish  ministers  at  that  time.  Bronck  was 
a  God-fearing  man.  He  called  his  house  Emmaus,  and  his  motto 
was  "Ne  cede  malis"  (Do  not  yield  to  misfortunes).  His  name  is 
perpetuated  in  the  Borough  of  Bronx,  New  York  City. 

Among  the  names  of  the  old  Scandinavian  immigrants  none 
are  so  well  known  in  New  York  to-day  as  Bronck  and  Anneke 
Jans.  We  know  but  little  as  to  how  Anneke  lived.  In  her  will 
she  makes  mention  of  some  beds  and  silver  mugs.  Her  daughter 
Sara  speaks  of  silver  spoons;  perhaps  they  were  inherited  from 
the  mother.  Anneke's  sister  makes  mention  of  gold  earrings,  a 
diamond  rose  ring,  the  Great  Bible,  silver  spoons,  a  silver  chain 
with  keys,  a  silver  chain  with  a  case  and  cushion,  and  a  silver 

The  houses  of  the  Scandinavian  immigrants  were  doubtless 
modestly  furnished,  perhaps  much  like  those  of  the  immigrants 
from  Holland,  the  kitchen  being  the  living  room. 

We  will  not  venture  to  describe  the  bill  of  fare.     The  New 


Netherlanders  had  no  difficulty  in  obtaining  fruit  and  vegetables. 
The  wild  strawberry  and  wild  grapes  grew  in  abundance.  The 
potato  which  as  late  as  1616  was  a  rare  dish  on  the  table  of  French 
royalty,  was  no  stranger  to  New  Netherland,  one  of  whose  citizens 
went  by  the  nickname  of  Potato :  Hendrick  Claesen  Pataddes. 
There  was  plenty  of  game:  pigeons,  partridges,  venison  and  wild 
turkey.  Fish  was  a  common  dish,  including  lobsters  a  foot  and 
a  half  long.  Marritje  Pietersen,  of  Copenhagen,  was  frequently 
visited  when  people  were  in  want  of  fish.  At  her  place,  fish  and 
beer  could  be  obtained  at  all  seasons  not  proscribed  by  law.  She 
made  it  a  point  of  honor  not  to  sell  fish  on  Sundays  "after  the 
ringing  of  the  church  bell." 

Among  the  articles  imported  from  Europe,  mention  can  be 
made  of  the  Edam  and  Leyden  cheese,  salt  and  vinegar.  Van 
Rensselaer  sent  his  colony  such  merchandise  as  Flemish  stock- 
ings, linen  underwear,  watertight  leather  shoes,  blankets  (green 
and  white),  soap,  dishes,  winnowing  baskets,  gunpowder,  fire- 
locks, canvasses,  axes,  Norwegian  files,  and  "Norwegian  kerseys". 
The  ship  "The  Arms  of  Norway"  had  on  one  occasion  so  much 
of  these  and  kindred  articles,  that  the  sailors  protested  against 
sailing,  not  being  willing  to  take  the  chances  of  reaching  the  New 
World  with  the  entire  cargo. 

The  medium  of  exchange  among  the  settlers  of  New  Nether- 
land was  not  gold,  silver,  or  copper.  Nor  was  it  in  any  marked 
degree  naturalia.  It  was  Indian  money  called  wampum,  the 
Indian  name  for  it.  It  consisted  of  beads  of  two  colors,  white 
and  black.  The  white  "were  made  from  periwinkle  shells,  the 
black  which  were  twice  as  valuable,  from  the  dark  spot  at  the  base 
of  the  shells  of  the  clam.  Both  kinds  were  about  as  thick  as  a 
straw  and  less  than  half  an  inch  in  length.  They  were  drilled 
and  polished.  For  use  as  currency  they  were  strung  on  deer 
sinews  or  strands  of  fibre  and  then  measured  by  the  span  or  cubit." 
Wampum,  as  the  English  called  it,  or  zeewant  as  the  Dutch  called 
it,  was  the  only  legal  tender  between  individuals.  Debts  of  thou- 
sands of  guilders  were  discharged  with  this  kind  of  money.  Of 
course  these  beads  were  never  sent  to  Europe.  As  an  expert  in 
the  value  of  this  shell  money,  the  records  mention  Pieter  Hartgers, 
husband  of  Fyntie  Roelofs,  a  Norwegian. 

370        SCANDINAVIAN  IMMIGEANTS   IN   NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

As  to  recreation,  skating  and  sleighing  must  have  been 
quite  common  in  their  season.  But  the  modern  buggy  ride,  foi 
example,  was  unknown.  Only  utilitarian  carts  were  built,  none 
for  comfort.  Horseback  riding  and  boat  riding  must  have  been  an 
every  day  occurence.  New  Amsterdam  had  a  number  of  "porters'' 
or  carmen.  One  of  them  was  Jan  Carelsen,  fro  Norway.  The 
celebrations  of  Christmas,  New  Year,  and  Mayday  was  not  much 
saner  than  some  modern  foarth  of  July  celebrations. 

As  for  the  intellectual  status  of  our  pioneers  under  the  Dutch 
dominion,  it  must  have  been  on  a  fairly  high  level.  Some  of  the 
early  documents  are  drawn  up  in  Latin.  Kuyter  no  doubt  knew 
this  language.  Bronck  was  versed  in  this  and  in  several  other 
tongues.  Three  other  Scandinavians,  whom  we  have  noticed,  were 
versed  in  the  Indian  languages.  Doubtless  all  the  Danish,  Nor- 
wegian and  Swedish  immigrants  spoke  at  least  two  tongues,  their 
native  language  and  the  language  of  their  adopted  country.  And 
as  the  mastery  of  one  of  the  Scandinavian  languages  means  also 
the  ability  to  understand  the  other  two  languages,  —  the  Scandi- 
navians could  boast  of  four  tongues  to  the  Dutchman's  one.  Of 
course,  none  of  the  pioneers  from  the  north  made  any  attempts 
at  writing  literature.  Even  among  the  Dutch  immigrants  there 
was  none  that  wrote  with  literary  intent,  and  only  three  that  wrote 
poetry :  Jacob  Steendam,  Nicasius  de  Silla,  and  Domine  Sellyn. 
Whatever  printing  the  New  Netherlanders  needed,  was  done  in 
Holland,  which  at  that  time  occupied  the  same  position  as  Ger- 
many does  now,  printing  more  than  the  remaining  countries  taken 

As  to  the  marks  used  in  signing  documents,  they  are  in  many 
cases  inconclusive  as  proofs  of  inability  to  write.  We  know 
many  plain  people  who  prefer  to  put  a  mark  on  a  paper  instead 
of  writing  their  names  in  full,  and  that  not  because  they  do  not 
know  how  to  write,  but  because  they  think  they  can  not  write  a 
fair  hand.  Anneke  Jans  appears  to  have  written  a  mark  when  it 
did  not  suit  her  to  write  her  name.  Jan  Broersen  appears  to  have 
had  a  good  hand,  and  yet  he  made  use  of  a  mark  (see  p.  155). 
The  cases  of  Hans  Hansen,  Laurens  Pietersen,  and  Dirck  Holgersen 
are  more  doubtful.  Hansen's  "H"  is  sometimes  constructed  on 
the  vertical  order,  and  sometimes  on  the  horizontal  (p.  59). 
Laurens  Pietersen  sometimes  wrote  his  "P"  upside  down  (p.  130). 


Dirck  Holgersen  showed  manifest  improvement  in  his  respective 
marks  of  1651,  1658,  1661  (p.  69).  At  least  they  were  more 
ingenious  than  the  mark  of  the  ancestor  of  the  Vanderbilts,  which 
mark  "resembles  a  window  sash  —  with  four  panes  of  glass.'" 
(p.  61.) 

But  no  matter  what  the  immigrants  were  educationally,  they 
were  a  thrifty  people  who  chose,  of  their  own  accord,  to  settle 
in  our  country,  to  take  upon  themselves  the  burdens  of  pioneer 
life.  With  their  fellow  citizens  of  New  Amsterdam  they  share 
the  honor  of  having  been  the  first  "to  put  on  American  soil  the 
public  school."  They  also  deserve  honor  for  the  firm  stand  they 
took  in  championing,  against  a  majority,  the  rights  of  religious 
liberty ;  in  protecting  a  man  whom  the  government  exiled  because 
he  was  a  Lutheran  minister;  and  in  promoting  such  a  spirit  of 
voluntaryism  that  one  of  their  numbers,  a  Dane,  willed  —  what 
was  unheard  of  in  those  days  —  a  legacy  to  a  modest  church 
which  had  been  obliged  to  beg  the  English  government,  no  less 
than  the  Dutch,  for  permission  to  exist:  he  thus  set  a  good  ex- 
ample for  his  brethern  whose  ideas  of  giving  was  what  could  be 
expected  from  men  that  had  been  trained  in  the  "established 

And  where  are  the  descendants  of  the  nigh  200  Scandinavian 
immigrants?  By  birth  or  intermarriage  they  are  connected  with 
well  known  families  whose  branches  extend  over  the  entire  United 

The  first  of  the  Putnams  in  America  married  the  daughter 
of  Arent  Andriessen  from  Norway. 

The  Bradts  of  New  York  are  descendants  of  the  same 

The  first  of  the  Vanderbilts  married  Anneken  Hendricks. 
from  Bergen,  Norway. 

Her  daughter  —  half  Dutch,  half  Norwegian  —  was  married 
to  Rem  Remsen,  a  German,  the  progenitor  of  the  Remsen  family. 

The  American  Rosenkrans  family  are  descendants  of  Herman 
Hendricksen  of  Bergen.  Best  known  among  these  is  General  Wil- 
liam Stark  Rosecrans,  Brigadier  General  of  the  Regular  Army  in 
the  Civil  war,  afterwards  U.  S.  Minister  to  Mexico,  later  Congress- 
man from  California,  and  first  Register  of  the  Treasury  under 
President  Cleveland. 

372        SCANDINAVIAN  IMMIGRANTS  IN  NEW   YORK,   1630-1674. 

Related  to  Anneke  Jans,  of  Marstrand,  Norway,  are  the 
families  of  Bayard,  De  Lancey,  De  Peyster,  Governeur,  Jay, 
Knickerbocker,  Morris,  Schuyler,  Stuyvesant,  Van  Cortland,  and 
Van  Rensselaer. 

The  Van  Buskirks  are  descendants  of  Laurens  Andriessen 
from  Holstein.  Among  these  is  the  first  American-born  Lutheran 
minister  in  the  United  States,  and  Dr.  John  Alden  Singmaster, 
President  of  the  Lutheran  Theological  Seminary  at  Gettysburg,  Pa. 

The  Broncks  are  descended  from  Jonas  Bronck,  the  Dane 
from  Faroe  Islands.  His  grandson  was  a  lieutenant  in  the  army, 
his  great-grandson  was  a  major;  and  another  great-grandson 
served  as  major  and  lieutenant  colonel,  as  member  of  the  New 
York  Assembly,  and  as  New  York  State  senator. 

Descendants  of  the  daughter  of  Tryntie  Jans,  Danish,  are  the 
Bleeker  family. 

The  ancestor  of  the  Wilsies  is  Hendrick  Martensen,  a  Dane. 

The  Van  Ripens  are  descendants  of  Juriaen  Tomassen  from 
Ribe,  Denmark. 

Member  of  the  Swedish  Hoffman  family  are  intermarried 
among  the  families  of  Benson,  Verplanck,  Beeckman,  Benson,  Liv- 
ingston, Brinckerhoff,  Du  Bois,  Vredenbnrgh,  Provoost,  Storm 
Ogden,   Van  Cortland,  Schuyler. 

Some  of  the  Rosenkrans  and  the  Roosevelt  family  are  re- 
lated to  the  Hoffmans.  Hon.  John  Thompson,  once  Governor  of 
the  state  of  New  York,  was  a  descendant  of  Hoffman.  The  Hoff- 
man family  numbers  statesmen,  preachers  and  lawyers,  authors 
and  college  presidents.  Mathilda  Hofmann,  one  of  the  family, 
was,  as  has  already  been  referred  to,  engaged  to  marry  Wash- 
ington Irving. 

The  Stuck  family  is  descended  from  Mons  Pietersen. 

There  is  Swedish  blood  in  the  Melyn  family. 

The  Burger  family  is  originally  Swedish  on  the  mother's 
side,  German  on  the  father's. 

The  Livingston  family  has  Swedish  blood  by  the  Lopers,  the 
granddaughter  of  Captain  Loper  marrying  the  son  of  Robert 
Livingston,  who  as  first  Lord  of  the  Livingston  Manor  owned 
160.000  acres  of  land. 

A  descendant  of  Jacob  Brnyn  of  Norway  served  several 
terms  in  both  branches  of  the  New  York  state  legislature  and  was 
for  many  years  an  associate  judge  in  Ulster  county. 


A  descendant  of  Andries  Andriessen  represented  the  county 
of  Albany  in  the  provincial  assembly. 

By  intermarriage  there  is  also  Scandinavian  blood  in  a  branch 
of  the  Van  Buren  family,  to  which  Van  Buren,  once  United  States 
President,  belonged. 

The  Dows  are  descendants  of  Volckert  Jansen,  a  Dane. 

Descendants  of  Christian  Barentsen,  who  was  in  all  probabil- 
ity a  Dane,  were  Robert  T.  van  Horn  who  founded  and,  for  forty 
years,  edited  the  "Kansas  City  Journal";  and  Wm.  H.  Carbusier, 
Lt.  U.  S.  Army,  later  a  member  of  congress, 


Appendix  I. 

AMERICA,  1532-1640. 

Probably  the  first  Scandinavian  in  America  was  "Jacob  from 
Denmark."  In  1532  he  was  in  Mexico,  and  is  counted  among  the 
Augustinian  monks  who  in  that  year  went  thither.  The  catholic 
historian,  P.  Wittman,  quoted  in  Dr.  Chr.  H.  Kalkar's  "Den 
Christelige  Mission  Blandt  Hedningerne"  (1879),  says  that  Jacob 
from  Denmark  was  related  to  the  Danish  royal  family,  "which  has 
remained  faithful  to  the  church  of  the  fathers"  (Roman  Catholic). 

Another  Scandinavian  who  came  to  the  New  World  in  the 
sixteenth  century  was  Christian  Jacobsen,  a  Danish  explorer.  He 
was  born  in  Copenhagen,  1528,  where  he  studied  theology.  He 
went  to  Peru  in  1551,  and  served  in  the  civil  wars  of  that  country. 
At  the  advice  of  a  cousin  he  entered  the  Roman  Catholic  Church 
in  order  to  get  an  appointment  in  the  army.  In  1557  he  went  to 
Chili.  In  1565  we  find  him  in  Buenos  Ayres.  Thence,  sailing 
again  for  Peru,  he  settled  in  Lima,  where  he  devoted  his 
leisure  to  literary  labors  and  where  he  died  in  1596.  See  Appleton's 
Cyclopedia  of  American  Biography. 

Jens  Munk,  born  1579,  in  Barbu,  near  Arendal,  Norway,  was 
destined  to  try  the  hardships  of  South  America  as  well  as  of 
Canada.  His  father  was  a  Danish  nobleman,  who  had  lived  for 
many  years  in  Norway,  an  able  soldier  and  mariner,  but  despotic 
in  rule,  and  licentious  in  life.  His  son  Jens  inherited  the  father's 
ability  in  commanding  the  seas,  but  was  his  opposite  in  life  and 
character.  At  the  age  of  twelve  Jens  Munk  began  his  life  as  a 
sailor.  He  went  to  Oporto  to  learn  the  Portuguese  language,  he 
then  hired  out  on  a  ship  sailing  for  Brazil.  After  great  difficulties 
he  arrived  at  Bahia,  where  he  for  some  time  worked  for  a  shoe- 

"Norges   Historie,"    IV.,    by    Prof.    Yngvar    Nielsen. 


Model    in   Ivory,    by    Jakob    Jensson    Nordmand,    1654. 

From    "Norges   Historie,''    IV.,    by    Prof.    Yngvar   Nielsen. 

NORDMAN.  375 

maker  and  a  painter,  and  was  at  length  initiated  into  the  merchant's 
business.  After  having,  through  a  bold  deed  of  his,  saved  some 
Dutch  merchants  from  an  attack  planned  against  them  by  some 
Spaniards,  he  was  obliged  to  flee  from  Bahia.  He  returned  to 
Europe  in  1598.  He  got  a  ship  of  his  own  in  1605,  and  was  ap- 
pointed captain  in  the  Danish  fleet  in  1611.  Eight  years  later  he 
was  requested  by  the  king  of  Denmark  to  take  the  charge  of  an 
expedition,  whose  object  was  the  discovery  of  the  way  to  China 
through  what  was  then  known  as  the  Northwest  passage.  See 
Appendix  H. 

Jacob  Jensson  Nordman  (1614 — 1695),  a  Norwegian  who  was 
noted  for  his  carving  in  ebony,  spent  five  years  in  Brazil  as  a  soldier 
in  the  service  of  the  Dutch.  Returning  to  Norway  about  1640,  he 
was  appointed  constable  at  Akerhus,  and  served  in  the  war  against 
Sweden.  In  1648  Frederik  HI.,  king  of  Denmark  and  Norway, 
became  acquainted  with  him,  and  later  appointed  him  instructor  of 
the  royal  family.  He  taught  both  the  king  and  the  queen,  and 
other  members  of  the  family,  to  carve.  He  carved  beautiful  pieces 
in  ebony,  now  preserved  at  Rosenborg,  Copenhagen.  His  most 
finished  production  is  his  grand  model,  in  ivory,  of  the  frigate 
"Den  norske  love"  (The  Norwegian  lion). 

Appendix  II. 


The  first  arrival  of  Scandinavians  in  Canada  took  place  in 
1619.  Christian  IV.,  King  of  Denmark  and  Norway,  being  desir- 
ous of  sending  an  expedition  to  discover  the  way  to  China  through 
the  "Northwest  passage,"  requested  Captain  Jens  Munk,  who  has 
been  mentioned  above,  to  take  charge  of  it.  The  expedition,  when 
leaving  European  waters,  consisted  of  sixty-four  men,  forty-eight 
of  whom  were  on  the  ship  "Enhiorningen,"  and  sixteen  on  a  smaller 
ship  "Lamprenen." 

Captain  Munk  and  his  crew  sailed  from  Copenhagen,  May  9, 
1619.  Two  days  later,  the  log  records,  one  of  the  sailors  jumped 
overboard  and  drowned.  A  week  later,  because  of  a  leak  in  one 
of  the  ships,  it  was  found  necessary  to  lie  over  for  five  days  in 
Karmsund,  Norway,  where  three  new  men  were  added  to  the  crew. 

They  passed  the  Shetland  Island  and  Faroe  Islands,  Cape 
Farewell,  crossed  Davis  Straits,  entered  Frobisher  Bay,  then 
Hudson  Straits.  In  July  they  came  to  Salvage  Islands,  where 
they  met  some  Eskimos  .  After  sailing  around  for  some  time 
in  Ungava  Bay,  they  re-entered  Hudson  Straits,  and  crossing 
Hudson  Bay,  which  Munk  called  Mare  Christian,  the  crew  landed, 
on   September  7,  1619,   at  the  mouth  of   Churchhill   River. 

Meantime  he  had  lost,  on  August  8,  one  of  his  crew,  Anders, 
from  Stavanger,  Norway,  who  was  buried  in  Haresund  (Icy 
Cove).  And  before  he  left  winter  quarters,  the  rest  of  his  crew 
perished,  save  two  with  whom  he  started  and  completed  his  return 
voyage  to  Europe,  reaching  Norway  on  September  21,  1620. 

Munk  had  taken  possession  of  the  new  land,  in  the  name  of 
his  king,  calling  it  Nova  Dania.  Due  to  the  intense  cold,  massive 
snow  drifts  and  lack  of  proper  equipment  for  living  in  such  frigid 
regions,  the  crew  could  not  obtain  fresh  food  by  hunting.     They 



had  no  snow-shoes  or  "ski."  They  had  very  little  fur  clothing. 
They  were  thus  compelled  to  spend  their  time  on  and  near  the 
ships,  without  sufficient  exercise  and  without  proper  food.  The 
never-varying  fare  of  salt  meats  brought  on  scurvy.  Every  week 
witnessed  several  deaths.  The  conditions  aboard  the  ships  were 
frightful.  In  the  annals  of  polar  travelers  the  experience  of  the 
Munk  expedition  is  one  of  the  most  terrible.  On  February  25, 
Munk  had  twenty-two  dead,  on  April  10,  forty-one,  on  June  4, 

First  on  June  18,  the  ice  gave  way  to  the  ships.    With  extreme 
difficulty,  Munk  and  his  surviving  crew  of  two  got  the  lesser  ship. 

From   Jens    Munk:    Navigatio    Septentrionalis. 

on  June  26,  ready  for  sailing.  On  July  16,  they  left  what  may 
be  called  the  first  Scandinavian,  we  may  also  say,  the  first  Lu- 
theran cemetery  in  North  America.  For  almost  all  of  the  mariners 
were  Lutherans  by  faith.  They  even  had  in  their  midst  Rev.  Ras- 
mus Jensen  from  Aarhus,  Denmark,  who  preached  his  first  and 
last  Christmas  sermon  in  America  on  Christmas  day,  1619. 

Jensen  died  on  February  20,  the  following  year.    The  first  Lu- 
theran minister  in  America  lies  buried  in  Canada. 

Captain  Munk  has  left  us  a  book  which  describes  his  journey 



to  and  from  Hudson  Bay:  "Navigatio  Septentrionalis,"  1624, 
edited  and  published  anew  by  P.  Laurissen  (Copenhagen,  1883. 
An  English  translation  has  been  made  for  the  Hakluyt  Society), 
From  this  carefully  kept  book,  or  Relation,  as  Munk  calls  it,  we 
see  the  piety  of  the  author  and  learn  when  and  under  what  cir- 
cumstances  the   several   members   of   the   expedition    died. 

At  least  two  of  the  crew  were  English,  the  mates  William 
Gordon  and  John  Watson  (died  May  6,  1620).  Less  than  a  dozen 
may  have  been  Germans  and  Swedes.  At  least  twelve  were  Nor- 
wegians, while  the  majority  were  Danes. 

From    Jens    Munk:    Navigatio    Septentrionalis. 

The   Norwegians  were : 
Anders  Staff uanger  (d.  Aug.  8,   1619,  seaman). 
Laurids  Bergen   (d.  Feb.  5,  1620,  seaman). 
Hans  Skudenes  (d.  March  1). 
Christoffer  Opslo  (Oslo,  d.  April  5,  chief  gunner). 


Oluff  Sundmoer  (d.  April  24,  mate  to  the  captain  of  the  hold). 

Halffward  Bronnie  (d.  April  27). 

Thoer  Thonsberg  (d.  April  28). 

Anders  Marstrand  (d.  May  3). 

Morten  Marstrand  (d.  May  4,  boatswain's  mate). 

Suend   Marstrand    (d.    May    12). 

Erich  Hansen  Li  (d.  May  19).  Munk  says,  Li  "had  been  very 
industrious  and  willing  and  had  neither  offended  anyone  nor 
deserved  any  punishment.  He  had  dug  many  graves  for 
others,  but  now  there  was  nobody  that  could  dig  his,  and  his 
body  had  to  remain  unburied." 

Knud  Lauritzsen  Skudenes  (d.  in  May). 

Of  the  Danes  we  give  these  names : 
Jens  Helssing  (d.  Jan.  27,  seaman). 
Rasmus  Kiobenhauffn  (d.  Feb.  17). 
Rev.  Rasmus  Jensen  (d.  Feb.  20,  minister). 
Jens  Borringholm  (d.  March  1). 
Erich  Munk  (a  nephew  of  the  captain,  d.  April  1). 
Mauritz  Stygge  (d.  April  10,  lieutenant). 
Peder  Nyborg  (d.  in  May,  carpenter). 

No  doubt  also  the  majority  of  the  following  are  Danes: 
Hans  Brock  (d.  Jan.  23,  1620,  second  mate). 
Oluff  Boye  (d.  March  8). 
Anders  Pocker  (d.  March  9). 

M.  Casper  Caspersen  (d.  March  2L  He  was  probably  a  German 

Povel   Pedersen    (d.   March   21). 

380  SCANDINAVIANS   IN   CANADA,   1619-1620. 

Jan  OUufsen  (d.  March  25,  skipper),  navigating  officer  of  Enhior- 

Ismael  Abrahamsen   (Swede  ?  d.   March  29). 

Christen  Gregersen  (d.  March  29). 

Suend  Arffuedsen   (d.  March  30,  carpenter). 

Johan  Pettersen  (d.   March  31,  second  mate.     He  was  buried  in 
the  same  grave  with  Erich  Munk). 

Rasmus  Clemendsen  (d.  April  5,  mate  of  the  chief  gunner). 

Lauritz  Hansen   (d.  April  5,  boatswain). 

Anders  Sodens  (d.  April  8). 

Anders  Oroust  (d.  April  16). 

Jens  Bodker  (d.  April   16). 

Hans  Bendtsen  (d.  April  17). 

Oluff  Andersen  (d.  April  17,  servant). 

Peder  Amundsen   (d.  April  19). 

Morten  Nielsen,  Butelerer  (d.  April  28,  butler). 

Jens  Jorgensen  (d.  May  12). 

Jens  Hendrichsen    (d.  May  16)   "skipper,''  master  of   Lamprenen. 

On  the  fourth  of  June,  Munk  gave  up  all  hope  of  life.  We 
give  below  the  entry  which  Munk  on  that  day  made  in  his  book. 
We  accompany  it  with  a  facsimile  of  a  page  of  his  manuscript, 
which  is  preserved  in  the  University  Library  of  Copenhagen. 

"On  the  4th  of  June,  which  was  Whit-Sunday,  there  remained 
alive  only  three  besides  myself,  all  lying  down,  unable  to  help 
one  another.  The  stomach  was  ready  enough  and  had  appetite  for 
food,  but  the  teeth  would  not  allow  it ;  and  not  one  of  us  had 
the  requisite  strength  for  going  into  the  hold  to  fetch  us  a  drink 
of  wine.  The  cook's  boy  lay  dead  by  my  berth,  and  three  men 
on  the  steerage;  two  men  were  on  shore,  and  would  gladly  have 
been  back  on  the  ship,  but  it  was  impossible  for  them  to  get  there, 
as  they  had  not  sufficient  strength  in  their  limbs  to  help  themselves 
on  board,  so  that  they  and  I  were  lying  quite  exhausted,  as  we 


had  now  for  four  entire  days  nothing  for  the  sustenance  of  the 
body.  Accordingly,  I  did  not  now  hope  for  anything  but  that  God 
would  put  an  end  to  this  my  misery  and  take  me  to  Himself  and 
His  Kingdom;  and,  thinking  that  it  would  have  been  the  last  I 
wrote  in  this  world,  I  penned  a  writing  as  follows : 


^^     -;jf/^^  't^fu?^     /CtEn^t^  n*^  ^^r^  ^t^.t4-    »>y^f*«^ 

In  print  the  above  given  writing  appears  thus : 

"[Efterdi  at  Jeg  nu  icke  haffuer 
forhaabning    at    kunde    leffue] 
her  boss  beder  Jeg  Nu  for  guts  skuld  om 
Naagen  Krestne  Menisker  hender  hied 
att  kome  att  die  Met  Arme  Legom 
med  die  Andere  som  Nu  her  boss  findes 
udi  Jorden  wille  Lade  Kome,  och  tagendis 
Ion  aff  gud  i  hemelen.     Och  att  dene 

382  SCANDINAVIANS   IN   CANADA,   1619-1620. 

min  Relasion  Maate  blifue  Min  Naad 
dig  here  och  Koning  tilstelet 
thie  det  er  sanferdigt  Alt  huad  i 
hrude  findes  Ord  for  ord  skreffuet  paae 
Att  Min  fatig  hustru  och  boren  Maatte 
Nyde  Min  YnkeHge  Affgang  Noget  gaat 
Att,   her   med   Alluerden   gode    Natt   och   min 
Siel  i  det  Euige  Rige :    Jens  Munk" 

We  append  this  translation : 

"Inasmuch  as  I  have  now  no  more  hope  of  life  in  this  world, 
I  request,  for  the  sake  of  God,  if  any  Christian  men  should  happen 
to  come  here,  that  they  will  bury  in  the  earth  my  poor  body, 
together  with  the  others  which  are  found  here,  expecting  their 
reward  from  God  in  Heaven;  and,  furthermore,  that  this  my 
journal  may  be  forwarded  to  my  most  gracious  Lord  and  King 
(for  every  word  that  is  found  herein  is  altogether  truthful)  in 
order  that  my  poor  wife  and  children  may  obtain  some  benefit  from 
my  great  distress  and  miserable  death.  Herewith,  good-night  to 
all  the  world ;  and  my  soul  in  the  eternal  kingdom. 

"Jens  Munk." 

Munk  concludes  his  "Relation"  with  this  prayer: 
"O  Almighty,  Eternal  God,  Gracious  Father,  and  Heavenly 
Lord,  who  hast  commanded  us  to  call  upon  Thee  in  all  necessity 
and  adversity,  and  also  dost  promise  that  Thou  wilt  graciously 
hear  our  prayer  and  save  us,  so  that  we  may  thank  Thee  for  Thy 
loving  kindness  and  Thy  wonderful  acts,  which  Thou  doest  to- 
wards the  children  of  men :  I  have  now,  on  this  long  and  perilous 
journey,  been  in  danger  and  necessity,  in  which  I  have  nevertheless 
experienced  Thy  gracious  help  and  assistance,  in  that  Thou  hast 
saved  me  from  the  ice  bergs,  in  dreadful  storms,  and  from  the 
foaming  sea.  Thou  wast  my  chief  pilot,  counselor,  guide,  and 
compass.  Thou  hast  led  and  accompanied  me,  both  going  and 
coming.  Thou  hast  led  me  out  of  anxiety,  disease,  and  sickness, 
so  that  by  Thy  help  I  have  regained  my  health,  and  have  returned 
to  my  native  country,  which  I  entirely  believe  to  be  Thy  doing. 
Nor  has  it  been  accomplished  by  my  own  understanding  or 
providence,  wherefore  I  humbly  and  heartily  give  thanks  to  Thee, 


O  Thou  my  gracious  Father.  And  I  pray  that  Thou  wilt  give 
me  grace  of  Thy  Holy  Spirit,  that  I  may  henceforth  be  found 
thankful  to  Thee  in  word  and  deed,  to  Thy  honor  and  glory,  and 
for  the  confirmation  of  my  faith  with  a  good  conscience.  To 
Thee,  O  Holy  Trinity,  be  Praise  and  Thanksgiving  for  ever,  for 
these  and  all  Thy  benefits. 

"To  Thee  alone  belongs  all  Power  and  Glory 
"for  ever  and  ever 

"Isaiah,  Chap.  xliv. 
"Fear  not,   for  I   have  redeemed  thee.      When  thou  passest 
through  the  waters,  I  will  be  with  thee,  that  the  rivers  shall  not 
drown  thee."* 

*  The  passage  is  Isaiah  xliii,  1,  2.  The  translation  differs  slightly  from  the 
English   version. 

In  the  "Lutheran  Observer"  (Philadelphia),  Dec.  27,  1907,  I  have  related 
about  the  articles  in  the  American  press  which  have  dealt  with  the  Munk  expedition. 
Rev.  Rasmus  Andersen,  of  Brooklyn,  New  York,  deserves  the  credit  of  havinsc  <:ill('d 
attention  to  the  fact  that  there  were  Scandinavians  in  Canada  as  early  as  1619-20. 
The  best  from  his  pen  on  this  subject  is  found  in  "Teologisk  Tidsskrift, "  I.,  26ff. 
(1899),  Decorah,  Iowa.  His  article  is  a  digest  of  the  Munk  journal  in  the  edition  of 
1883.  Neither  he  nor  the  other  American  writers,  however,  have  used  the  carefully 
edited  English  edition  of  the  Hakluyt  Society.  The  present  writer  has  consulted 
both  editions. 

Appendix  III. 


As  this  volume  makes  no  pretensions  to  go  beyond  the  seven- 
teenth century  in  its  treatment  of  Scandinavian  immigration,  it  is 
almost  needless  to  state  that  the  following  is  nothing  but  the  result 
of  incidental  jottings  on  the  part  of  the  writer.  He  is  confident 
that  the  sources  of  the  eighteenth  century  contain  much  data  for 
those  who  go  to  them  with  the  express  purpose  of  writing  on 
Scandinavian   immigration   to   our   country   after   the   year    1700. 

The  Swedish  immigrants  are  so  numerous  that  the  registering 
of  their  names  in  this  appendix  cannot  be  attempted.  The  Swedish 
colony  in  America  lost  its  independence,  but  its  settlers  and 
their  descendants  attracted  new  immigrants  from  Sweden.  The 
history  of  Delaware,  New  Jersey,  and  Pennsylvania  cannot  be 
treated  judiciously  unless  due  notice  be  given  to  the  Swedish 
element  that  helped  to  colonize  and  develop  these  states.  The 
material  for  a  detailed  presentation  of  early  Swedish  immigration 
is  not  confined  to  American  sources.  Much  of  it  is  in  foreign 

A  people  that  has  given  us  the  "Records  of  the  Gloria  Dei 
Church,  Philadelphia,"  (Extracts  translated  in  "Pennsylvania  Maga- 
zine of  History  and  Biography,"  II)  ;  "The  Records  of  Holy 
Trinity  (Old  Swedes  Church),  Wilmington,  Del.,"  1697—1773 
(translated  for  and  published  by  the  Historical  Society  of  Dela- 
are,  1890)  ;  Thomas  Campanius  "Kort  Bescrifning  om  Provincien 
Nya  Swerige  uti  America,"  1702  (translated  1834)  ;  Johannes  Dan, 
Swedberg  "Dissertatio  Svionum  in  America  Colonia,"  1709 ;  To- 
bias E.  Bjorck  "Dissertatio  gradualis  de  Plantatione  Ecclesiae 
Svecanae  in  America,"  1731 ;  A.  Hesselius  "Kort  Berettelse  om 
Then   Svenska   Kyrkios   narwarande    Tilstand     i     America   1725; 


Israel  Acrelius  "Beskrifning  Om  De  Svenska  Forsamlingars  Forna 
och  Narwarande  Tilstand  Uti  Det  saaKallade  Nya  Sverige,"  1759 
(translated  1874)  ;  Carl  K.  S.  Sprinchorn's  "Kolonien  Nya 
Sveriges  Historia,"  1878;  Prof.  C.  T.  Odhner's  "Kolonien  Nya 
Sveriges  Grundlaggning  1637 — 1642,"  in  "Historisk  Bibliothek.  Ny 
foljd,  1876";  Otto  Nordberg's  "Svenska  Kyrkens  Mission  vid 
Delaware  i  Nord-Amerika,"  1893  —  such  a  people,  on  their  native 
soil  or  in  America,  are  certainly  not  wanting  in  materials  for  pre- 
senting the  history  of  Swedish  immigrants  from  1638  to  the 
American  Revolution. 

Americans  of  Swedish  ancestry  have  translated  and  supple- 
mented the  data  given  by  the  above  mentioned  writers.  It  suffices 
to  mention  the  interesting  articles  contained  in  the  Pennsylvania 
Magazine  of  History  and  Biography  I ;  II,  224f. ;  341f. ;  III,  402f., 
409,  462ff.;  VII;  VIII,  107f.;  XVII.  Consult  also  Proceedings 
of  Delaware  County  Historical  Society,  I,  269 ;  Proceedings  of 
New  Jersey  Historical  Society,  III ;  etc.  All  this  before  the  year 

The  present  writer  was  making  a  study  of  these  books 
or  treatises  and  of  other  pertinent  works  with  a  view  to 
writing  a  history  of  the  Swedes  in  America  in  the  seventeenth 
century.  He  then  learned  that  another  was  covering  the  same 
ground.  Thereupon  he  turned  his  attention  to  Scandinavian  im- 
migration to  New  York,  an  almost  entirely  unexplored  field.  What- 
ever data  he  saw  fit  to  publish  regarding  the  Swedes  at  Delaware 
are  contained  in  "The  Lutheran  Observer,"  Philadelphia.  1907  and 

This  explains  why  he  finds  it  inexpedient  to  include  the 
Swedes  in  this  appendix :  They  have  been,  and  are  being,  treated 
by  competent  writers  like  Dr.  Amandus  Johnson. 

It  is  different  with  the  Danish  and  especially  with  the  Nor- 
wegian immigrants.  They  are  comparatively  few  and  unknown. 
Many  Danes  came  to  the  Moravian  settlement  in  Pennsylvania  in 
the  eighteenth  century.  They  have  been  ably  dealt  with  by  Prof. 
Vig  in  "Danske  i  Amerika,"  and  we  shall  therefore  not  attempt 
to  treat  them,  and  several  other  Danish  immigrants  of  the  eigh- 
teenth century  mentioned  by  him,  here.  Mr.  Torstein  Jahr  has 
also  treated  this  field  in  an  interesting  manner  and,  moreover,  in- 
cluded  Norwegian   immigrants   who   joined   the   Moravian   colony, 


foremost  of  whom  was  perhaps  Hans  Martin  Kalberlahn,  a  surgeon 
from  Trondhjem,   Norway.* 

What  we  give  in  the  following  is  nothing  but  a  few  items, 
which,  so  to  speak,  have  been  "gathered  by  the  wayside"  and  not 
noticed  by  others. 


With  the  year  1700  we  date  the  arrival  of  Justus  Falckner, 
born  1672  in  Saxony,  to  New  York.  In  1703  he  was  ordained 
by  Swedish  ministers  in  Gloria  Dei  Church  at  Wicaco.  He  was 
the  first  Lutheran  minister  ordained  in  America,  moreover  the 
first  Lutheran  minister  in  this  country  to  publish  a  work  on  re- 
ligion. The  hymn  "Auf,  ihr  Christen,  Christi  Glieder,"  published 
in  the  Halle  Gesangbuch  of  1697  is  from  his  pen.  It  has  been 
translated  into  English,  "Rise  ye  children  of  Salvation,"  and,  by 
Brorson,  into  Danish,  "Op,  I  Christne  ruster  eder!"  Falckner  was 
not  minister  only  of  the  Lutheran  churches  in  New  York  and  Al- 
bany, but  of  all  the  churches  on  the  Hudson  river,  which  he  visited 
on  a  circuit.  From  the  church  register,  which  he  kept,  we  give  the 
following  data: 

Oct.  12,  1707,  he  married  "Peter  Johansen,  at  house  of  Faes 
Vlirboom,  N.  Y.,  born  at  Bergen,  Norway,  and  Maria,  daughter 
of  Pieter  Lassen  Brower's  dau.  beyond  the  Highland." 

Oct.  10,  1708,  "in  our  church  at  N.  Y.  b(aptized)  last  summer 
beyond  the  Highlands,  Johannes,  y.  s.  of  Pieter  Norman  and  wife 
Maria.  Witnesses :  Jacob  Jacobsen  Halenbeck  and  Gertruyd  Vasen 
Vlierboom  has  told  me  that  she  stood  up  as  god-mother,  signed 

My  source  for  this  is  Holand's  "De  Norske  Settlementers  Historie, "  which 
refers   to    "Decorah-Posten,"    Sept.   9,    1904. 

See  also  Moravian  Emigration  to  Pennsylvania  (1734-1765)  by  John  W. 
Jordan,    in    "The   Pennsylvania    Magazine    for   History    and    Biography,"    1909. 

The  "Pennsylvania  Archives,"  XVII.,  ff.,  no  doubt  contains  names  of  many 
Scandinavians  who  came  to  Pennsylvania  in  the  eighteenth  century.  Thus  the  name 
of  Andries  Evie  (Evje),  a  Norwegian,  who  came  to  our  country  in  1728.  It  is  found 
in  the  original  list  of  passengers  aboard  the  ship  "Mortonhouse,"  commanded  by 
John  Coultas,  and  sailing  in  August,  1728.  from  Deal,  near  Dover,  England.  The 
Englishman   promptly   changed    "Andries    Evje"    into    "Andres   Ente." 

It  would  appear  that  Andries'  wife  and  children  (wife,  Elizabeth,  age  28; 
children,  Lisabeth,  Katrina,  John,  age  8,  8,  6  respectively)  followed  him  four  years 
later,  sailing  from  Rotterdam,  on  the  ship  "Samuel,"  of  London  (commanded  by 
Hugh   Percy).      "Evje"    has  on   this  trip  across  the   ocean  become    "Evy." 


(Rev)    M.  C.  Knol   (The  entry  in  parenthesis  was  in  a  different 

April  18,  1710,  "at  our  meeting  at  the  house  of  Peter  Lassen 
beyond  the  Highlands  b.  March  11,  1710,  Catharina  y.  d.  of  Peter 
Jansen  Noorman  and  wife  Maria.  Witness  I,  Justus  Falckner,  the 
pastor,  Cornelia  Lassen. 

April  30,  1713.  "At  the  house  of  Pieter  Lassen  in  the  Lange 
Rack  beyond  the  islands  the  following:  Elisabeth  b.  last  summer 
in  Dutchess  County,  child  of  Andreas  Pick  and  wife  Veronica. 
Witnesses:  Pieter  Jansen  Norman,  and  in  his  place  Johannes 
Milltler,  and  Mary  Jansen  Normans." 

Jan  Denemark  was  married  in  New  York,  by  Falckner,  June 
13,  1704,  to  Maria  Ten  Eyk. 

Frans  Mulder,  from  Holstein,  was  married  in  New  York, 
Sept.  30,  1705. 

Johan  Volckertsen  Van  Husum  was  married,  Nov.  25,  1705, 
in  Albany,  to  Engel  Jansen. 

Maria  Denemarke  was  married  in  New  York,  July  26,  1707, 
to  Arie  Affel. 

Jan  Thomas  Vos  "young  man  from  Denmark,"  was  married 
in  New  York,  Dec.  9,  1711,  to  Willemyntie  Brouwer. 

Christopher  Dennemarcker  and  Christina  Elisabeth,  his  wife, 
had  their  child  Anna  Dorothea,  baptized  by  Falckner,  Feb.  7, 
1714,  in  "Rosendak  in  Sopus"   (Esopus). 

Laurens  Ruloffsen,  born  in  Copenhagen,  1689,  residing  at 
Raritan  was  married  by  Falckner,  May  16,  1715,  to  Catharina 
Schumans,  daughter  of  Herman  Schuman,  a  German.  Catharina 
was  born  1695,  died  1776.  They  had  children :  Laurents,  baptized 
March  27,  1716,  and  Roelof.  Roelof  had  many  children:  Laurence, 
John,  Christian,  Lea,  Isaac,  Anna,  Abraham,  Henry,  Elisabeth. 


These  were   Norwegians  or  Danes. 
Falckner's  record  contains  also  Swedish  names : 

On  Sept.  14,  1704,  Pieter  Harlandt,  young  man  of  Gothland, 
Sweden,  married  Catarina,  young  daughter  of  Samuel  Beeckman, 
"Voorleser"  of  "our  church  at  N.  Y." 

On  April  20,  1707,  Jurgen  Woll,  from  Wiborg,  Sweden,  mar- 
ried Altje  Browers  of  Roanes. 

On  July  29,  1726,  Jan  Pell,  born  at  Stockholm,  married  Jan- 
netje  Browers,  "both  living  at  New  York." 

The  Church  Record  kept  by  Justus  Falckner  has  been  pub 
lished  in  Year  Book  of  the  Holland  Society  of  New  York.  1908. 


Sybriant  Adrian,  ship  carpenter  from  Norway,  age  27,  5  feet, 
7  inches  tall,  fair  complexion,  light  hair,  blue  eyes,  enlisted,  April 
28,  1759,  in  the  company  commanded  by  Captain  Richard  Smith 
(Another  source  says  Captain  Hardenbuck). 

Albert  Egeles,  sailor,  from  Norway,  age  33,  enlisted  June  10, 
1760,  his  company  going  to  Canada. 

Dennis  Anderseon,  mariner  from  Norway,  age  22,  5  feet,  5^ 
in.  tall,  enliste  din  company  of  Captain  Deforest. 

Conrad  Cor,  mariner  from  Norway,  age  35,  stature  5  ft.  7^2 
in.,  enlisted,  in  May,  1761,  in  company  of  Lt.  Welsh. 

Hans  Jacobsenborg,  mariner  from  Norway,  age  30,  stature 
5  ft.  9y2  in.,  blue  eyes,  brown  hair,  brown  complexion,  enlisted  in 
county  of  New  York  March  27,  1762. 

•    Collection   of   New  York   Historical    Society,    XXIV.      Report    of   the    (N.    Y.) 
State  Historian,    1897.      Col.   Series   II. 


John  Christian  Enevoldsen,  age  36,  born  in  Denmark,  stature 
5  ft.  7  in.,  brown  complexion,  sandy  hair,  eyes  do.,  cordwainer  by 
trade,  enlisted  in  New  York  City  for  Captain  Richard  Smith's 
Company  April  26(28),  1759. 

Albert  Thomas  joined  the  same  company  April  23,  1759.  He 
was  born  in  Denmark,  24  years  of  age,  5  ft.  7  in.  tall,  of  light 
complexion,  blue  eyes,  smith  and  mariner  by  trade. 

John  Frederick  Mattheson,  blacksmith,  joined  Smith's  com- 
pany April  16,  1659.  He  was  born  in  Copenhagen,  age  24,  stature 
5  ft.  7  in.,  of  brown  complexion,  brown  hair,  brown  eyes. 

John  Henry  Brown  (Bower)  enlisted  with  N.  Y.  Provincial 
troops.  Company  of  Captain  R.  Livingston  April  16,  1659.  Brown 
was  born  in  Denmark,  44  years  of  age,  stature  5  ft.  5^  in.,  of 
brown  complexion,  brown  hair,  blue  eyes.     By  trade,  a  mason. 

Andries  Andries,  born  in  Copenhagen,  joined  Captain  Moore's 
Company,  April  20,  1759.  Age  28,  stature  5  ft.  7  in.,  of  brown 
complexion,  brown  hair,  blue  eyes.     Mariner. 

Paul  Sanders,  born  in  Denmark,  mariner  (miner?),  age  28, 
stature  5  ft.,  "round  face,"  light  hair,  blue  eyes ;  was  member  of  a 
company  of  soldiers,  1758,  in  Westchester  County. 

Johannes  Hogoland,  sailor,  from  Denmark,  age  28,  stature 
5  ft.  9I/2  i"v.  joined  Captain  Deforest's  Company,  May  25.  1761. 

Appendix  IV. 

In  the  Preface  to  our  work  it  is  shown  that,  judging  by  Prof. 
Flom's  scholarly  "A  History  of  Norwegian  Immigration"  and  by 
Mr.  Roland's  more  popular  "De  norske  Settlementers  Historie," 
the  immigration  of  Scandinavians  to  New  York  in  the  seventeenth 
century  must  have  been  practically  (and  professionally)  a  terra 
incognita  as  late  as  1909,  when  these  authors  published  their  works 

Much  the  same  may  be  said  in  regard  to  the  German  im- 
migration to  New  York  during  the  Dutch  rule,  if  we  judge  by 
Prof.  Albert  Bernhardt  Faust's  (Cornell  University)  "The  Ger- 
man Element  in  the  United  States,"  published  in  the  same  year. 
This  standard-work,  submitted  in  a  contest  to  the  Germanic  De- 
partment of  the  University  of  Chicago,  obtained  for  the  author 
the  first  prize,  $3000,  given  by  Mrs.  Catherine  Seipp,  of  Chicago. 
Excellent  as  Prof.  Faust's  work  is,  it  makes  only  two  statements 
that  might  permit  of  a  conclusion  as  to  the  numerical  strength  of 
the  Germans  in  New   Netherland. 

The  first  is  this : 

"There  were  Germans  in  the  Dutch  settlement  of  New  Nether- 
land, and  among  them  two  who  were  second  to  none  in  moulding 
the  destinies  of  the  colony.  The  one  was  the  first  governor  of 
New  Netherland,  Peter  Minuit,  and  the  other  the  first  governor 
of  New  York  to  represent  the  popular  party,  Jacob  Leisler." 

The  second  reads: 

"Dwelling  with  the  Dutch  settlers  of  New  Amsterdam,  there 
was  undoubtedly  quite  a  sprinkling  of  Germans.  A  good  example 
is  that  of  Dr.  Hans  Kierstede,  who  came  from  Magdeburg  in  1638 
with   Director  Kieft.      He   was   the   first   practising  physician   and 


surgeon  in  that  colony.  He  married  Sarah  Roelofse,  daughter  of 
Roeloff  and  Anneke  Janse,  the  owner  of  the  Annetje  Jans  farm 
on  Manhattan  Island." 

The  latter  statement  is  somewhat  hypothetical.  The  former 
is  rather  indefinite.  They  offer  nothing  tangible  for  answering 
the  question,  How  great  was  this  sprinkling?  Professor  Faust 
makes  mention  of  no  other  Germans  in  New  Netherland  than 
Minuit,  Kierstede,  Augustin  Herman,  and  Leisler.  Though  his 
treatment  of  Minuit  is  as  elucidating  as  his  description  of  the 
activities  of  Leisler  is  sympathetic,  he  fails  to  call  attention  to 
German  leaders  like  Schrick,  Ebbing,  Van  Beeck,  Burger  Joris, 
and  Nicholaes  De  Meyer  the  burgomaster  of  New  York  city  in 

This  criticism  does  not  aim  to  detract  anything  from  the 
value  of  Prof.  Faust's  splendid  contribution  to  the  history  of  the 
German  element  in  our  country.  Its  object  is  merely  to  indicate 
that  the  German  immigrants  in  New  York  1630 — 1674  have  re- 
ceived no  more  attention  than  the  Scandinavian. 

As  the  background  for  a  treatment  of  these  German  im- 
migrants would  be  much  the  same  as  what  our  volume  outlines 
in  treating  the  immigrants  from  the  Scandinavian  countries,  we 
venture  in  the  present  Appendix  to  register  the  names,  with  more 
or  less  pertinent  data,  of  some  180  immigrants  from  various  cities 
and  districts  of  Germany,  including  a  few  from  Switzerland  and 
Austria.  The  list  does  not  claim  to  be  exhaustive.  A  more  ex- 
tended examination  of  the  sources  will  increase  the  number  of 
names,  and,  of  course,  add  to  the  data,  which  I  have  collected, 
but  of  which  I  here  present  only  a  part. 

Prof.  Faust  states  a  fact  when  he  says  that  October  6,  1683, 
is  "the  date  celebrated  by  all  Germans  in  America  as  the  begin- 
ning of  their  history  in  the  United  States."  But  we  believe  that  the 
history  of  the  Germans  in  the  leading  state  of  the  United  States 
begins  (like  that  of  the  Scandinavians)  more  than  a  half  century 

Long  before  1683,  scores  of  places  in  Germ-any  were  repre- 
sented in  New  Netherland  and  registered  in  the  records  of  the 
Empire  State. 

It  is  as  if  a  part  of  the  history  of  the  Middle  Ages  and  the 
era  of  the  Reformation  passes  in  review  before  us  when  the 
records  present  names  as  these :  Aachen,    Stade,    Fulda.    Wrede, 

392  GERMAN   IMMIGRANTS   IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

Wesel,  Eislehen,  Mansfeld,  Magdeburg,  Worms,  Jena,  Augsburg, 
Niirnberg,  Hesse,  Ziirichsee,  Bern,  Mulhausen,  Munster,  Tubingen, 
They  are  suggestive  of  the  coronation  of  emperors,  of  monastic- 
ism  ;  of  a  forerunner  of  the  Refonnation  ;  of  the  history  of  Luther 
and  diets;  of  a  PhiHp  of  Hesse;  of  Zwingli;  of  the  Peasants'  War 
and  the  Anabaptists ;  of  the  theological  efforts  of  Andrea  to  re- 
store  peace   among  contending  theologians. 

And  what  a  variety  of  associations  are  connected  with  names 
like  Bremen,  Hamburg,  Lubeck,  Cologne,  Frankfurt  am  Main, 
Berlin,  Konigsberg,  Wolfenbiittel,  Erlangen,  Giessen,  Berg,  Bonn, 
Bocholt,  Borken,  Brunswick,  Emden,  Ems,  Elberfeld,  Elsfleth, 
Falkenburg,  Gemen,  Herborn,  Hirschberg,  H ammelwarden,  Jever, 
Johannisberg,  Lauffen,  Lemgo,  Lippstad,  Kremmen,  Mannheim, 
Osnabriick,  Rodenkirchen,  Soest,  Struckhausen,  Xanten;  and 
Baden,  Berg-Cassel,  Cleves,  East  Friesland,  Julich,  Oldenburg. 
Waldeck,  Westphalia.  Even  Transylvania  and  Prague  are  repre- 
sented, and  the  name  "Das  'Kayserreych'  "  is  not  failing. 

But  enough.  These  places  together  with  the  one  hundred  and 
eighty  men  and  women  who  represented  them  in  New  Netherland 
before  the  close  of  the  Dutch  Dominion  on  American  soil  are  suf- 
ficient to  merit  at  least  the  brief  treatment  that  is  accorded  them 
in  the  present  Appendix,  which  endeavors  only  to  call  attention  to 
the  fact  that  the  Germans,  no  less  than  the  Scandinavians,  were 
by  no  means  a  quantite  negligeable  in  the  history  of  New  York, 

Like  the  Dutch,  the  Germans  and  Scandinavians  are  Teutons. 
They  have  the  same  civilization.  And  yet,  so  far  as  New  York  is 
concerned,  the  German  and  Scandinavian  immigrant  in  the  seven- 
teenth century  had  more  in  common  with  each  other  than  with 
the  Dutch: 

First,  the  majority  of  the  German  pioneers  had  the  same 
creed  as  the  Scandinavian :  They  were  Lutherans. 

Secondly,  in  number  they  were  inferior  to  the  Dutch,  who 
had  some  reason  for  priding  themselves  on  being  natives  from 
what  was  then  the  most  flourishing  state  in  Europe.  Moreover, 
these  sons  of  Germany,  Sweden,  Denmark,  Norway  were  not  so 
apt  as  the  Dutch  immigrants  to  overlook  difficulties  and  expect 
immediate  rewards. 


What  Mr.  J.  K.  Riker  says  of  the  pioneers  of  Harlem  also 
holds  true,  it  would  seem,  of  the  entire  population  of  New  Nether- 
land :  "Though  the  Dutch  and  French  elements  were  dominant  in 
giving  tone  to  the  community,  the  Scandinavians  and  Germans,  few 
in  number  .  .  .  were  second  to  none  for  sterling  common  sense, 
while  foremost  to  bear  danger  and  hardship,  to  wield  the  axe 
whose  ring  first  startled  the  slumbering  forest,  or  to  turn  the  first 
furrow  in  the  virgin  soil." 

Mr.  Riker's  contention  is  supported  by  the  court  records. 
They  reveal  that  the  German  and  Scandinavian  element  on  the 
whole  showed  a  greater  respect  for  law  and  order  than  the  more 
adventurous  elements  from  Dutch-  and  French-speaking  Nether- 
lands of  Europe. 

As  to  the  creedal  factor,  the  Scandinavians  were  Lutherans 
"by  birth"  so  to  speak.  Their  native  states  recognized  no  other 
creed  than  the  Lutheran.  As  this  creed  was  not  tolerated  by  the 
Governor  and  Council  of  New  Netherland,  who  were  bent  on 
keeping  the  Reformed  creed  (especially  the  canons  of  the  Synod 
of  Dort)  the  state  religion  of  New  Netherland,  —  the  Scandi- 
navians ,  in  their  efforts  to  get  religious  liberty,  received  allies  in 
the  Lutheran  immigrants  from  Germany.  The  majority  of  these 
German  pioneers  were  Lutherans  of  the  seventeenth  century  type ; 
though  not  a  few  of  them,  coming  from  the  western  part  of  Ger- 
many, were  Reformed  or  Roman  Catholic. 

Settled  in  New  York,  a  number  of  these  Lutherans,  both 
German  and  Scandinavian,  joined  the  Reformed  church.  They 
intermarried  among  the  Reformed.  But  the  large  majority  adhered 
to  the  "faith  of  their  fathers,"  even  if  this  adherence  at  times 
savored  of  "zeal  without  knowledge."  This  majority  had  a  com- 
mon enemy  in  the  politico-ecclesiastical  measures  of  the  Governor 
and  Council,  and  found  little  or  no  sympathy  with  the  Dutch 
colonists,  who  in  ecclesiastical  matters  were  of  the  same  cloth 
as  Stuyvesant.  In  fact,  the  Dutch  Lutherans  in  early  New 
York  were  hardly  in  evidence.  The  story  that  the  oldest  Lutheran 
church  in  New  Netherland  was  Dutch,  lies  hard  by  the  realm  of 

The  first  Lutheran  church  in  New  Netherland  was  cosmo- 
politan ;*  perhaps  better,  essentially  German-Scandinavian  —  with 

*  I  have  made  this  statement  before:  in  Ruoff's  "Volume  Library,"  p.  404; 
"Realencyclopadie  fuer  protestantische  Theologie  und  Kirche"  v.  XXIV,  538  (Leip- 
zig,   1913),    edited   by    Albert    Hauck. 

394  GERMAN   IMMIGEANTS    FN    NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

emphasis  on  German.  It  is  significant  that  the  petition  of  the  Lu- 
therans in  New  Amsterdam,  1657,  requesting  that  Rev.  Goetwater 
be  permitted  to  remain  in  New  Amsterdam,  appears  to  have  been 
signed  by  sixteen  Germans,  five  Scandinavians  and  three  Hol- 
landers, (pp.  37  fl.) 

It  is  also  significant  that  the  Reformed  preachers  in  New  Am- 
sterdam expressly  mention  Paul  Schrick,  from  Niirnberg,  as  the 
leader  among  the  Lutherans  (p.  88)  ;  Pieter  Jansen  as  a  "northern 
er,"  "stupid"  enough  to  take  sides  with  the  Lutherans  in  discus- 
sing baptism  (p.  87)  :  the  Norwegian,  Laurence  Noorman,  as  a 
Lutheran  sponsor  and  as  the  host  who  for  a  winter  concealed  the 
Lutheran  minister  on  his  farm  (p.  39)  when  the  government  had 
ordered  him  to  go  into  exile;  and  Magdelene  Kallier  (-Waele), 
a  Scandinavian  woman,  as  a  godparent.  These  preachers  do  not 
complain,  however,  of  Dutch  Lutherans.  And  the  records  tell 
nothing  about  squabbles  between  Dutch  Reformed  preachers  and 
Dutch  Lutheran  laymen,  though  they  do  not  fail  to  set  forth  the 
dispute,  in  1680.  between  Rev.  Gideon  Schaets,  Dutch  Reformed 
minister  of  Albany,  aiid  Meyndert  Fredricksen,  a  German  Lu- 

Does  not  this  indicate  that  the  Dutch  Lutherans,  in  propor- 
tion to  the  German  and  Scandinavian,  were  too  few  in  number  or 
too  much  wanting  in  aggressiveness? 

And,  does  not  the  presence  of  a  man  like  Jan  Goetwater  as 
the  first  Lutheran  minister  in  New  Amsterdam  indicate  the  pre- 
ponderance of  the  German  element  in  the  church  he  was  to  serve? 
The  Reformed  preachers  at  times  called  him  "Goetwater,"  though 
"Gutwasser"  was  the  form  he  used  in  signing  his  name.  Was 
"Goetwater"  his  real  name?  If  so,  "Gutwasser"  is  a  Germaniza- 
tion  of  it,  showing  that  strong  German  influences  likely  were  at 
work  in  the  circle  he  was  sent  over  to  serve.  It  is  more  probable, 
however,  that  "Gutwasser"  is  the  original ;  and  that  the  bearer 
of  this  name  was  a  German,  who  was  at  home  in  the  Dutcli 
language  as  well  as  in  his  native  tongue.  The  Consistory  of  Am- 
sterdam presumably  acted  according  to  the  desire  of  Paulu? 
Schrick  and  his  countrymen  when  they  sent  over  to  New  Nether- 
land  a  preacher,  who  probably  was  of  German  extraction,  but 
could  preach  in  Dutch. 

As  has  been  indicated  in  various  places  in  our  book,  the  Lu- 
therans   in    New    Netherland    were   not    allowed   the   exercise    of 


public  worship  according  to  the  dictates  of  their  conscience  or 
in  harmony  with  their  creed.  It  was  the  policy  of  the  new  govern- 
ment whose  subjects  they  were  to  make  and  keep  the  Reformed 
"religion"  the  religion  of  the  entire  province. 

This  policy  was  not  a  new  one.  In  1638  the  government  pro- 
claimed that  "every  man  shall  be  free  to  live  up  to  his  own  con- 
science in  peace  and  decorum ;  provided  he  avoid  frequenting  any 
forbidden  assemblies  or  conventicles,  much  less  collect  or  get  any 
such."  This  proclamation  was  confirmed,  in  reality  explained,  in 
the  West  India  Company's  New  Charter  of  Patroonship,  1640, 
which  specified  that  "no  other  religion  shall  be  publicly  admitted 
to  New  Netherland  except  the  Reformed,  as  it  is  at  present 
preached  and  practiced  by  the  public  authority  in  the  United 

The  Council  waived  this,  however,  so  far  as  the  English  were 
concerned.  It  proclaimed  in  1641  that  the  "English  shall  have 
free  exercise  of  their  religion."  It  also  decreed  when  New  Sweden 
was  conquered,  1655,  that  the  Swedes  living  there  should  be  per 
mitted  to  adhere  to  the  Augsburg  Confession  and  to  have  their 
own  minister.  But  these  concessions  were  dictated  by  policy,  and 
not  by  principle. 

The  English  Independents  were  as  little  recognized  as  were 
the  Lutherans.  The  "fate"  of  the  Independents  was  also  the 
"fate"  of  the  Lutherans,  Mennonites,  Quakers  and  Catholics. 
Stuyvesant  and  his  predecessors  in  office  were  not  able  to  com- 
prehend the  spirit  of  liberty,  which  found  such  energetic  spokes- 
men as  Gustavus  Adolphus  and  Oliver  Cromwell. 

And  therefore,  even  as  late  as  February,  1656,  the  Director- 
General  and  Council  regarded  it  as  their  duty  to  decree  the  fol- 

"The  Director  General  and  Council  have  credibly  been  in- 
formed, that  not  only  conventicles  and  meetings  are  held  here  and 
there  in  this  Province,  but  that  also  unqualified  persons  presume 
in  such  meetings  to  act  as  teachers  in  interpreting  and  expounding 
God's  holy  Word  without  ecclesiastical  or  temporal  authority. 
This  is  contrary  to  the  general  political  and  ecclesiastical  rules 
of  our  Fatherland  and  besides  such  gatherings  lead  to  troubles, 
heresies  and  schisms.  Therefore  to  prevent  this  the  Director 
General  and  Council  strictly  forbid  all  such  public  or  private  con- 

396  GERMAN    IMMIGRANTS   IN    NEW    YORK,    1630-1674. 

venticles  and  meetings,  except  the  usual  and  authorized  ones, 
where  God's  reformed  ordained  Word  is  preached  and  taught  in 
a  meeting  for  the  reformed  divine  service  conform  to  the  Synod 
of  Dort  and  followed  here  as  well  as  in  the  Fatherland  and  other 
reformed  churches  of  Europe,  under  a  fine  of  100  pounds  of 
Flemish  to  be  paid  by  all,  who  in  such  public  or  private  meetings, 
except  the  usual  authorized  gatherings,  on  Sunday  or  other  days 
presume  to  exercise  without  due  qualification  the  duties  of  a 
preacher,  reader  or  precentor  and  each  man  or  woman,  married 
or  unmarried,  who  are  found  at  such  a  meeting,  shall  pay  a  fine 
of  25  pounds  Flemish  [=$60.00].  The  Director  General  and 
Council  do  not  however  hereby  intend  to  force  the  consciences, 
to  the  prejudice  of  formerly  given  patents,  or  to  forbid  the  preach- 
ing of  God's  holy  Word,  the  family  prayers  and  divine  service 
in  the  family,  but  only  all  public  and  private  conventicles  and 
gatherings,  be  they  in  public  or  private  houses,  except  the  already 
mentioned  usual  and  authorized  reformed  divine  service.  In 
order  that  this  order  may  be  better  observed  and  nobody  plead 
ignorance  thereof  the  Director  General  and  Council  direct  and 
charge  their  Fiscal  and  the  inferior  Magistrates  and  Schouts,  to 
publish  it  everywhere  in  this  Province  and  prosecute  the  trans- 
gressors, whereas  we  have  so  decreed  it  for  the  honor  of  God, 
the  advancement  of  the  Reformed  service  and  the  quiet,  unity  and 
welfare  of  the  country  in  general. 

"Thus  done  etc.,  February  1,  1656." 

The  Directors  in  United  Netherlands  were  not  altogether 
pleased  with  this  placard,  and  still  less  with  Stuyvesant's  enforcing 
of  it.  For,  according  to  a  letter  of  the  Directors,  in  June  of  the 
same  year,  Stuyvesant  actually  committed  some  Lutherans  to 
prison.     It  reads: 

"We  would  have  been  better  pleased,  if  you  had  not  published 
the  placard  against  the  Lutherans,  a  copy  of  which  you  sent  us, 
and  committed  them  to  prison,  for  it  has  always  been  our  inten- 
tion, to  treat  them  quietly  and  leniently.  Hereafter  you  will  there- 
fore not  publish  such  or  similar  placards  without  our  knowledge, 
but  you  must  pass  it  over  quietly  and  let  them  have  free  religious 
exercises  in  their  houses." 

The  sources  accessible  to  us  do  not  give  the  names  of  these 
prisoners  or  help  us  to  establish  the  accuracy  of  the  statement  in 


regard  to  any  imprisoning  of  Lutherans.  Perhaps  the  Directors 
in  United  Netherlands  were  laboring  under  some  misapprehension. 
The  probability,  however,  is  that  Stuyvesant  did  what  the  letter 
claimed  he  did.  It  suffices  to  mention  his  subsequent  treatment 
of  Rev.  Goetwater. 

The  Lutherans  in  New  Amsterdam,  while  obediently  acting 
upon  the  prohibitive  order  of  February,  1656,  received  word  from 
their  friends  in  United  Netherlands  (who  had  interceded  for  them 
there  with  the  Directors  of  the  West  India  Company)  that  the 
Directors  "in  a  full  meeting"  resolved  that  the  doctrines  of  the 
Unaltered  Augsburg  Confession  should  be  tolerated  in  the  West 
Indies  and  New  Netherland  "under  their  jurisdiction,  in  the  same 
manner   as    in    the    Fatherland,    under   its    excellent   government." 

The  Lutherans  in  New  Netherland  informed  Stuyvesant  and 
the  Council  in  regard  to  this,  October  24,  1656,  praying  "that 
henceforth  we  may  not  be  hindered  in  our  services.  These  with 
Gods  blessing  we  intend  to  celebrate,  with  prayer,  reading  and 
singing,  until,  as  we  hope  and  expect,  a  qualified  person  shall  come 
next  spring  from  the  Fatherland  to  be  our  minister  and  teacher, 
ctnd  remain  here  as  such." 

But  the  Council  at  New  Amsterdam  would  make  no  conces- 
sion, and  simply  reiterated  that  no  one  should  be  prevented  from 
having  family  worship.  Public  worship  was  to  remain  under  the 
same  restriction  as  before. 

Meanwhile  Rev.  Jan  Goetwater  arrived  in  the  summer  of 
1657.  But  the  Reformed  pastors  sent  in  to  the  Burgomasters  and 
Schepens  their  objections  against  his  taking  up  any  pastoral  work 
among  the  Lutherans  in  New  Netherlands.  Among  the  objec- 
tions were  these : 

If  the  Lutherans  should  have  public  worship,  the  result  would 
be  "great  contention  and  discord"  not  only  among  the  inhabitants 
and  citizens  in  general,  but  also  in  families,  "of  which  we  have 
had  proofs  and  complaints  during  the  past  year.  For  example, 
some  husbands  have  forced  their  wives  to  leave  their  own  church, 
and  attend  their  conventicles."  Secondly,  the  numbers  of  hearers 
in  the  Reformed  church  would  be  "perceptibly  diminished.  Many 
of  that  persuasion  [Lutheran]  have  continued  attentive  hearers 
among  us,  and  several  have  united  themselves  with  our  church. 

398  GERMAN   IMMIGRANTS   IN   NEW   YORK,    1630-1674. 

These  would  separate  themselves  from  us."  Thirdly,  "the  treasury 
of  our  deacons  [the  poor  fund]  would  be  considerably  diminished, 
and  become  unable  to  sustain  the  burdens  it  has  hitherto  borne," 
as  "there  is  no  other  means  provided  for  the  support  of  the  poor, 
save  what  is  collected  in  the  church."  Fourthly,  "if  the  Lutherans 
should  be  indulged  in  the  exercise  of  their  (public)  worship,  the 
Papists,  Mennonites  and  others  would  soon  make  a  similar  claim. 
Thus  we  would  soon  become  a  Babel  of  confusion,  instead  of 
remaining  a  united  and  peaceful  people.  Indeed  it  would  prove 
a  plan  of  Satan  to  smother  this  infant  rising  congregation,  almost 
in  its  birth,  or  at  least  to  obstruct  the  march  of  truth  in  its 

The  Burgomasters  and  Schepens  were  pleased  with  these 
arguments,  and  adopted  measures  accordingly.  They  summoned 
Rev.  Goetwater.  They  charged  him  not  to  hold  any  public  or 
private  religious  exercises  in  New  Amsterdam,  and  informed  the 
Director  General  and  Council  of  what  their  views  were  and  what 
they  had  done.  This  latter  body  and  Stuyvesant  ratified  their 
action,  and  requested  them  strictly  to  enforce  the  placard  of  Feb- 
ruary. 1656.     Goetwater  got  orders  to  leave  the  country. 

The  Reformed  ministers  now  sent  a  report,  Aug.  5,  1657,  to 
the  Classis  of  Amsterdam,  stating  that  they  could  not  have  believed 
that  the  Directors  in  United  Netherlands  should  have  permitted 
the  Lutherans  to  have  public  worship.  But  they  were  disillusionized 
when  Rev.  Goetwater  arrived,  as  they  wrote,  "to  the  great  joy  of 
the  Lutherans,  but  to  the  special  displeasure  and  uneasiness  of 
the  congregation  in  this  place ;  yea,  even  the  whole  country,  in- 
cluding the  English,  were  displeased."  They  urged  that  Goet- 
water, "the  snake  in  our  bosom",  be  sent  back  to  Holland. 

It  was  now  that  the  Lutherans  sent  in  their  well  known  peti- 
tion of  Oct.  10,  1657,  so  often  referred  to  in  this  volume,  and 
given  in  full  on  page  37  ff.  The  Reformed  ministers  later  claimed 
that  this  petition  was  "signed  by  the  least  respectable"  of  the  Lu- 
therans, and  that  "the  most  influential  among  them  were  unwilling 
to  trouble  themselves  with  it." 

Their  petition  of  October  10,  followed  by  a  letter  from  Rev. 
Goetwater  to  the  Director  General  and  Council,  proved  to  be  in 
vain.     Goetwater  was  again  commanded  to  leave  the  country. 


But  he  was  in  no  hurry  to  depart. 

He  remained  during  the  winter  of  1657 — 58  at  the  farm  of 
a  Norwegian.  (See  p.  39.)  His  opponents,  the  Reformed  minister 
wrote  that  Goetwater,  instead  of  returning  to  Holland  "went  out 
of  the  city  and  concealed  himself  with  a  Lutheran  farmer  during 
the  whole  winter,"  where  the  congregation  "supported  him  at  the 
rate  of  six  guilders  ($2.40)  per  week.  On  the  fourth  of  August 
last,  when  we  celebrated  the  Lord's  Supper,  they  made  a  collec- 
tion among  themselves  for  him.  The  Fiscal  was  again  directed 
to  arrest  him,  and  compel  him  to  leave  by  one  of  the  earliest  ships. 
In  the  meantime  the  Lutherans  came  and  represented  to  the 
Director-General  that  their  preacher  was  sick  at  the  farmer's,  and 
besought  the  privilege  of  bringing  him  within  the